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fractional excretion of sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068947/urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-the-evaluation-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-and-aki-in-very-preterm-neonates-a-cohort-study
#1
Anna Sellmer, Bodil H Bech, Jesper V Bjerre, Michael R Schmidt, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Gitte Esberg, Søren Rittig, Tine B Henriksen
BACKGROUND: A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequently found in very preterm neonates and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A shunt across a PDA can result in an unfavorable distribution of the cardiac output and may in turn result in poor renal perfusion. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (U-NGAL) is a marker of renal ischemia and may add to the evaluation of PDA. Our primary aim was to investigate if U-NGAL is associated with PDA in very preterm neonates...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045916/effects-of-different-oral-doses-of-sodium-chloride-on-the-basal-acid-base-and-mineral-status-of-exercising-horses-fed-low-amounts-of-hay
#2
Annette Zeyner, Kristin Romanowski, Andreas Vernunft, Patricia Harris, Ann-Marie Müller, Carola Wolf, Ellen Kienzle
The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008953/glycosuria-and-renal-outcomes-in-patients-with-nondiabetic-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Chi-Chih Hung, Hugo You-Hsien Lin, Jia-Jung Lee, Lee Moay Lim, Yi-Wen Chiu, Heng-Pin Chiang, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown a potential for renoprotection beyond blood glucose lowering. Glycosuria in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is sometimes noted. Whether glycosuria in CKD implies a channelopathy or proximal tubulopathy is not known. The consequence of glycosuria in CKD is also not studied. We performed a cross-sectional study for the association between glycosuria and urine electrolyte excretion in 208 nondiabetic patients. Fractional excretion (FE) of glucose >4% was 3...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008340/fractional-excretion-of-sodium-in-hepatorenal-syndrome-clinical-and-pathological-correlation
#4
Ali A Alsaad, Hani M Wadei
AIM: To determine the accuracy of fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) in the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). METHODS: Eighty-eight liver transplantation candidates with renal dysfunction and/or proteinuria were included in the study sample. The baseline characteristics of the patients were obtained. All the 88 patients underwent iothalamate glomerular filtration rate testing, 24-h urine collection for urinary sodium and protein excretions, random urine for sodium and creatinine testing, and percutaneous kidney biopsy...
December 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965098/protective-effects-of-hydroxytyrosol-on-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-mice
#5
Nooshin Ahmadian Chashmi, Sarvenaz Emadi, Hossein Khastar
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin (GM) is an effective and common antibiotic against severe gram-negative infections. However, its nephrotoxic action has limited the extent of its use. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. METHODS: Male mice (n = 27) were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) Sham, (2) GM (100 mg/kg for 7 days) (3) GM + HT (2 mg/kg BW; gastric gavages, for 7 days)...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923792/the-fate-of-sulfate-in-chronic-heart-failure
#6
Anne Maria Koning, Wouter Meijers, Isidor Minović, Adrian Post, Martin Feelisch, Andreas Pasch, Henri Gd Leuvenink, Rudolf A de Boer, Stephan Jl Bakker, Harry van Goor
New leads to advance our understanding of heart failure (HF) pathophysiology are urgently needed. Previous studies have linked urinary sulfate excretion to a favourable cardiovascular risk profile. Sulfate is not only the end-product of hydrogen sulfide metabolism, but is also directly involved in various (patho)physiological processes, provoking scientific interest in its renal handling. This study investigates sulfate clearance in chronic HF (CHF) patients and healthy individuals and considers its relationship with disease outcome...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903222/sustained-elabela-gene-therapy-in-high-salt-induced-hypertensive-rats
#7
Claire A Schreiber, Sara J Holditch, Alex Generous, Yasuhiro Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Elabela (ELA) is a recently identified apelin receptor agonist essential for cardiac development, but its biology and therapeutic potential are unclear. In humans ELA transcripts are detected in embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, kidney, heart and blood vessels. ELA through the apelin receptor promotes angiogenesis in vitro, relaxes murine aortic blood vessels and attenuates high blood pressure in vivo. The apelin receptor when bound to its original ligand, apelin, exerts peripheral vasodilatory and positive inotropic effects, conferring cardioprotection in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898524/uromodulin-in-kidney-health-and-disease
#8
Pranav S Garimella, Mark J Sarnak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although uromodulin or Tamm-Horsfall protein was discovered over 60 years ago, its functional role in humans remains unclear. This review highlights new studies elucidating the clinical correlates of uromodulin, its association with kidney function decline, nephrolithiasis and urinary host defense. RECENT FINDINGS: Uromodulin is evolutionarily conserved and has multiple functional roles. In large population studies, higher levels of uromodulin are associated with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and kidney size, possibly indicating greater kidney functional reserve...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776720/identifying-different-causes-of-hyponatremia-with-fractional-excretion-of-uric-acid
#9
Louis J Imbriano, Joseph Mattana, James Drakakis, John K Maesaka
BACKGROUND: There is controversy over the prevalence of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral or renal salt wasting (RSW), 2 syndromes with identical common clinical and laboratory parameters but different therapies. The traditional approach to the hyponatremic patient relies on volume assessment, but there are limitations to this method. METHODS: We used an algorithm that relies on fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) to evaluate patients with hyponatremia and present 4 illustrative cases...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727024/renal-functional-responses-in-diabetic-nephropathy-following-chronic-bilateral-renal-denervation
#10
Yimin Yao, Gerard Davis, Joanne C Harrison, Robert J Walker, Ivan A Sammut
Renal innervation operates in conjunction with the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to control tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. This relationship remains unexplored in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigates the effects of acute RAS inhibition and chronic renal denervation on renal function in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in mRen-2 rats prior to conducting chronic bilateral denervation in diabetic and normoglycaemic animals. At 12-weeks post-diabetic induction, renal haemodynamics and tubular handling of sodium and water were measured before and after acute captopril infusion...
