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fractional excretion of sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522248/adverse-effects-in-kidney-function-antioxidant-systems-and-histopathology-in-rats-receiving-monosodium-glutamate-diet
#1
María Del Carmen Contini, Ana Fabro, Néstor Millen, Adriana Benmelej, Stella Mahieu
We investigated the effects of adding of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to a standard diet on oxidative stress in kidney, nitric oxide excretion, renal ions handling and blood pressure. We examined the association of these changes with the effects on renal histology. The study was performed on male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) divided into 3 groups: 1) MSG group were fed a diet supplemented with 3g of MSG/kg b.w./day, five days a week, and spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution during 16 weeks; 2) NaCl group were fed a diet with NaCl (1g/kg b...
May 15, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516402/effects-of-calcineurin-inhibitors-on-sodium-excretion-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Masuho Saburi, Sumiko Kohashi, Jun Kato, Yuya Koda, Masatoshi Sakurai, Takaaki Toyama, Taku Kikuchi, Daiki Karigane, Sayako Yuda, Yusuke Yamane, Risa Hashida, Ryohei Abe, Tomonori Nakazato, Junichi Hirahashi, Masao Ogata, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takehiko Mori
Calcineurin inhibitors (CIs) such as cyclosporine A (CSA) and tacrolimus often cause renal dysfunction, resulting in increased serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, and hyperuricemia. However, the effects of CIs on sodium excretion have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of CI administration on sodium excretion in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Fifty consecutive recipients each of allogeneic HSCT receiving either CSA or tacrolimus (100 patients in total) with available data for weekly fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) for a 4-week period after transplantation were enrolled in this retrospective analysis...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507171/first-in-man-demonstration-of-direct-endothelin-mediated-natriuresis-and-diuresis
#3
Robert W Hunter, Rebecca Moorhouse, Tariq E Farrah, Iain M MacIntyre, Takae Asai, Peter J Gallacher, Debbie Kerr, Vanessa Melville, Alicja Czopek, Emma E Morrison, Jess R Ivy, James W Dear, Matthew A Bailey, Jane Goddard, David J Webb, Neeraj Dhaun
Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists are potentially novel therapeutic agents in chronic kidney disease and resistant hypertension, but their use is complicated by sodium and water retention. In animal studies, this side effect arises from ETB receptor blockade in the renal tubule. Previous attempts to determine whether this mechanism operates in humans have been confounded by the hemodynamic consequences of ET receptor stimulation/blockade. We aimed to determine the effects of ET signaling on salt transport in the human nephron by administering subpressor doses of the ET-1 precursor, big ET-1...
May 15, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490529/effect-of-sodium-nitrite-on-renal-function-sodium-and-water-excretion-and-brachial-and-central-blood-pressure-in-healthy-subjects-a-dose-response-study
#4
Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Safa Al Therwani, Janni Majgaard Jensen, Frank Holden Mose, Christine Wandall-Frostholm, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen, Jesper Noergaard Bech
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, 1.74, or 3.48 μmol NaNO2/kg/hour for two hours in twelve healthy subjects, after four days standard diet. Subjects were supine and water-loaded. We measured brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (P-AVP), and plasma nitrite (P-NO2(-)), GFR by Cr-EDTA clearance, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) free water clearance (CH2O), and urinary excretion rate of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (U-cGMP)...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484958/markers-of-diuretic-resistance-in-emergency-department-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#5
Andrew Doering, Cathy A Jenkins, Alan B Storrow, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Gregory J Fermann, Karen F Miller, Matthew Sperling, Sean P Collins
BACKGROUND: Loop diuretics are common therapy for emergency department (ED) patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Diuretic resistance (DR) is a term used to describe blunted natriuretic response to loop diuretics. It would be important to detect DR prior to it becoming clinically apparent, so early interventions can be initiated. However, several definitions have been proposed, and it is not clear if they identify similar patients. We compared these definitions and described the clinical characteristics of patients who fulfilled them...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456134/improvement-in-baroreflex-control-of-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-obese-sprague-dawley-rats-following-immunosuppression
#6
Safia Akhtar Khan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah, Hassaan Anwer Rathore, Ashfaq Ahmad, Mohammed Hadi Abdulla, Edward James Johns
AIM: This investigation explored the hypothesis that in obesity an inflammatory response in the kidney contributed to a renal nerve-dependent blunting of the baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: Rats received a normal (12%Kcal) or high-fat (45%Kcal) diet for 8 weeks plus daily injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl i.p) or tacrolimus (0.25mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p) from weeks 3-8. Following anaesthesia, left renal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded, baroreflex gain curves were generated, by infusing phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors challenged by infusing a saline load...
