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review acute kidney injury

Song-Jian He, Qiang Liu, Hua-Qiu Li, Fang Tian, Shi-Yu Chen, Jian-Xin Weng
Background: The prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) by statins remains controversial. Therefore, the present meta-analysis including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to assess the effect of perioperative statin on CSA-AKI. Methods: Two reviewers independently searched for RCTs about perioperative statin for prevention of CSA-AKI. The primary endpoint was CSA-AKI. Relative risk was calculated between statin and placebo for preventing CSA-AKI using the random-effect model or fixed-effect model according to different heterogeneity...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
D Díaz-Díaz, M Villanova Martínez, E Palencia Herrejón
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors influencing in-hospital mortality among cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: The ICU of a community hospital. PATIENTS: Adults diagnosed with solid or hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU, excluding those admitted after scheduled surgery and those with an ICU stay of under 24h. INTERVENTIONS: Review of clinical data...
March 15, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Mohamed A Mohamed, Rohit Abraham, Tareq I Maraqa, Samir Elian
Aortic dissection is a rare and fatal complication of cocaine-induced hypertension. The injury mechanism is through shear stress that penetrates the intimal vessel layer, allowing blood flow to separate intimal and medial layers. Due to its scarcity and the paucity of related literature, our knowledge of this condition is limited. We present a rare case of a cocaine-induced aortic dissection, which extended continuously from the aortic root to the common iliacs, along with a literature review of similar cases...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Sebastian J Klein, Anna K Brandtner, Georg F Lehner, Hanno Ulmer, Sean M Bagshaw, Christian J Wiedermann, Michael Joannidis
PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs in critically ill patients and often precipitates use of renal replacement therapy (RRT). However, the ideal circumstances for whether and when to start RRT remain unclear. We performed evidence synthesis of the available literature to evaluate the value of biomarkers to predict receipt of RRT for AKI. METHODS: We conducted a PRISMA-guided systematic review and meta-analysis including all trials evaluating biomarker performance for prediction of RRT in AKI...
March 14, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Hasan Yuksekkaya, Meltem Gumus, Aylin Yucel, Meltem Energin, Serafettin Demirci
BACKGROUND: Mistaken ingestion of all manner of toxic matter is common in childhood, but poisoning with fireworks and matchsticks is rare. Fireworks usually contain 10% yellow phosphorus and 50% potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is an extremely reactive and toxic agent that is used in fireworks and matchstick heads. METHODS: Eleven cases (7 females and 5 males; median age, 36 months [ranging from 24 to 48 months]) of poisoning after ingestion of fireworks and matchstick(s), between February 2008 and June 2014, were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Diego Martin-Sanchez, Olga Ruiz-Andres, Jonay Poveda, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Lara Valiño-Rivas, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Alberto Ortiz, Ana Belén Sanz
Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression patterns not caused by an altered nucleotide sequence, and includes non-coding RNAs and covalent modifications of DNA and histones. This review focuses on functional evidence for the involvement of DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and the potential therapeutic implications. There is evidence of activation of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the AKI-to-CKD transition of diverse aetiologies, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, nephrotoxicity, ureteral obstruction, diabetes, glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease...
March 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Simin Dashti-Khavidaki, Hossein Khalili, Mohsen Nasiri-Toosi
There was no report of nephrotoxicity during clinical trials assessed sofosbuvir for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. This may be due to excluding patients with severe kidney dysfunction, as a main population at risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity from these studies. There are some reports of acute kidney injury (AKI) possibly related to sofosbuvir-containing treatments from real-life experiences. Areas covered: Available data on epidemiology, type, and possible risk factors for nephrotoxicity of sofosbuvir-containing treatment are reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jejo D Koola, Sharon E Davis, Omar Al-Nimri, Sharidan K Parr, Daniel Fabbri, Bradley A Malin, Samuel B Ho, Michael E Matheny
OBJECTIVE: Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a devastating form of acute kidney injury (AKI) in advanced liver disease patients with high morbidity and mortality, but phenotyping algorithms have not yet been developed using large electronic health record (EHR) databases. We evaluated and compared multiple phenotyping methods to achieve an accurate algorithm for HRS identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national retrospective cohort of patients with cirrhosis and AKI admitted to 124 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record data collected from 2005 to 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Ling Sun, Xuejun Zhou, Jianguang Jiang, Xuan Zang, Xin Chen, Haiyan Li, Haitao Cao, Qingjie Wang
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an emerging biomarker for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this retrospectively observational study, we aimed to determine the role of GDF-15 and the risk of AKI in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. METHODS: The medical records of 1195 patients with AMI were reviewed...
2018: PloS One
Luke Lamers, Erick E Jimenez, Catherine Allen, Derreck Hoyme, Entela Bua Lushaj, Petros V Anagnostopoulos
The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic capabilities of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) compared to completion angiography for detection of residual post-operative pulmonary artery lesions. This is a retrospective review of 19 consecutive surgical cases involving the pulmonary arteries that had post-operative TEE and completion angiography from 2014 to 2017. The echocardiograms were reviewed by 2 blinded examiners and categorized as adequate or inadequate visualization of the surgical repair...
March 10, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Yin-Wu Bao, Yuan Yuan, Jiang-Hua Chen, Wei-Qiang Lin
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are worldwide public health problems affecting millions of people and have rapidly increased in prevalence in recent years. Due to the multiple causes of renal failure, many animal models have been developed to advance our understanding of human nephropathy. Among these experimental models, rodents have been extensively used to enable mechanistic understanding of kidney disease induction and progression, as well as to identify potential targets for therapy...
