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psychoactive substance use

Verónica Rubio González, Susana Redondo Martín, Gema Ruíz López Del Prado, Mª Fe Muñoz Moreno, Alexander Velázquez Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Household Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs shows the progressive increase in the consumption of hypnotics, alone or in combination with other substances. The aim of the research was to obtain information about the consumption of hypnotics and sedatives in population of Castilla y León treated in emergency medical services of four monitored hospitals between 2009-2013, describing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the emergencies and what drugs were consumed, to provide information for future interventions...
October 24, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Sandra Nordmann, Thomas Nefau, Joëlle Micallef, Catherine Duplessy, Jean-Christophe Catusse, Elisabeth Frauger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the residual content of used syringes. METHODS: Used syringes were collected in March 2014 at 9 sites in Marseille (automatic injection kit dispensers, streets, drug-user risk reduction centers [Centres d'accueil et d'accompagnement à la réduction de risques pour usagers de drogues [CAARUD]). Several substances (n=28) were investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: On average, 2±1 substances in each syringe were found among 254 syringes analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Thérapie
Tian Hua, Kiran Vemuri, Mengchen Pu, Lu Qu, Gye Won Han, Yiran Wu, Suwen Zhao, Wenqing Shui, Shanshan Li, Anisha Korde, Robert B Laprairie, Edward L Stahl, Jo-Hao Ho, Nikolai Zvonok, Han Zhou, Irina Kufareva, Beili Wu, Qiang Zhao, Michael A Hanson, Laura M Bohn, Alexandros Makriyannis, Raymond C Stevens, Zhi-Jie Liu
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the principal target of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive chemical from Cannabis sativa with a wide range of therapeutic applications and a long history of recreational use. CB1 is activated by endocannabinoids and is a promising therapeutic target for pain management, inflammation, obesity, and substance abuse disorders. Here, we present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of human CB1 in complex with AM6538, a stabilizing antagonist, synthesized and characterized for this structural study...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Julian A Michely, Sascha K Manier, Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Jason Wallach, Hans H Maurer
3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) and 3-methoxyrolicyclidine (3-MeO-PCPy) are two new psychoactive substances (NPS). The aims of the present study were the elucidation of their metabolic fate in rat and pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), the identification of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved, and the detectability using standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) after intake of common users' doses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-MSn), and liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS)...
October 18, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Christian Brinch Mollerup, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Marie Mardal, Kristian Linnet
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is widely used for the drug screening of biological samples in clinical and forensic laboratories. With the continuous addition of new psychoactive substances (NPS), keeping such methods updated is challenging. HRMS allows for combined targeted and non-targeted screening; first, peaks are identified by software algorithms, and identifications are based on reference standard data. Remaining unknown peaks are attempted identified with in silico and literature data. However, several thousand peaks remain where most are unidentifiable or uninteresting in drug screening...
October 17, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Fabien Cohen
This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Pierre M Geyer, Matthew C Hulme, Joseph P B Irving, Paul D Thompson, Ryan N Ashton, Robert J Lee, Lucy Johnson, Jack Marron, Craig E Banks, Oliver B Sutcliffe
The prevalence of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in forensic casework has increased prominently in recent years. This has given rise to significant legal and analytical challenges in the identification of these substances. The requirement for validated, robust and rapid testing methodologies for these compounds is obvious. This study details the analysis of 13 synthesised diphenidine derivatives encountered in casework using presumptive testing, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrea E Steuer, Elena Williner, Sandra Staeheli, Thomas Kraemer
Increasing numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among them fentanyl derivatives has been reported by the European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA). Butyrfentanyl is a new fentanyl derivative whose potency ratio was found to be seven compared to morphine and 0.13 compared to fentanyl. Several case reports on butyrfentanyl intoxications have been described. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties including its metabolism. However, knowledge of metabolism is essential for analytical detection in clinical and forensic toxicology...
