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psychoactive substance use

Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Xiaochen Wang, Zhendong Hua, Zhaoguang Yang, Haipu Li, Huwei Liu, Bo Qiu, Honggang Nie
RATIONALE: Owing to the widespread abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPSs), developing a rapid, easily operable method to detect NPSs in oral fluid is of high priority. Easy collection and non-invasive nature make oral fluid samples suitable for on-site tests and forensic cases. Herein we report a rapid and sensitive method to screen and quantitate 11 new NPSs in oral fluid. METHOD: A low temperature plasma probe mass spectrometry (LTP-MS) was applied and to improve the signal intensity, thermally assisted desorption was employed...
March 14, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Torben Breindahl, Peter Hindersson, Peter Derek-Christian Leutscher, Andreas Kimergård
The emergence of an increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug market requires a paradigm shift in drug testing. Immunoassay screening needs to be replaced with highly specific and sensitive analytical methods based on chromatography and mass spectrometry to produce accurate results, promote health and patient safety and collect data on the prevalence of NPS use, impact on public health and clinical aspects of NPS in Denmark. Development and implementation of new analytical methods currently present a major challenge for both clinical and forensic laboratories...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Islam Amine Larabi, Marie Martin, Isabelle Etting, Pauline Penot, Nicolas Fabresse, Jean Claude Alvarez
Recently, the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has led to their wide use among clubbers and men who have sex with men (MSM) for their stimulant effects. However, their use in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has rarely been described. Herein we report a case of a 44 years-old man who was assaulted after a party. Due to late reporting of the offense, only hair (black) was sampled 15 days later and a segmental analysis was achieved to look for most DFSA agents and NPS. Twenty mg of each segment (A:0-1cm, B:1-3cm and C:3-5cm) were incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shimpei Watanabe, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparambil, Shanlin Fu
The number of new psychoactive substances keeps on rising despite the controlling efforts by law enforcement. Although metabolism of the newly emerging drugs is continuously studied to keep up with the new additions, the exact structures of the metabolites are often not identified due to the insufficient sample quantities for techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The aim of the study was to characterise several metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoid (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) (2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone (UR-144) by NMR spectroscopy after the incubation with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans...
March 8, 2018: AAPS Journal
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Loretta P Finnegan
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. The classic NAS refers to infants born to mothers who used opioids during pregnancy, but the term has broadened to include infants whose mothers have used or abused other psychoactive substances during pregnancy that contribute to the expression of the syndrome. Pregnant women who use opioids do so illicitly, and/or as medically prescribed for pain relief, and/or as medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
David E Henshall, Callum Wd Innes, Scott R Morrison, Blair Wilson, Ryan A Brown, Shannon M McAllister, Seamus L Culshaw, Elaina Reda
Background and aims Novel psychoactive substances are compounds intended to mimic the effects of illicit drugs. They provide a unique challenge to healthcare, as complications of their use and their impact on services are relatively unknown. This study aims to determine nature of presentations, patient demographics and impact on healthcare. Methods Novel psychoactive substances users who presented to a large urban emergency department over 4 weeks were prospectively identified and followed for 1 year. Patients over 13 years old were eligible for inclusion...
