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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106278/caffeine-prevents-blood-retinal-barrier-damage-in-a-model-in-vitro-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#1
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Valentina La Cognata, Salvatore Saccone, Rita Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia, represent the key elements in the progression of this pathologies, leading to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Caffeine, a psychoactive substance largely consumed in the world, is a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors (AR) and it possesses a protective effect in various diseases, including eye pathologies. Here, we have investigated the effect of this substance on BRB integrity following exposure to hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103426/analytical-characterization-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-fluoromethylphenidate-4%C3%A2-f-mph-and-differentiation-between-the-%C3%A2-threo-and-%C3%A2-erythro-diastereomers
#2
Gavin McLaughlin, Noreen Morris, Pierce V Kavanagh, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Brian Murphy, Donna Walther, John S Partilla, Michael H Baumann, Simon D Brandt
Misuse of (±)-threo-methylphenidate (methyl-2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate; Ritalin®, MPH) has long been acknowledged, but the appearance of MPH analogs in the form of 'research chemicals' has only emerged in more recent years. 4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4 F-MPH) is one of these recent examples and this study presents the identification and analytical characterization of two powdered 4 F-MPH products that were obtained from an online vendor in 2015. Interestingly, the products appeared to have originated from two distinct batches given that one product consisted of (±)-threo-4 F-MPH isomers whereas the second sample consisted of a mixture of (±)-threo and (±)-erythro 4 F-MPH...
January 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092435/microbial-biotransformation-of-five-pyrrolidinophenone-type-psychoactive-substances-in-wastewater-and-a-wastewater-isolated-pseudomonas-putida-strain
#3
Marie Mardal, Markus Bischoff, María Ibáñez, Ulla Ruffing, Félix Hernández, Markus R Meyer
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) employs the analysis of wastewater to detect and quantify drug use and discharge within a community. In this work, transformation products (TP) by microbes in the environment were identified after incubations in wastewater and an isolated microbial strain. The microbial strain was isolated from an enrichment culture of wastewater supplemented with 3,4-methylenedioxy-pyrovalerone, and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption - time of flight mass spectrometry as Pseudomonas putida (P...
January 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088044/dried-haematic-microsamples-and-lc-ms-ms-for-the-analysis-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids
#4
Michele Protti, James Rudge, Angelo Eliseo Sberna, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini
Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) with similar effects when compared to natural ones found in Cannabis derivatives. They have rapidly integrated into the illicit market, often sold as alternatives under international control. The need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological, forensic and anti-doping analysis. Dried blood spots have been used within the bioanalytical framework in place of plasma or serum, in order to reduce invasiveness, lower sample size, simplify handling, storage and shipping of samples and to facilitate home-based and on-field applications...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076838/identification-of-mdmb-fubinaca-in-commercially-available-e-liquid-formulations-sold-for-use-in-electronic-cigarettes
#5
Michelle R Peace, Rose I Krakowiak, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Justin L Poklis
MDMB-FUBINACA (aka MDMB(N)-Bz-F), chemical name Methyl (S)-2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate, a designer drug or a new psychoactive substance (NPS), was identified in three commercially available e-liquids formulated for electronic cigarette use. The e-liquids were evaluated using direct analysis in real time ion source attached to a time of flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify active ingredients/drugs, flavorants, and other possible constituents...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#6
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073060/acute-behavioral-effects-of-co-administration-of-mephedrone-and-mdma-in-mice
#7
Barbara Budzynska, Agnieszka Michalak, Małgorzata Frankowska, Katarzyna Kaszubska, Grażyna Biała
BACKGROUND: Abuse of more than one psychoactive drug is becoming a global problem. Our experiments were designed to examine the effects of a concomitant administration of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and mephedrone on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive processes in Swiss mice. METHODS: In order to investigate the drug interactions the forced swimming test (FST) - an animal model of depression, the passive avoidance (PA) test - a memory and learning paradigm, as well as the elevated plus maze (EPM) test - test for anxiety level were used...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#8
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059498/rapid-screening-method-for-new-psychoactive-substances-of-forensic-interest-electrochemistry-and-analytical-determination-of-phenethylamines-derivatives-nbome-via-cyclic-and-differential-pulse-voltammetry
#9
Ana Flávia B Andrade, Samuel Kasahun Mamo, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez
The NBOMe derivatives are phenethylamines derived from the 2C class of hallucinogens. Only a few human pharmacologic studies have been conducted on these drugs, and several cases of intoxication and deaths have been reported. Presently, NBOMe are not a part of the routine drugs-of-abuse screening procedure for many police forces, and there are no rapid immunoassay screening tests that can detect the presence of those compounds. In this Article, the voltammetric behavior of 25B NBOMe and 25I NBOMe were investigated and their electroanalytical characteristics determined for the first time...
