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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432902/ayahuasca-s-entwined-efficacy-an-ethnographic-study-of-ritual-healing-from-addiction
#1
Piera Talin, Emilia Sanabria
BACKGROUND: A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious...
April 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#2
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#3
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421836/analytical-confirmation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-a-cohort-of-179-presentations-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity-to-an-emergency-department-in-london-uk-in-the-first-half-of-2015
#4
Rachelle Abouchedid, Simon Hudson, Natalie Thurtle, Takahiro Yamamoto, James H Ho, George Bailey, Michelle Wood, Nele Sadones, Christophe P Stove, Alison Dines, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
CONTEXT: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported in the last decade; in this study we investigated how commonly these drugs are found in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute recreational drug toxicity. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study enrolling consecutive adult patients presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) in London (UK) January-July 2015 (6 months) with acute recreational drug toxicity...
June 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419577/decline-in-new-psychoactive-substance-use-disorders-following-legislation-targeting-headshops-evidence-from-national-addiction-treatment-data
#5
Bobby P Smyth, Suzi Lyons, Walter Cullen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New psychoactive substances (NPS) have hedonic effects that may lead to dependence. Headshops selling NPS increased in number in Ireland from late 2009. Legislation was enacted in May and August of 2010 that caused their closure. It is unknown whether such events impact the rate of NPS use disorders. DESIGNS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based study using the Irish national database of episodes of addiction treatment between 2009 and 2012...
April 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419384/risk-factors-for-serious-prescription-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-or-overdose-comparison-of-commercially-insured-and-veterans-health-affairs-populations
#6
Pramit A Nadpara, Andrew R Joyce, E Lenn Murrelle, Nathan W Carroll, Norman V Carroll, Marie Barnard, Barbara K Zedler
Objective. : To characterize the risk factors associated with overdose or serious opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) among medical users of prescription opioids in a commercially insured population (CIP) and to compare risk factor profiles between the CIP and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population. Subjects and Methods. : Analysis of data from 18,365,497 patients in the IMS PharMetrics Plus health plan claims database (CIP) who were dispensed a prescription opioid in 2009 to 2013...
April 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#7
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412575/the-role-of-illicit-licit-and-designer-drugs-in-the-traffic-in-hungary
#8
László Institóris, Előd Hidvégi, Adrienn Dobos, Éva Sija, Éva M Kereszty, László Balázs Tajti, Gábor Pál Somogyi, Tibor Varga
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substances among suspected DUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs) drivers in Hungary in 2014 and 2015. Blood and/or urine samples of 1252 suspected drivers (600 in 2014 and 652 in 2015) were analyzed for classical illicit and licit drugs, stimulant designer drugs (SDDs), and for synthetic cannabinoids, with 78.3% and 79.6% positive cases for at least one substance in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Impairment was proven in 39...
April 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410131/substance-use-disorder-a-bio-directional-subset-of-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#9
Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold, Zsolt Demetrovics, Trevor Archer, Panayotis K Thanos, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This commentary is to inform clinicians challenged with an increase in people seeking treatment for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), that the ninety percent revolving door, is, in part, due to post-withdrawal, untreated neurotoxicity. This impairment attenuates neurotransmitter signaling and compromises resting state functional connectivity, leading to unwanted sequelae including depression, sleep disturbances, sensation seeking, lack of satisfaction and impulsivity. Neuroimaging studies indicate that neurobiological recovery can take years...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406320/underestimated-impact-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-laboratory-confirmation-of-recreational-drug-toxicity-in-oslo-norway
#10
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Per Sverre Persett, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda
CONTEXT: Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. METHODS: All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396339/poppers-legal-highs-with-questionable-contents-a-case-series-of-poppers-maculopathy
#11
Rebecca Rewbury, Edward Hughes, Robert Purbrick, Stephen Prior, Mark Baron
BACKGROUND: Poppers are volatile alkyl nitrite compounds that are inhaled to enhance sexual experience and for their psychoactive effects. A less well-known side effect is foveal maculopathy, which has emerged following changes in their chemical composition. It is unclear if certain individuals are more susceptible to retinal damage or if there is a relationship between pattern of inhalation and brands used. METHODS: A case series of 12 patients presenting to Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, with poppers-related visual impairment...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382544/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolite-identification-studies-for-the-new-synthetic-opioids-acetylfentanyl-acrylfentanyl-furanylfentanyl-and-4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl
#12
Shimpei Watanabe, Svante Vikingsson, Markus Roman, Henrik Green, Robert Kronstrand, Ariane Wohlfarth
New fentanyl analogs have recently emerged as new psychoactive substances and have caused numerous fatalities worldwide. To determine if the new analogs follow the same metabolic pathways elucidated for fentanyl and known fentanyl analogs, we performed in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification studies for acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl, and furanylfentanyl. All compounds were incubated at 10 μM with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 5 h. For each compound, four or five authentic human urine samples from autopsy cases with and without enzymatic hydrolysis were analyzed...