October 13, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Percy Bondallaz, Bernard Favrat, Haïthem Chtioui, Eleonora Fornari, Philippe Maeder, Christian Giroud
Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
Madeleine Pettersson Bergstrand, Anders Helander, Olof Beck
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have become an increasing drug problem in the past decade. For detection of NPS, new analytical methods have to be developed, and the methods also have to be updated regularly. This study aimed at developing a multi-component LC-MS/MS method for detection and quantification of 11 NPS of the benzodiazepine sub-class ("designer benzodiazepines") in urine specimens. The method involves dilution of urine with internal standard and hydrolysis of any glucuronide conjugated forms...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
S Stevens Negus, Matthew L Banks
Many cathinone analogs act as substrates or inhibitors at dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters (DAT, NET, SERT, respectively). Drug selectivity at DAT vs. SERT is a key determinant of abuse potential for monoamine transporter substrates and inhibitors, such that potency at DAT > SERT is associated with high abuse potential, whereas potency at DAT < SERT is associated with low abuse potential. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies with a series of 4-substituted methcathinone analogs identified volume of the 4-position substituent on the methcathinone phenyl ring as one structural determinant of both DAT vs...
October 1, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Nagat Mohammed, Maria Ceprián, Laura Jimenez, M Ruth Pazos, Jose Martínez-Orgado
BACKGROUND: A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. OBJECTIVE: to test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. METHOD: 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation)...
September 27, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Norbert Rácz, Tibor Veress, Júlia Nagy, Balázs Bobály, Jenő Fekete
Cannabimimetic compounds have gained an increasing attention from the forensic community during the past few years. The present study was aimed to develop a liquid chromatographic separation method for the analysis of JWH-122 and its methyl isomers. In Hungary, JWH-122 is scheduled as a narcotic compound and its methyl isomers fall into the new psychoactive substance category, attracting significantly milder punishment than JWH-122 does. According to our best knowledge, gas chromatography or reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry could not be applied for separation and selective determination of methyl-naphthoyl indol isomers...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Damon Borg, Anna Tverdovsky, Richard Stripp
Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of psychoactive compounds that mimic the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L). The Drug Enforcement Administration has classified many of the most common cannabinoids as Schedule 1 controlled substances. As a result, several novel synthetic cannabinoid series have emerged in the illicit drug market, including PINACA, FUBINACA, PB-22, AKB-48 and multiple derivatives of these compounds. Our laboratory developed and validated an analytical method for the analysis 32 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in urine samples...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tingting Gao, Peng Du, Zeqiong Xu, Xiqing Li
New psychoactive substances have become increasingly popular across the globe in recent years, which may cause certain public health issues. In this work, sewage-based epidemiology was applied to examine the use of two synthetic cathinones, mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and three piperazines, benzylpiperazine (BZP), trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), across China. Influent wastewater samples were collected from 36 sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 18 major cities that cover all the geographic regions of the country...
September 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
O Hayden Griffin, Jace A Daniels, Elizabeth A Gardner
Although some novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly discovered chemicals, others are traditional or indigenous substances that are introduced to new markets. One of these latter substances is a plant many people refer to as kratom. Indigenous to Southeast Asia and used for a variety of instrumental and recreational purposes, kratom has recently become available to Western drug users. Kratom is somewhat unique in that the plant contains two different psychoactive chemicals, which have both stimulant (mitragynine) and narcotic (7-hydroxymitragynine) properties...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Ling-Yi Feng, Wen-Jing Yu, Wei-Ting Chang, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
BACKGROUND: Illegal drug use has long been a global concern. Taiwan and Korea are geographically adjacent and both countries have experienced the illegal use problems of methamphetamine, a predominant prototype of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). NPS, a term coined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in recent years, have not been scrutinized for their safety and may become a new threat to public health and security worldwide. To conduct evidence-based drug policy, it is imperative to estimate the trend and pattern of illegal drug use...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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