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fractional excretion of sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341461/effect-of-immediate-and-prolonged-glp-1-receptor-agonist-administration-on-uric-acid-and-its-kidney-clearance-post-hoc-analyses-of-four-clinical-trials
#1
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark M Smits, Petter Bjornstad, Mark H H Kramer, Michaela Diamant, Ewout J Hoorn, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS: To determine effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists (RA) on uric acid (UA)-levels and kidney UA-clearance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Post-hoc analyses of four controlled clinical trials, which assessed actions of GLP-1RA-administration on kidney physiology. Immediate effects of GLP-1RA exenatide-infusion versus placebo was determined in 9 healthy overweight males (Study-A) and in 52 overweight T2DM-patients (Study-B). Effects were also examined of 12-week long-acting GLP-1RA liraglutide versus placebo in 36 overweight T2DM-patients (Study-C) and of 8-week short-acting GLP-1RA lixisenatide versus once-daily titrated insulin-glulisine in 35 overweight T2DM-patients (Study-D)...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341028/ameliorative-effects-of-zataria-multiflora-hydro-alcoholic-extract-on-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#2
Saeed Hajihashemi, Tahereh Jafarian, Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Ali Rahbari, Fatemeh Ghanbari
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Z.multiflora (ZM) hydroalcoholic extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats categorized into four groups: 1) the control group without injection, 2) the gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg, i.p) 3) the gentamicin and Z. Multiflora treated group; Z. Multiflora extract(0...
January 16, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299437/the-protective-effect-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-ginger-zingiber-officinale-rosc-against-iron-induced-functional-and-histological-damages-in-rat-liver-and-kidney
#3
Firouzeh Gholampour, Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Seyed Mohammad Owji, Jaafar Vatanparast
Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283977/divergent-effects-of-hypertonic-fluid-resuscitation-on-renal-pathophysiological-and-structural-parameters-in-rat-model-of-lower-body-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-sterile-inflammation
#4
Bulent Ergin, Coert J Zuurbier, Aysegul Kapucu, Can Ince
The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the deterioration of tissue perfusion and oxygenation and enhanced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the hemodynamic and inflammatory effects of hypertonic saline (HS) protect the kidney by promoting renal microcirculatory oxygenation and possible deleterious effects of HS due to its high sodium content on renal functional and structural injury following ischemia/reperfusion. Mechanically ventilated and anesthetized rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): a sham-operated control group; a group subjected to renal ischemia for 45 min by supra-aortic occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion (I/R); and I/R group treated with a continuous i...
December 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283974/the-role-of-distal-tubule-and-collecting-duct-sodium-reabsorption-in-sunitinib-induced-hypertension
#5
Jeannine Witte, Josephine Lampe, Anna Koenen, Ines Urbaneck, Antje Steinbach, Rainer Rettig, Olaf Grisk
OBJECTIVE: Antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) induce arterial hypertension which may limit their use. Renal fractional sodium excretion (FENa) is reduced in early RTKI-induced hypertension, whereas fractional lithium excretion is unaltered. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activated distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption contributes to RTKI-induced hypertension. METHODS: Amiloride-sensitive and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-sensitive fractional sodium reabsorption (FRNa) and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as well as sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundances were determined in sunitinib-treated and control rats...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279315/two-pools-of-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-in-humans-alterations-in-salt-sensitive-normotensive-subjects
#6
Fernando Elijovich, Ginger L Milne, Nancy J Brown, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Cheryl L Laffer
We measured epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) in 21 normotensive subjects classified as salt resistant (13) or salt sensitive (8) with an inpatient protocol of salt loading (460 mEq Na+/24 hours, HiNa) and depletion (10 mEq Na+/24 hours+furosemide 40 mg×3, LoNa). No urine EETs were detected; hence, enzyme linked innumosorbent assay 14,15-DHETs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids) were considered the total converted 14,15-urine pool. We report ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry plasma EETs, DHETs, and their sum (plasma total pool) for the 3 regioisomers (8,9-, 11,12-, 14,15-) and their sum (08,15-)...
