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psychoactive substance use

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936885/psychoactive-substances-belonging-to-the-amphetamine-class-potently-activate-brain-carbonic-anhydrase-isoforms-va-vb-vii-and-xii
#1
Andrea Angeli, Fabio Vaiano, Francesco Mari, Elisabetta Bertol, Claudiu T Supuran
Identifying possible new biological activities of psychoactive substances belonging to various chemical classes may lead to a better understanding of their mode of action and side effects. We report here that amines structurally related to amphetamine, a widely used psychoactive substance, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, mephentermine, and chlorphenteramine, potently activate several carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms involved in important physiological functions. Of the 11 investigated human (h) isoforms, the widespread hCA I and II, the secreted hCA VI, as well as the cytosolic hCA XIII, and membrane-bound hCA IX and XIV were poorly activated by these amines, whereas the extracellular hCA IV, the mitochondrial enzymes hCA VA/VB, the cytosolic hCA VII, and the transmembrane isoform hCA XII were potently activated...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935058/n-o-349-consommation-de-substances-psychoactives-pendant-la-grossesse
#2
Alice Ordean, Suzanne Wong, Lisa Graves
OBJECTIFS: Accroître la sensibilisation à la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse et les connaissances à ce sujet, et formuler des recommandations factuelles relatives à la prise en charge de cet épineux problème clinique à l'intention de l'ensemble des fournisseurs de soins. OPTIONS: La présente directive clinique analyse l'utilisation d'outils de dépistage, l'approche générale de soins et les recommandations pour la prise en charge clinique de la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932246/implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-intervention-for-children-in-afghanistan-at-risk-for-substance-use-or-actively-using-psychoactive-substances
#3
Abdul Subor Momand, Elizabeth Mattfeld, Brian Morales, Manzoor Ul Haq, Thom Browne, Kevin E O'Grady, Hendrée E Jones
The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment's start and end and 12 weeks later...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922649/determination-of-74-new-psychoactive-substances-in-serum-using-automated-in-line-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Sabrina Lehmann, Tobias Kieliba, Justus Beike, Mario Thevis, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
A detailed description is given of the development and validation of a fully automated in-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method capable of detecting 90 central-stimulating new psychoactive substances (NPS) and 5 conventional amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA), methamphetamine) in serum. The aim was to apply the validated method to forensic samples...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#5
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917081/evaluation-of-the-ecstasy-influence-on-tramadol-and-its-main-metabolite-plasma-concentration-in-rats
#7
Bardia Jamali, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Yalda Hosseinzadeh Ardakani, Hoda Lavasani, Mohammad-Reza Rouini
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is prone to be abused alone, or in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). It was reported that 95% of people with a history of substance abuse in the United States used tramadol in 2004. According to the WHO report in 2016, there was a growing number of tramadol abusers alone or in combination with psychoactive substances such as MDMA in particular in some Middle East countries. Higher concentrations of tramadol in plasma may lead to adverse drug reactions or lethal intoxication...
September 16, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915346/a-review-of-chemical-spot-tests-a-presumptive-illicit-drug-identification-technique
#8
REVIEW
Morgan Philp, Shanlin Fu
Chemical 'spot' tests are a presumptive illicit drug identification technique commonly used by law enforcement, border security personnel, and forensic laboratories. The simplicity, low cost and rapid results afforded by these tests make them particularly attractive for presumptive identification globally. In this paper, we review the development of these long-established methods and discuss color test recommendations and guidelines. A search of the scientific literature revealed the chemical reactions occurring in many color tests are either not actively investigated or reported as unknown...
September 15, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#9
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905207/role-of-vasopressin-v1a-receptor-in-%C3%A2-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced-cataleptic-immobilization-in-mice
#10
Nobuaki Egashira, Emi Koushi, Takayuki Myose, Akito Tanoue, Kenichi Mishima, Ryota Tsuchihashi, Junei Kinjo, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto, Katsunori Iwasaki
RATIONALE: Cannabis is a widely used illicit substance. ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of cannabis, is known to cause catalepsy in rodents. Recent studies have shown that vasopressin V1a and V1b receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are capable of influencing a wide variety of brain functions such as social behavior, emotionality, and learning and memory. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to examine the possible involvement of V1a and V1b receptors in THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization...