January 1, 2018: Scottish Medical Journal
Bernard O Boateng, Mark Fever, Darren Edwards, Patrik Petersson, Melvin R Euerby, Oliver B Sutcliffe
A detailed investigation into the chromatographic retention behaviour and separation of the three regioisomers of the Novel Psychoactive Substance (NPS) methoxphenidine (i.e. 2-, 3- and 4-MXP isomers) has revealed the ionization state of the analyte and stationary phase, to be the controlling factor in dictating which retention mechanism is in operation. At low pH, poor separation and retention was observed. In contrast, at intermediate pH, enhanced retention and separation of the three MXP isomers was obtained; it appeared that there was a synergistic effect between the electrostatic and hydrophobic mechanisms...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
J Harry Blaise, Jee E Park, Nicholas J Bellas, Thomas M Gitchell, Vy Phan
Caffeine, one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances in the world, has long been known to alter neurological functions, such as alertness, attention, and memory. Despite caffeine's popularity, systematic investigations of its effects on synaptic plasticity in the brain are still lacking. Here we used a freely behaving rodent model of long-term potentiation (LTP), a frequently studied form of synaptic plasticity, to assess the effects of caffeine consumption on hippocampal plasticity. LTP, which is a persistent increase in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons, is a cellular mechanism widely considered to underlie the processes of learning and memory...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Lene Halling Hastrup, Mickey T Kongerslev, Erik Simonsen
Earlier studies report that although people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience symptom reduction in the long term, they continue to have difficulties in work recovery. This nationwide 9-year register-based study (N = 67,075) investigated the long-term labor-market attachment of all individuals diagnosed with BPD during first admission to Danish mental health services in comparison with other psychiatric disorders. Controlling for baseline characteristics and co-occurring secondary psychiatric diagnoses, the BPD group had 32% lower odds (OR = 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is a health problem worldwide. Has been reported a high prevalence of use of tobacco and cocaine, either separately or in combination. Clinical and animal studies have suggested that the concurrent use of cocaine and nicotine reinforces the potency of one or both drugs and that nicotine may enhance the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Our study evaluated the combined effects of cocaine and nicotine on locomotor activity during the induction and expression phases of locomotor sensitization-a physiological mechanism that plays an important role in establishing some of the defining characteristics of drug abuse...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Landon M Klein, Nicholas V Cozzi, Paul F Daley, Simon D Brandt, Adam L Halberstadt
Substantial effort has been devoted toward understanding the psychopharmacological effects of tryptamine hallucinogens, which are thought to be mediated by activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. Recently, several psychoactive tryptamines based on the N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) scaffold have been encountered as recreational drugs. Despite the apparent widespread use of DALT derivatives in humans, little is known about their pharmacological properties. We compared the binding affinities of DALT and its 2-phenyl-, 4-acetoxy-, 4-hydroxy-, 5-methoxy-, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, 5-fluoro-2-methyl-, 5-bromo-, and 7-ethyl-derivatives at 45 receptor and transporter binding sites...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Marboh Goretti Iaisuklang, Arif Ali
Context: Psychological distress is higher in women working in sex industry. The various psycho social issues are associated with female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). The host of psychosocial vulnerabilities including, childhood sexual abuse, exposure to childhood physical abuse, poverty, interpersonal violence in adulthood, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance use, forms a fertile ground for psychiatric morbidity. Aim: This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity among FCSWs in Shillong, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Olivier Mortelé, Philippe Vervliet, Celine Gys, Maarten Degreef, Matthias Cuykx, Kristof Maudens, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Foon Yin Lai
Designer benzodiazepines have recently emerged as a class of new psychoactive substances. These substances are used in recreational settings and as alternatives to prescription benzodiazepines as self-medication for patients suffering from anxiety or other mental disorders. Due to the limited information available on the metabolic fate of these new substances, it is challenging to reliably detect their usage in bioanalytical (e.g. clinical and forensic) settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of the new designer benzodiazepine cloniprazepam and identify potential biomarkers for its detection in human biological fluids...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Fruzsina Iszáj, Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Róbert Urbán, Mark D Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics
Media stories often suggest that those working in the creative arts appear to use and abuse psychoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the use of psychoactive substances and the presence of psychological disorders among art and non-art students. Questionnaires related to these two areas were completed by 182 art students in higher education and a control group of 704 non-art university students. To assess psychoactive substance use, a structured questionnaire including the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was administered to participants...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Jeffrey R Brubacher, Herbert Chan, Shannon Erdelyi, Mark Asbridge, Robert E Mann, Roy A Purssell, Robert Solomon
INTRODUCTION: Most countries have laws against driving while impaired by drugs. However, in many countries, including Canada and the United States, police must have individualized suspicion that the driver has recently used an impairing substance before they can gather the evidence required for laying a criminal charge. This report studies police documentation of drug involvement among drivers who had a motor-vehicle crash after using an impairing substance. METHODS: We obtained blood samples and police reports on injured drivers treated in participating British Columbia trauma centres following a crash...
February 23, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jaqueline K Eserian, Márcia Lombardo, Jair R Chagas, José C F Galduróz
Objective: To assess through a systematic review of the literature if the practice of splitting tablets containing psychoactive/psychotropic medications for medical or economic reasons would result in the expected doses. Data Sources: A MEDLINE and PsycInfo comprehensive search of English-language publications from January 1999 to December 2015 was conducted using the terms describing tablet splitting (tablet splitting, split tablets, tablet subdivision, divided tablets, and half tablets) and psychoactive substances (psychoactive medicines, psychotropic medicines, antidepressants, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and antiparkinsonian agents)...
February 8, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
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