March 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Brendan Bowman, Sijie Zheng, Alex Yang, Brigitte Schiller, José A Morfín, Melvin Seek, Robert S Lockridge
Dialysis care in the United States continues to move toward an emphasis on continuous quality improvement and performance benchmarking. Government- and industry-sponsored programs have evolved to assess and incentivize outcomes for many components of end-stage renal disease care. One aspect that remains largely unaddressed at a systemic level is the high-risk transition period from chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury to permanent dialysis dependence. Incident dialysis patients experience disproportionately high mortality and hospitalization rates coupled with high costs...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Megan SooHoo, Benjamin Griffin, Anna Jovanovich, Danielle E Soranno, Emily Mack, Sonali S Patel, Sarah Faubel, Katja M Gist
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and infection are common complications after pediatric cardiac surgery. No pediatric study has evaluated for an association between postoperative AKI and infection. The objective of this study was to determine if AKI in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with the development of a postoperative infection. METHODS: We performed a single center retrospective chart review from January 2009 to December 2015 of neonates (age ≤ 30 days) undergoing the Norwood procedure...
March 5, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Habib Khan, Christopher Hadjittofi, Mohsin Uzzaman, Kareem Salhiyyah, Sheena Garg, Salman Butt, Haleema Aya, Sanjay Chaubey
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive cardiac valve surgery is safe, effective and increasingly popular. It is performed worldwide with the use of either external aortic clamping or endoaortic balloon occlusion. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science. Primary outcomes included aortic dissection, conversion to sternotomy, mortality, stroke and cross-clamp time. Secondary outcomes included atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury, reoperation for bleeding, cardiopulmonary bypass times, myocardial infarction, use of intra-aortic balloon pump and length of hospital stay...
February 28, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Dian Peng, Bin Cao, Ying-Jun Zhou, Ya-Qiu Long
The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a highly reserved G-protein coupled 7-transmembrane (TM) chemokine receptor which consists of 352 amino acids. CXCR4 has only one endogenous chemokine ligand of CXCL12, besides several other natural nonchemokine ligands such as extracellular ubiquitin and noncognate ligand of MIF. CXCR4 strongly binds to CXCL12 and the resulting CXCLl2/CXCR4 axis is the molecular basis of their various biological functions, which include: (1) mediating immune and inflammatory response; (2) regulation of hematopoietic stem cell migration and homing; (3) an essential co-receptor for HIV entry into host cells; (4) participation in the process of embryonic development; (5) malignant tumor invasion and metastasis; (6) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and acute kidney injury...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ian Jun Yan Wee, Thomas Stonier, Michael Harrison, Andrew M T L Choong
BACKGROUND: The carotid artery is a novel access route for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), especially useful in patients unsuitable for traditional access routes including transfemoral (TF), subclavian, transapical (TAp), and aortic (TAo). This systematic review summarizes the evidence on TAVI via the carotid artery for its efficacy and safety. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted as per the Preferred Reporting Instructions for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines on three online databases: Medline (via Pubmed), SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Akash Deep, Romit Saxena, Bipin Jose
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common accompaniment in patients with liver disease. The causes, risk factors, manifestations and management of AKI in these patients vary according to the liver disease in question (acute liver failure, acute-on-chronic liver failure, post-liver transplantation or metabolic liver disease). There are multiple causes of AKI in patients with liver disease-pre-renal, acute tubular necrosis, post-renal, drug-induced renal failure and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Definitions of AKI in liver failure are periodically revised and updated, but pediatric definitions have still to see the light of the day...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Richard J Johnson, George L Bakris, Claudio Borghi, Michel B Chonchol, David Feldman, Miguel A Lanaspa, Tony R Merriman, Orson W Moe, David B Mount, Laura Gabriella Sanchez Lozada, Eli Stahl, Daniel E Weiner, Glenn M Chertow
Urate is a cause of gout, kidney stones, and acute kidney injury from tumor lysis syndrome, but its relationship to kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes remains controversial. A scientific workshop organized by the National Kidney Foundation was held in September 2016 to review current evidence. Cell culture studies and animal models suggest that elevated serum urate concentrations can contribute to kidney disease, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Epidemiologic evidence also supports elevated serum urate concentrations as a risk factor for the development of kidney disease, hypertension, and diabetes, but differences in methodologies and inpacts on serum urate concentrations by even subtle changes in kidney function render conclusions uncertain...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Styliani I Kokoris, Eleni Gavriilaki, Aggeliki Miari, Αnthi Travlou, Elias Kyriakou, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Elissavet Grouzi
OBJECTIVES: The present review summarizes the available knowledge regarding acute and chronic kidney dysfunction in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) focusing on its clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment. METHODS: A thorough PubMed search was performed using as main keywords: 'paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria', 'acute kidney injury', 'chronic kidney disease' and 'eculizumab'. RESULTS: PNH's etiopathogenesis is based on acquired mutations that lead to the reduction or absence of CD55 and CD59 complement regulators, which are responsible for some of the disease's major clinical features, like intravascular hemolysis, cytopenias and thrombosis...
February 28, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Shurong Li, Shufang Fu, Yichen Xiao, Gaosi Xu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery, and related rates of both hospitalization and long-term mortality are increasing. A number of studies have explored the preventive effects of perioperative pharmacological therapy on AKI after cardiac surgery.
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
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