September 14, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903606/metabolic-profile-of-oxazepam-and-related-benzodiazepines-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#11
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Anxiolytic drugs, namely benzodiazepines, are the most commonly used psychoactive substances since anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders particularly in the Western world. Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine and one of the most frequently prescribed anxiolytic drugs. It is also the active metabolite of a wide range of other benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, ketazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, demoxazepam, halazepam, medazepam, prazepam, pinazepam, and chlorazepate. Therefore, relevant clinical and forensic outocomes may arise, namely those related to interference in driving performance...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898303/-legal-illegal-and-legitimate-in-the-use-and-misuse-of-substances
#12
Leonardo Ghioldi
his article attempts to establish a dialogue between existing laws, their effectiveness and the controversy within the context of the popularization of substance use in the country. To this end, the origin of the criminalization of substance use and the contradictory positions that have been adopted in laws and court rulings are tracked. All this is confronted with the growing habit of psychoactive substance use among general population, which no laws and rulings have yet managed to in?uence.
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895757/intoxications-in-the-strida-project-involving-a-panorama-of-psychostimulant-pyrovalerone-derivatives-mdpv-copycats
#13
Olof Beck, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in intoxications involving 11 stimulant pyrovalerone NPS derivatives over a 5-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to Swedish hospitals for emergency treatment from January 2011 to March 2016...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886958/use-of-psychoactive-substances-in-prison-results-of-a-study-in-the-lyon-corbas-prison-france
#14
F Sahajian, A Berger-Vergiat, E Pot
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In prison, in 2012, according to various sources, from 4 to 56% of the European inmate population used psychoactive substances (PAS). The aim of our study was to describe PAS consumption during incarceration in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, France. METHOD: A transversal descriptive study was conducted between September 23rd and September 27th 2013 among all inmates of this prison. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, distributed at lunchtime and collected, the same day, at dinnertime, by the mental health service personnel...
September 5, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886402/identification-and-initial-management-of-intoxication-by-alcohol-and-other-drugs-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room
#15
REVIEW
Thiago Gatti Pianca, Anne Orgle Sordi, Thiago Casarin Hartmann, Lisia von Diemen
OBJECTIVE: To review the screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in children and adolescents in the emergency scenario. DATA SOURCE: This was a narrative literature review. DATA SUMMARY: The detection of this problem in the emergency room can be a challenge, especially when its assessment is not standardized. The intentional and episodic use of large amounts of psychoactive substances by adolescents is a usual occurrence, and unintentional intoxication is more common in children younger than 12 years...
September 5, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884869/the-future-of-the-international-drug-control-system-and-national-drug-prohibitions
#16
Wayne Hall
A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances...
September 8, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876413/experimentation-with-psychoactive-substances-by-public-school-students
#17
Maria Eliane de Andrade, Igor Henrique Farias Santos, Antônio Araújo Menezes de Souza, Aliane Caroline Santos Silva, Tatiane Dos Santos Leite, Cristiane Costa da Cunha Oliveira, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs...
September 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876377/crack-cocaine-users-have-less-family-cohesion-than-alcohol-users
#18
Nino C Marchi, Juliana N Scherer, Mayra P Pachado, Luciano S Guimarães, Gerson Siegmund, Melina N de Castro, Silvia Halpern, Daniela Benzano, Maria L Formigoni, Marcelo Cruz, Flavio Pechansky, Felix H Kessler
Objective: Many studies correlate characteristics of family functioning and the development of drug addiction. This study sought to evaluate and compare the family environment styles of two groups of psychoactive substance users: 1) alcohol-only users and 2) crack-cocaine users. Methods: Three hundred and sixty-four users of alcohol, crack-cocaine, and other drugs, recruited from research centers in four Brazilian capitals participated in this study. Subjects were evaluated through the Family Environment Scale and the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6)...
August 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873975/comparison-of-post-targeted-and-pre-targeted-urine-drug-screening-by-uhplc-hr-qtofms
#19
Mira Sundström, Anna Pelander, Ilkka Ojanperä
The current illicit drug scene, with its unpredictable appearance of new psychoactive substances, challenges drug-testing laboratories. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-QTOFMS) provides an especially versatile analytical platform for responding to this continuous change. QTOFMS can be used to collect nonselective MS/MS by broadband data-independent acquisition (DIA), recording all product ions regardless of the precursor ion. Another approach is to collect selective MS/MS by data-dependent acquisition (DDA), using a narrow precursor mass window with preset criteria such as the presence of a particular ion among a precursor ion list...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870246/determinants-of-psychoactive-substances-use-among-woldia-university-students-in-northeastern-ethiopia
#20
Ashete Adere, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Henok Kumsa, Misgan Legesse Liben
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use has become a major public health problem among students in Ethiopian universities. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the magnitude and determinants of psychoactive substances use (khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking) among undergraduate students of Woldia University, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed on Woldia University students in April 2015. 730 students were included in the study...
September 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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