December 26, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238217/effects-of-voluntary-exercise-on-blood-pressure-angiotensin-ii-aldosterone-and-renal-function-in-two-kidney-one-clip-hypertensive-rats
#7
Brian M Waldman, Robert A Augustyniak, Haiping Chen, Noreen F Rossi
Spontaneous dynamic exercise promotes sympathoinhibition and decreases arterial pressure in two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. Renal sympathetic nerves stimulate renin secretion and increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We hypothesized that daily voluntary wheel running exercise by 2K-1C rats will decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone as well as normalize urinary sodium and potassium excretion independent of changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214648/nonlinear-disposition-of-lithium-in-rats-and-saturation-of-its-tubular-reabsorption-by-the-sodium-phosphate-cotransporter-as-a-cause
#8
Yuichi Uwai, Tatsuya Kawasaki, Tomohiro Nabekura
We previously reported the contribution of sodium-phosphate cotransporter to the tubular reabsorption of lithium in rats. In the present study, the dose dependency of the renal handling of lithium was examined in rats. When lithium chloride at 1.25 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg was intravenously injected as a bolus, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve of lithium until 60 minutes were calculated to be 6.23 mEq·min/l, 8.77 mEq·min/l and 64.6 mEq·min/l, respectively. The renal clearance of lithium and its fractional excretion increased with increments in the dose administered...
December 7, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169235/hypermagnesuria-in-humans-following-acute-intravenous-administration-of-digoxin
#9
Nabil Abu-Amer, Eldar Priel, Steven J.D. Karlish, Zvi Farfel, Haim Mayan
Background: Hypomagnesemia is a known predisposing condition for the appearance of digitalis toxicity. The detection of a genetic form of Mg urinary wasting with hypomagnesemia being caused by a mutation in the γ subunit (FXYD2) of the Na,K-ATPase, the pharmacological target of Digoxin, prompted us to investigate whether Digoxin administration increases urinary Mg excretion. Methods: Two groups of subjects, with rapid atrial fibrillation, received intravenous Digoxin (n = 9) or verapamil (n = 8), for heart rate control...
October 30, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147470/retrospective-analysis-of-inferior-vena-cava-collapsibility-with-point-of-care-ultrasound-and-urine-sodium-and-fena-in-patients-with-early-stage-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Faizan Babar, Gurkeerat Singh, Mustafa Noor, Bruce Sabath
Early stage acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for an increase in mortality. Accurate assessment of volume status is a major challenge during the early stages of acute renal injury. Determining volume status based on the history and physical exam lacks accuracy. Urine sodium and free excretion of sodium (FENa) provide objective evidence of intravascular volume status when interpreted carefully and is helpful to delineate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. In recent years point of care ultrasound has been used to assess volume status...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126251/evidence-for-a-role-of-pdz-domain-containing-proteins-to-mediate-hypophosphatemia-in-calcium-stone-formers
#11
Kristin J Bergsland, Fredric L Coe, Joan H Parks, John R Asplin, Elaine M Worcester
Background: Hypophosphatemia (HYP) is common among calcium stone formers (SFs) and in rare cases is associated with mutations in sodium-phosphate cotransporters or in Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1), but the majority of cases are unexplained. We hypothesized that reduced sodium-phosphate cotransporter activity mediated via NHERF1 or a similar PDZ domain-containing protein, causes HYP. If so, other transport activities controlled by NHERF1, such as NHE3 and URAT1, might be reduced in HYP...
November 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120960/external-validation-and-comparison-of-formulae-estimating-24-h-sodium-intake-from-a-fasting-morning-urine-sample
#12
Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot, Adrien Joseph, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Anne Boutten, Jimmy Mullaert, Marie-Pia d' Ortho, François Vrtovsnik, Ph Gabriel Steg, Martin Flamant
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular events is controversial, but most large epidemiological studies estimated sodium intake using formulae based on single urine samples, the validity of which is debated. We evaluated sodium intake estimating formulae in a large cohort of adult patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients were asked to collect 24-h urine the day before admission. Validity of the 24-h urine collection was assessed by comparing creatinine clearance from this collection to the mean creatinine clearance from six fractionated urine samples...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106785/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-three-different-mechanisms-of-dysnatremia-onset-after-a-child-s-craniopharyngioma-surgery
#13
(no author information available yet)
Craniopharyngioma, due to its sellar location, can be perioperatively complicated by different types of dysnatremia. We present a rare postoperative onset of a combination of three different mechanisms of dysnatremia with N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and renal function parameters in a boy with a good outcome after craniopharyngioma surgery: 1/ Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) onset immediately after the operation, hypernatremia with peak serum sodium (SNa) 158 mmol/l) caused by free water polyuria (electrolyte-free water clearance, EWC 0...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065098/effects-of-sodium-nitrite-on-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-vs-healthy-study-participants-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#14