April 5, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379600/hepatotoxicity-associated-to-synthetic-cannabinoids-use
#13
R Solimini, F P Busardò, M C Rotolo, S Ricci, L Mastrobattista, C Mortali, S Graziano, M Pellegrini, N M di Luca, I Palmi
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are psychotropic compounds, chemically created in laboratory to mimic cannabinergic brain activity of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. The consumption of these compounds for recreational purposes can lead to a variety of adverse effects on health including overdose and deaths. Increasingly popular as substances of abuse since the 2000s, SCs were produced initially to bind and study cannabinoid receptors (they also can be called synthetic cannabimimetics) failing in eliminating the psychoactive effects...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378559/mortality-in-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses-data-from-the-south-korea-national-health-insurance-cohort-2002-2013
#14
Woorim Kim, Suk Yong Jang, Sung Youn Chun, Tae Hoon Lee, Kyu Tae Han, Eun Cheol Park
Individuals with psychoses show excess mortality, which is a major public health concern. This study examined all-cause and suicide mortality rates in Korean patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, mood disorder, or mental and behavioral disorder due to psychoactive substance use and to compare this with that of the general population. Data were from the National Health Insurance cohort, 2002 to 2013. A total of 107,190 cases aged 15 years or over were included. Mortality rates per 100,000 person years (PY) were obtained...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371476/detection-of-the-recently-emerged-synthetic-cannabinoid-5%C3%A2-f-mdmb-pica-in-legal-high-products-and-human-urine-samples
#15
Lukas Mogler, Florian Franz, Daniel Rentsch, Verena Angerer, Georg Weinfurtner, Mitchell Longworth, Samuel D Banister, Michael Kassiou, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
Indole or indazole based synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) bearing substituents derived from valine or tert-leucine are frequently abused new psychoactive substances (NPS). The emergence of 5 F-MDMB-PICA (methyl N-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}-3-methylvalinate) on the German drug market is a further example of a substance synthesized in the context of scientific research being misused by clandestine laboratories by adding it to 'legal high' products. In this work we present the detection of 5 F-MDMB-PICA in several 'legal high' products by GC-MS analysis...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371351/identification-of-pyrolysis-products-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-2-amino-1-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-ethanone-hydrochloride-bk-2c-b-and-its-iodo-analog-bk-2c-i
#16
Kelly B Texter, Rachel Waymach, Pierce V Kavanagh, John E O'Brien, Brian Talbot, Simon D Brandt, Elizabeth A Gardner
2-Amino-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone hydrochloride (bk-2C-B) has recently emerged as a new psychoactive substance (NPS). It is most commonly consumed orally although there are indications that it might also be ingested by inhalation or 'smoking'. Information about the stability of bk-2C-B when exposed to heat is unavailable and the potential for pyrolytic degradation and formation of unknown substances available for inhalation prompted an investigation using a simulated 'meth pipe' scenario. Twelve products following pyrolysis of bk-2C-B were detected and verified by organic synthesis of the corresponding standards...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360790/alcohol-and-psychoactive-substance-use-among-university-students-in-edirne-and-related-parameters
#17
Yasemin Görgülü, Diğdem Çakir, Mehmet Bülent Sönmez, Rugül Köse Çinar, Mehmet Erdal Vardar
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol and psychoactive substance use and their effects are an important issue among adolescents and young adults. Different results have been reported about the frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among university students in studies conducted both in Turkey and in different places worldwide. METHODS: The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among Trakya University students (n=1385) and the related parameters were studied cross-sectionally using a self-reporting questionnaire...
June 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343112/the-impact-of-australian-legislative-changes-on-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposures-reported-to-the-new-south-wales-poisons-information-centre
#18
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342193/metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-derived-new-psychoactive-substances-5-meo-2-me-dalt-5-meo-2-me-alcht-and-5-meo-2-me-dipt-and-their-detectability-in-urine-studied-by-gc-ms-lc-ms-n-and-lc-hr-ms-ms
#19
Achim T Caspar, Jonas B Gaab, Julian A Michely, Simon D Brandt, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
Many N,N-dialkylated tryptamines show psychoactive properties and were encountered as new psychoactive substances. The aims of the presented work were to study the phase I and II metabolism and the detectability in standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) of 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DALT), 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N-allyl-N-cyclohexyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT), and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n) , and LC-HR-MS/MS. For metabolism studies, urine was collected over a 24-h period after administration of the compounds to male Wistar rats at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW)...
March 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340719/application-of-a-rapid-%C3%AE-spe-clean-up-for-multiclass-quantitative-analysis-of-sixteen-new-psychoactive-substances-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms
#20
Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Valeria Piccirilli, Manuel Sergi, Dario Compagnone, Roberta Curini
Europe is an important market for illegal drugs, and nowadays a lot of new different psychoactive substances (NPS) are widespread. This work reports the development of a method to determine simultaneously different classes of NPS, as synthetic cannabinoids (SC) and their metabolites, cathinones and phenetylamines, directly on whole blood (WB) without anti-coagulants and using miniaturized solid phase extraction (μ-SPE). In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the method 16 different NPS belonging to the mentioned classes were selected for the analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
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