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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343112/the-impact-of-australian-legislative-changes-on-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposures-reported-to-the-new-south-wales-poisons-information-centre
#1
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342193/metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-derived-new-psychoactive-substances-5-meo-2-me-dalt-5-meo-2-me-alcht-and-5-meo-2-me-dipt-and-their-detectability-in-urine-studied-by-gc-ms-lc-ms-n-and-lc-hr-ms-ms
#2
Achim T Caspar, Jonas B Gaab, Julian A Michely, Simon D Brandt, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
Many N,N-dialkylated tryptamines show psychoactive properties and were encountered as new psychoactive substances. The aims of the presented work were to study the phase I and II metabolism and the detectability in standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) of 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DALT), 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N-allyl-N-cyclohexyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT), and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n) , and LC-HR-MS/MS. For metabolism studies, urine was collected over a 24-h period after administration of the compounds to male Wistar rats at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW)...
March 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340719/application-of-a-rapid-%C3%AE-spe-clean-up-for-multiclass-quantitative-analysis-of-sixteen-new-psychoactive-substances-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms
#3
Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Valeria Piccirilli, Manuel Sergi, Dario Compagnone, Roberta Curini
Europe is an important market for illegal drugs, and nowadays a lot of new different psychoactive substances (NPS) are widespread. This work reports the development of a method to determine simultaneously different classes of NPS, as synthetic cannabinoids (SC) and their metabolites, cathinones and phenetylamines, directly on whole blood (WB) without anti-coagulants and using miniaturized solid phase extraction (μ-SPE). In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the method 16 different NPS belonging to the mentioned classes were selected for the analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339800/the-dark-cloud-of-recreational-drugs-and-vaping
#4
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasing in popularity with 19% of UK smokers reporting to have used them. The ability to regulate the evaporation temperature in newer electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) facilitates the potential for use of these devices to 'vape' cannabis, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and other recreational drugs. Vaping cannabis does have the potential to reduce tobacco use and combustible cannabis/tobacco-related disease, but with over one-third of UK adults reporting life-time use of recreational drugs and increasing e-cigarette uptake in adolescent groups the misuse of these devices poses a serious potential public health risk...
March 9, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334805/hair-testing-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-high-risk-population
#5
Alberto Salomone, Joseph J Palamar, Enrico Gerace, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti
Hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in the drug market over the last decade. Few drug surveys in the USA, however, ask about use of NPS, so prevalence and correlates of use are largely unknown. A large portion of NPS use is unintentional or unknown as NPS are common adulterants in drugs like ecstasy/Molly, and most NPS are rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting efficacy of urine, blood and saliva testing. We utilized a novel method of examining prevalence of NPS use in a high-risk population utilizing hair-testing...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325154/the-behavioral-profile-of-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-pvp-a-systematic-review
#6
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Elvin Pirapakaran, Juvraj S Padda, Jeeven S Padda
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances are emerging at an alarming rate. With novel structures and properties they produce unique behavioral characteristics during intoxication. Synthetic cathinones are some of the most common. More and more are presenting to emergency departments due to consequences of use. Aside from isolated reports, little is known about these compounds. OBJECTIVE: Here we review literature pertaining to two common synthetic cathinones, MDPV and alphaPVP, and correlate clinically with guidance on management of intoxications...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318754/differences-between-men-and-women-in-substance-use-the-role-of-educational-level-and-employment-status
#7
Ester Teixidó-Compañó, Albert Espelt, Luis Sordo, María J Bravo, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, B Iciar Indave, Marina Bosque-Prous, M Teresa Brugal
OBJECTIVE: To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation...
March 15, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302559/in-vitro-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-potential-of-alpha-methyltryptamine-analog-new-psychoactive-substances-for-assessing-possible-toxic-risks
#8
Lea Wagmann, Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Tryptamines have emerged as new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are distributed and consumed recreationally without preclinical studies or safety tests. Within the alpha-methylated tryptamines, some of the psychoactive effects of the prototypical alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) have been described decades ago and a contributing factor of its acute toxicity appears to involve the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). However, detailed information about analogs is scarce. Therefore, thirteen AMT analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit MAO...