January 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057371/3-meo-pcp-intoxication-in-two-young-men-first-in-vivo-detection-in-italy
#10
Elisabetta Bertol, Jennifer Pascali, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Fabio Vaiano
3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054436/low-dose-of-caffeine-enhances-the-efficacy-of-antidepressants-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-the-underlying-neural-substrates
#11
Qing-Shan Liu, Ran Deng, Yuyan Fan, Keqin Li, Fanggang Meng, Xueli Li, Rui Liu
SCOPE: Caffeine is one of the most frequently used psychoactive substances ingested mainly via beverage or food products. Major depressive disorder is a serious and devastating psychiatric disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that caffeine enhances the antidepressant-like activity of common antidepressant drugs in rodents. However, whether joint administration of low dose of caffeine enhances the antidepressant actions in depressed patients remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 95 male inpatients were assigned to three groups and were asked to take either caffeine (60, 120mg) or placebo (soymilk powder) daily for 4 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035127/medical-use-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-medication-and-risk-behaviour-among-croatian-adolescents
#12
Marina Kuzman, Marija Posavec
BACKGROUND: At the drug scene some major shifts were observed, more and more reports highlighted the abuse of prescription medication. Despite the importance of controlled medication in treatment child and adolescent disorders, this increase may be a factor which influence misuse and nonmedical use of prescribed drugs among adolescents. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Croatian data from ESPAD survey in 2003, 2007 and 2011 were used, and variables selected from the international ESPAD questionnaire...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029499/development-of-an-enantioseparation-method-for-novel-psychoactive-drugs-by-hplc-using-a-lux-%C3%A2-cellulose-2-column-in-polar-organic-phase-mode
#13
Magdalena Taschwer, Jörg Grascher, Martin G Schmid
Since the last decade, the hype of the recreational use of novel psychoactive drugs is still on its top in entire Europe. Every year, new derivatives enter the drug market and enlarge the broad spectrum of misused drugs. Many of these compounds contain a stereogenic centre and therefore two enantiomers exist. It is obvious that the pharmacological potency of the isomers differ as it is already known from various pharmaceutical ingredients. Therefore, the development of analytical methods for the chiral separation of new psychoactive substances is of great medical and forensic interest...
October 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027812/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-on-cryptomarket-fora-an-exploratory-study-of-characteristics-of-forum-activity-between-nps-buyers-and-vendors
#14
Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
BACKGROUND: The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. METHODS: This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025361/drug-overdose-differing-risk-models-for-women-and-men-among-opioid-users-with-non-cancer-pain
#15
Yuanyuan Liang, Martin W Goros, Barbara J Turner
OBJECTIVE: To examine risk factors for drug overdose by sex reflecting differing patterns of opioid and other drug use. DESIGN: National privately insured cohort. SUBJECTS: 206,869 subjects filling ≥2 opioid prescriptions from January 2009 through July 2012. METHODS: Sex-specific prediction models for future drug overdose developed and validated using variables measured within 6 months after starting opioids: demographics, substance use, comorbidities, opioid dose, and psychoactive drugs...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024169/evaluation-of-kims-immunoassays-on-a-cobas-c-501-analyzer-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-in-urine-for-forensic-abstinence-control
#16
Merja A Neukamm, Arsham Bahrami, Volker Auwärter, Felix M P Mehne, Eva Höss
For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving license re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programs, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity and specificity using authentic urine samples...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012714/erratum-to-prevalence-of-driving-under-the-influence-of-psychoactive-substances-and-road-traffic-crashes-among-brazilian-crack-using-drivers-drug-alcohol-depend-2016-255-262
#17
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa, Lisia Von Diemen, Felix Henrique Paim Kessler, Flavio Pechansky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012094/clinical-pharmacology-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mephedrone
#18
Esther Papaseit, José Moltó, Robert Muga, Marta Torrens, Rafael de la Torre, Magí Farré
4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular new psychoactive substance (NPS) that is structurally related to the parent compound cathinone, the β-keto analogue of amphetamine. Mephedrone appeared on the street drug market as a substitute for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and was subsequently banned due to the potential health risks associated with its use. Nevertheless, mephedrone continues to be widely consumed among specific populations, with unique patterns of misuse. To date, most information about the biological effects of mephedrone comes from user experiences, epidemiological data, clinical cases, toxicological findings, and animal studies, whilst there are very few data regarding its human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012093/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-their-metabolites
#19
Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi
Commercial preparations containing synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are rapidly emerging as drugs of abuse. Although often assumed to be "safe" and "legal" alternatives to cannabis, reports indicate that SCBs induce toxicity not often associated with the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). This chapter will summarize the evidence that use of SCBs poses greater health risks relative to marijuana and suggest that distinct pharmacological properties and metabolism of SCBs relative to Δ(9)-THC may contribute to this increased toxicity...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010181/-someone-else-s-problem-new-psychoactive-substances-in-the-online-hungarian-media
#20
Szilvia Kassai, József Rácz, Alexandra Nagy, Tamás Bíbók, Éva Galambvári, Csillag Kilián, V Anna Gyarmathy
Media monitoring is an important method to inform public health and prevention services about emerging health issues, such as new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study assessed the portrayal of NPS in online Hungarian media in 2015 using qualitative content analysis. Hungarian online media considers the dealer to be the main cause of drug use, which is portrayed as a problem for youth, poor people, minorities, and rural populations. The point of view of the articles is externalized, and so is the solution offered by them...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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