April 29, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449641/cell-free-hemoglobin-mediated-oxidative-stress-is-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-renal-replacement-therapy-in-severe-falciparum-malaria-an-observational-study
#7
Katherine Plewes, Hugh W F Kingston, Aniruddha Ghose, Richard J Maude, M Trent Herdman, Stije J Leopold, Haruhiko Ishioka, Md Mahtab Uddin Hasan, Md Shafiul Haider, Shamsul Alam, Kim A Piera, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Kamolrat Silamut, Tsin W Yeo, Md Abul Faiz, Sue J Lee, Mavuto Mukaka, Gareth D H Turner, Nicholas M Anstey, L Jackson Roberts, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Md Amir Hossain, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Intravascular hemolysis is an intrinsic feature of severe malaria pathophysiology but the pathogenic role of cell-free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative stress in severe malaria associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. METHODS: As part of a prospective observational study, enrolment plasma cell-free hemoglobin (CFH), lipid peroxidation markers (F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) and isofurans (IsoFs)), red cell deformability, and serum creatinine were quantified in Bangladeshi patients with severe falciparum malaria (n = 107), uncomplicated malaria (n = 80) and sepsis (n = 28)...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449402/postprandial-renal-haemodynamic-effect-of-lixisenatide-versus-once-daily-insulin-glulisine-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-on-insulin-glargine-an-8-week-randomised-open-label-trial
#8
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark M Smits, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS: To determine whether lixisenatide, a prandial short-acting glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), ameliorates postprandial glomerular hyperfiltration in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-patients compared to insulin-glulisine (iGlu) . METHODS: Postprandial renal haemodynamic effects of 8-week treatment with lixisenatide 20 µg versus once-daily titrated iGlu were measured in 35 overweight T2DM-patients inadequately controlled on insulin-glargine, with or without metformin (mean±SD age 62 ± 7years, HbA1c 8...
April 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432550/estradiol-mitigates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-renal-failure-through-nmda-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#9
Amrit Pal Singh, Nirmal Singh, Preet Mohinder Singh Bedi
In the present study, we investigated possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in estradiol mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Bilateral renal ischemia of 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h induced ARF in male wistar rats. Quantification of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and urinary microproteins was done to assess I/R-induced renal damage in rats...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402123/iron-isotope-fractionation-during-fe-ii-oxidation-mediated-by-the-oxygen-producing-marine-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-pcc-7002
#10
E D Swanner, T Bayer, W Wu, L Hao, M Obst, A Sundman, J M Byrne, F M Michel, I C Kleinhanns, A Kappler, R Schoenberg
In this study, we couple iron isotope analysis to microscopic and mineralogical investigation of iron speciation during circumneutral Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation with photosynthetically produced oxygen. In the presence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is oxidized and precipitated as amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals (iron precipitates, Feppt), with distinct isotopic fractionation (ε(56)Fe) values determined from fitting the δ(56)Fe(II)aq (1.79‰ and 2...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391266/interpretation-of-the-fractional-excretion-of-sodium-in-the-absence-of-acute-kidney-injury-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Michiel F Schreuder, Arend Bökenkamp, Joanna A E van Wijk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) may be helpful in establishing the cause of acute renal failure. This study was performed to determine the influence of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium intake, and tubular function on FeNa in children without renal failure. METHODS: In this single institute cross-sectional study, 24-h-urine collections from patients (4-18 years of age, GFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were used when considered reliable, and analyzed to determine sodium excretion, creatinine clearance and FeNa...
April 8, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361124/lowering-perfusate-temperature-from-37%C3%A2-c-to-32%C3%A2-c-diminishes-function-in-a-porcine-model-of-ex-vivo-kidney-perfusion
#12
Thomas D Adams, Meeta Patel, Sarah A Hosgood, Michael L Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo perfusion (EVP) is a novel method of preservation. However, optimal perfusion conditions remain undetermined. Reducing the temperature of the perfusate to subnormothermia may be beneficial during EVP and improve early graft function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subnormothermia would influence the conditioning effect of EVP when compared with normothermic perfusion, and standard cold static storage (CS). METHODS: Porcine kidneys underwent static CS for 23 hours followed by 1 hour of EVP using leukocyte-depleted blood at a mean temperature of 32°C or 37°C...
March 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332265/antidiuretic-and-antinatriuretic-response-to-high-salt-load-in-normotensive-wistar-kyoto-rats-role-of-alpha-1a-adrenoreceptors
#13
R N Kazi, M A Sattar, E J Johns
Altered renal adrenergic responses have been recognized as pathophysiological responses to high salt intake. This study aims to investigate the influence of 6 weeks of high salt diet on α1A -adrenoceptor regulation of renal tubular antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response in normal Wistar Kyoto rats. To achieve the above objective, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response to phenylephrine was measured in the absence and presence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU) using the inulin clearance method. Systemic mean arterial blood pressure and renal haemodynamics were also measured simultaneously...