March 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300995/health-care-of-people-in-homelessness-a-comparative-study-of-mobile-units-in-portugal-united-states-and-brazil
#9
Igor da Costa Borysow, Eleonor Minho Conill, Juarez Pereira Furtado
This paper describes and analyzes the legal and normative framework guiding the use of mobile units in Portugal, United States and Brazil, which seek to improve access and continuity of care for people in homelessness. We used a comparative analysis through literature and documentary review relating three categories: context (demographic, socio-economic and epidemiological), services system (access, coverage, organization, management and financing) and, specifically, mobile units (design, care and financing model)...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290252/pleasure-as-an-overlooked-target-of-substance-use-disorder-research-and-treatment
#10
Matthew Boden, Adrienne Heinz, Todd B Kashdan
BACKGROUND: People commonly use psychoactive substances to increase physical and psychological pleasure. Neuroadaptations in the brain's reward system coupled with changes in social functioning and networking resulting from chronic substance use impede the ability to derive pleasure from non-substance related activities. OBJECTIVE: We elucidate and validate the hypothesis that treatments for substance use disorders would potentially have a stronger and broader impact by helping recipients to experience pleasure as part of an expansive focus of increasing adaptive functioning, well-being, and personal fulfillment and actualization...
March 8, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283256/celiac-disease-is-associated-with-childhood-psychiatric-disorders-a-population-based-study
#11
Agnieszka Butwicka, Paul Lichtenstein, Louise Frisén, Catarina Almqvist, Henrik Larsson, Jonas F Ludvigsson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of future childhood psychiatric disorders in celiac disease, assess the association between previous psychiatric disorders and celiac disease in children, and investigate the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in siblings of celiac disease probands. STUDY DESIGN: This was a nationwide registry-based matched cohort study in Sweden with 10 903 children (aged <18 years) with celiac disease and 12 710 of their siblings. We assessed the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and intellectual disability)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273545/prevalence-of-drugs-in-oral-fluid-from-truck-drivers-in-brazilian-highways
#12
Henrique Silva Bombana, Hallvard Gjerde, Marcelo Filonzi Dos Santos, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem Jamt, Mauricio Yonamine, Waldo José Caram Rohlfs, Daniel Romero Muñoz, Vilma Leyton
Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266890/examination-of-the-phenomenology-of-the-ibogaine-treatment-experience-role-of-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-psychedelic-experiences
#13
Annamarie Heink, Steve Katsikas, Tiffany Lange-Altman
Psychedelic drugs have historically been used for ritualistic purposes and to help individuals gain insight. Ibogaine, a naturally occurring psychoactive substance, has been reported to have anti-addictive properties that aid in the treatment of substance use disorders. An online survey obtained retrospective data from individuals who used ibogaine in the past. Individuals who used ibogaine tended to describe thematically similar experiences post-treatment. This study adds to the literature by using the 5d-ASC, a psychometrically sound measure of altered states of consciousness (ASCs), to examine the ASCs induced by ibogaine and discusses the demographic characteristics of those who seek ibogaine treatment (N = 27)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264690/presentations-to-an-urban-emergency-department-in-bern-switzerland-associated-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity
#14
Evangelia Liakoni, Sabine Müller, Adrian Stoller, Meret Ricklin, Matthias E Liechti, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos
BACKGROUND: Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations. Currently, data from Switzerland are only available from the University Hospital of Basel. The present study aimed to describe the presentations due to recreational drug use at an emergency department in Bern, Switzerland during a 4 year period. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases presenting from May 2012 to April 2016 at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity of recreational drug use...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262446/separation-of-ortho-meta-and-para-isomers-of-methylmethcathinone-mmc-and-methylethcathinone-mec-using-lc-esi-ms-ms-application-to-forensic-serum-samples
#15