Jeppe B Rosenbæk, Bodil G Hornstrup, Andreas N Jørgensen, Jesper Mortensen, Erling B Pedersen, Jesper N Bech
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a key player in regulating vascular tone. Impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis plays an important role in hypertension. Replenishing of nitric oxide by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) has not been investigated in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). We aimed to determine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052786/tolvaptan-promotes-urinary-excretion-of-sodium-and-urea-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Satoshi Minami, Takayuki Hamano, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masayuki Mizui, Yoshiki Kimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan (TLV) promotes aquaresis; however, little is known about its effect on solute excretion in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied CKD patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) or those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving TLV. Patients with an increased urine volume of more than twice of daily variance were defined as "responders" in HF. We compared the ability of the urinary osmolality (U-OSM) change and urinary creatinine concentration ([U-Cr]) change to discriminate "responders"...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052707/the-spectrum-of-subclinical-primary-aldosteronism-and-incident-hypertension-a-cohort-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jenifer M Brown, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Matthew A Allison, Rene Baudrand, Joachim H Ix, Bryan Kestenbaum, Ian H de Boer, Anand Vaidya
Background: Primary aldosteronism is recognized as a severe form of renin-independent aldosteronism that results in excessive mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation. Objective: To investigate whether a spectrum of subclinical renin-independent aldosteronism that increases risk for hypertension exists among normotensive persons. Design: Cohort study. Setting: National community-based study. Participants: 850 untreated normotensive participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with measurements of serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA)...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046296/geraniin-is-a-diuretic-by-inhibiting-the-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-nkcc2
#17
Erika Moreno, Juan A Gayosso, Jose Ramón Montejano, Georgina Almaguer, Norma Vázquez, Cristino Cruz, Adriana Mercado, Norma A Bobadilla, Gerardo Gamba, Alfredo Sierra, Victoria Ramírez
Geranium seemannii Peyr is a perennial plant endemic in central Mexico that has been widely used for its diuretic effect, but the responsible compound of this effect is unknown as well as the mechanism by which the diuretic effect is achieved. Geraniin is one of the compounds isolated from this kind of geranium. This study was designed to determinate whether geraniin possesses diuretic activity and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Geraniin was extracted and purified from Geranium seemannii Peyr. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1) Control, 2) 75 mg/kg of geraniin, 3) 20 mg/Kg of furosemide, and 4) 10 mg/Kg of hydrochlorothiazide...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951782/influence-of-genetic-variants-on-renal-uric-acid-handling-in-response-to-frusemide-an-acute-intervention-study
#18
Nicola Dalbeth, Jordyn Allan, Gregory D Gamble, Amanda Phipps-Green, Tanya J Flynn, Borislav Mihov, Anne Horne, Robert Doughty, Lisa K Stamp, Tony R Merriman
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variation in the renal urate transporters SLC2A9 (GLUT9) and SLC22A11 (OAT4) has been reported to interact with diuretics to increase the risk of developing gout. The aim of this study was to determine whether variation in SLC2A9 or SLC22A11 influences acute renal handling of uric acid in response to frusemide. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, healthy participants (n=100) attended a study visit with oral intake of 40 mg frusemide. Blood and urine samples were obtained at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after frusemide intake...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951774/the-effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-the-renal-dysfunction-in-the-obstructed-kidney-in-the-rat
#19
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
INTRODUCTION: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most active catechin polyphenol extracted from the green tea. EGCG has protective effects in various renal and non-renal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EGCG on the alterations in renal functional parameters following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the rat. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UUO for 72 hours. Group-EGCG (n=10) received intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg/day of EGCG whereas Group-Vx (n=10) had only normal saline...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940861/intrarenal-mas-and-at1-receptors-play-a-role-in-mediating-the-excretory-actions-of-renal-interstitial-angiotensin-1-7-infusion-in-anaesthetized-rats
#20
Julie O'Neill, Vincent Healy, Edward J Johns
We investigated whether Angiotensin (1-7) induced renal haemodynamic and excretory actions were solely dependent upon intra-renal Mas receptor activation or required functional AT1 receptors. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was enhanced by manipulating dietary sodium intake in anaesthetized rats. Angiotensin (1-7) and AT1 and Mas receptor antagonists were infused into the kidney at the cortico-medullary border Mas receptor expression was measured in the kidney. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), urine flow (UF) and fractional sodium excretion (FENa) were 93{plus minus}4 mmHg, 46...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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