January 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329736/delay-in-renal-hemodynamic-response-to-a-meat-meal-in-severe-obesity
#14
Pietro Anastasio, Davide Viggiano, Miriam Zacchia, Claudia Altobelli, Giovambattista Capasso, Natale Gaspare De Santo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Little information is available about the tubular functions and the renal adjustments that take place in obese subjects after a protein meal. How the excess fat may affect renal response to dietary proteins is currently only partially understood. This paper aims to address (i) whether severe obesity, in the absence of other comorbidities, is responsible of kidney dysfunction at either the glomerular or the tubular level and (ii) whether it compromises renal adaptations to a large protein meal...
March 23, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325783/renal-handling-of-ketones-in-response-to-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Ele Ferrannini, Simona Baldi, Silvia Frascerra, Brenno Astiarraga, Elisabetta Barsotti, Aldo Clerico, Elza Muscelli
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologically induced glycosuria elicits adaptive responses in glucose homeostasis and hormone release, including decrements in plasma glucose and insulin levels, increments in glucagon release, enhanced lipolysis, and stimulation of ketogenesis, resulting in an increase in ketonemia. We aimed at assessing the renal response to these changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured fasting and postmeal urinary excretion of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), lactate, and sodium in 66 previously reported patients with type 2 diabetes and preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL · min(-1) · 1...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316939/application-of-established-pathophysiologic-processes-brings-greater-clarity-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#16
EDITORIAL
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
Hyponatremia, serum sodium < 135 mEq/L, is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is in a state of flux. Hyponatremic patients are symptomatic and should be treated but our inability to consistently determine the causes of hyponatremia has hampered the delivery of appropriate therapy. This is especially applicable to differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) from cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or more appropriately, renal salt wasting (RSW), because of divergent therapeutic goals, to water-restrict in SIAD and administer salt and water in RSW...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288570/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-water-and-sodium-excretion-and-blood-pressure-during-nitric-oxide-inhibition-a-dose-response-study-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Safa Al Therwani, Jeppe Bakkestrøm Rosenbæk, Frank Holden Mose, Jesper Nørgaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium and systemic hemodynamics, during baseline and NO-inhibition with L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine). METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, cross over study, 15 healthy subjects received tolvaptan 15, 30 and 45 mg or placebo...
March 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274929/hydrochlorothiazide-treatment-increases-the-abundance-of-the-nacl-cotransporter-in-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-of-essential-hypertensive-patients
#18
Ganesh Pathare, Omar A Z Tutakhel, Mark C V D Wel, Luke M Shelton, Jaap Deinum, Jacques W Lenders, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC), located apically in distal convoluted tubule epithelia, regulates the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion. Three isoforms of NCC are generated through alternative splicing of the transcript, of which the third isoform has been the most extensively investigated in pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different anti-hypertensive treatments on the abundance and phosphorylation of all three NCC isoforms in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) of essential hypertensive patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192889/effects-of-aristolochic-acid-i-and-or-hypokalemia-on-tubular-damage-in-c57bl-6-rat-with-aristolochic-acid-nephropathy
#19
Joo-Hark Yi, Sang-Woong Han, Wan-Young Kim, Jin Kim, Moon-Hyang Park
Background/Aims: This study was designed to investigate the roles of aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and hypokalemia in acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Methods: After an adaptation period (1 week), a total of 40 C57BL/6 mice (male, 8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: I (control group), II (low potassium [K] diet), III (normal K diet with administration of AA-I [10 mg/kg weight]), and IV (low K diet with AA-I). After collecting 24 hours of urine at 2 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and their blood and kidneys were obtained to perform immunochemical staining and/or Western blot analysis...
February 15, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177696/assessment-of-renal-function-in-the-anaesthetised-rat-following-injection-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#20
Deirdre Edge, Christine M Shortt, E J Johns, Oliviero L Gobbo, Farouk Markos, Mohammed H Abdulla, Elaine F Barry
A recent study showed that a significant fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred following intravenous injection of two novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), MF66 and OD15. To assess if this was caused by excessive glomerular clearance, the effect of both particles on renal function was studied. Experiments were performed on sodium pentobarbital anaesthetised male Wistar rats (250-350 g). Twenty-minute urine clearances were taken followed by an i.v. bolus of MF66, OD15 (2 mg·kg(-1)), or dH2O (0...
November 14, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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