Alexandra Maas, Konrad Sydow, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Separation and identification of positional isomers is an important issue in forensic toxicology, particularly in the context of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Despite the structural similarity, positional isomers often show different pharmacological properties and thus can exhibit dramatic differences with respect to their toxicity. Additionally, besides these pharmacological and toxicological effects, the legal status is also of great importance. We present a sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method to separate the ortho, meta and para isomers of methylmethcathinone (MMC) and methylethcathinone (MEC) using a core-shell biphenyl analytical column...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261791/drug-recognition-evaluation-and-chemical-confirmation-of-a-25c-nbome-impaired-driver
#16
James W Rajotte, Jean-Paul F P Palmentier, Helena Rachelle Wallage
This case report details an individual arrested for drug-impaired driving after leaving the scene of multiple motor vehicle collisions and evading police. The driver was examined by a drug recognition expert and failed the drug recognition evaluation. The driver admitted to using cocaine, marijuana, an antidepressant medication and "N-bomb," a novel psychoactive substance that possesses hallucinogenic properties. Toxicological analyses at the Centre of Forensic Sciences' Toronto laboratory revealed only the substance 2-[4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) in the accused's urine...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260646/identification-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-using-handheld-raman-spectroscopy-employing-both-785-and-1064nm-laser-sources
#17
Amira Guirguis, Sarah Girotto, Benedetta Berti, Jacqueline L Stair
The chemical identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the field is challenging due not only to the plethora of substances available, but also as a result of the chemical complexity of products and the chemical similarity of NPS analogues. In this study, handheld Raman spectroscopy and the use of two excitation wavelengths, 785 and 1064nm, were evaluated for the identification of 60 NPS products. The products contained a range of NPS from classes including the aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, benzodiazepines, and piperidines & pyrrolidines...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252368/consumption-of-energy-drinks-among-qu%C3%A3-bec-college-students
#18
Marianne Picard-Masson, Julie Loslier, Pierre Paquin, Karine Bertrand
OBJECTIVES: Consumption of energy drinks (ED) raises concerns because of adverse health effects possibly linked with high levels of caffeine and sugar intake. The study looks at the scope of ED consumption as well as some of the associated characteristics. METHODS: Thirty-six public colleges in the Canadian province of Québec agreed to participate in a descriptive cross-sectional study (n = 36). In February 2013, participating colleges invited their students to answer an online questionnaire on consumption of ED, alcoholic ED (AED), and ED in combination with other psychotropic drugs...
March 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238214/self-reported-substance-use-in-iraq-findings-from-the-iraqi-national-household-survey-of-alcohol-and-drug-use-2014
#19
Nesif Al-Hemiery, Rufaidah Dabbagh, Mushtaq T Hashim, Salih Al-Hasnawi, Ali Abutiheen, Emad A Abdulghani, Jawad K Al-Diwan, Neeraj Kak, Hala AlMossawi, Jane Carlisle Maxwell, Mary-Lynn Brecht, Valerie Antonini, Albert Hasson, Richard A Rawson
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use in Iraq using data from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use (INHSAD). DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Trained surveyors conducted face-to-face household interviews. SETTING: Iraq, from April 2014 to December 2014. PARTICIPANTS: 3,200 adult, non-institutionalized Iraqi citizens residing across all 18 governorates of Iraq...
February 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237885/assessment-of-tobacco-alcohol-and-cannabinoid-metabolites-in-645-meconium-samples-of-newborns-compared-to-maternal-self-reports
#20
Sandrine Lamy, Benjamin Hennart, Estelle Houivet, Sylvain Dulaurent, Heloise Delavenne, Jacques Benichou, Delphine Allorge, Stéphane Marret, Florence Thibaut
Prenatal psychoactive substance exposure has significant impact on neonatal health and child development and the development of reliable biomarkers is critical. Meconium presents several advantages for detecting prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances, as it is easy to collect and provides a broad time frame of exposure (third trimester). The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and/or cannabis use during the third trimester of pregnancy (using maternal self-reports) with the results of meconium testing of their metabolites in newborns (cotinine, ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) and cannabinoid metabolites)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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