October 3, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698757/role-of-the-renal-sympathetic-nerves-in-renal-sodium-potassium-handling-and-renal-damage-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#11
Jianling Li, Qiaoling He, Weifeng Wu, Qingjie Li, Rongjie Huang, Xiaofeng Pan, Wenying Lai
Renal sympathetic nerve activity has an important role in renal disease-associated hypertension and in the modulation of fluid homeostasis. In the present study, changes in renal function and renal sodium/potassium handling were investigated in groups of 12-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats with renal denervation (RDNX group) or sham denervation (sham group). The RDNX group excreted significantly more sodium than the sham group during the 2-week observation period (P<0.05). Following bilateral renal denervation, the fractional lithium excretion was elevated in the RDNX group compared with the sham group, but no significant effect was observed of renal denervation on the fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium or the fractional excretion of potassium...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681561/deletion-of-proton-sensing-receptor-gpr4-associates-with-lower-blood-pressure-and-lower-binding-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-in-sfo
#12
Xuming Sun, Ellen Tommasi, Doris Molina, Renu Sah, K Bridget Brosnihan, Debra Diz, Snezana Petrovic
Diets rich in grains and meat and low in fruits and vegetables (acid-producing diets) associate with incident hypertension, whereas vegetarian diets associate with lower blood pressure (BP). However, the pathways that sense and mediate the effects of acid-producing diets on BP are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of the deletion of an acid sensor GPR4 on BP. GPR4 is a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and an acid sensor in brain, kidney, and blood vessels. We found that GPR4 mRNA was higher in subfornical organ (SFO) than other brain regions...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681269/an-assessment-of-urinary-biomarkers-in-a-series-of-declined-human-kidneys-measured-during-ex-vivo-normothermic-kidney-perfusion
#13
Sarah A Hosgood, Michael L Nicholson
BACKGROUND: The measurement of urinary biomarkers during ex-vivo normothermic kidney perfusion (EVKP) may aid in the assessment of a kidney prior to transplantation. This study measured levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) during EVKP in a series of discarded human kidneys. METHODS: Fifty six kidneys from deceased donors were recruited into the study. Each kidney underwent 60 minutes of EVKP and was scored based on the macroscopic appearance, renal blood flow and urine output...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680393/-causes-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatremia
#14
Peter Gross, Thomas Pusl
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that arises from disturbances in water metabolism. In cases of acute advanced hyponatremia, serious symptoms are predominant, while chronic mild hyponatremia causes minor symptoms such as slowness, depression or unsteadiness of gait. Any therapy of hyponatremia depends on the severity of its symptoms and on its specific etiology and diagnosis. Concerning the differential diagnosis of the type of hyponatremia, it is initially helpful to distinguish between euvolemic, hypervolemic and hypovolemic forms of hyponatremia...
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624603/the-effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-excretion-of-electrolytes-and-urea-nitrogen-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#15
Tomoko S Kato, Hiroshi Nakamura, Mai Murata, Kishio Kuroda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Akie Shimada, Satoshi Matsushita, Taira Yamamoto, Atsushi Amano
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid management is an important component of patient care following cardiac surgery. Our aim in this study was to determine the benefits of tolvaptan, an oral selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist that causes electrolyte-free water diuresis, in postoperative fluid management. We prospectively examined the effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27)...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585605/renal-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-or-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-in-overweight-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-12-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Piet M Ter Wee, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570581/the-effect-of-aliskiren-on-the-renal-dysfunction-following-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-in-the-rat
#17
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking renin-angiotensin system by direct renin inhibition using aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO). METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UO for 72 hours. Group-Alsk (n=12) received aliskiren (30 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water starting one day before creating UO and continued until the terminal experiment five days post reversal when renal functions were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561821/hyponatremia-with-persistent-elevated-urinary-fractional-uric-acid-excretion-evidence-for-proximal-tubular-injury
#18
S-M Kurt Lee, Miguel A Lanaspa, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyponatremia associated with high urinary fractional excretion of uric acid which persists after serum sodium is corrected is the cardinal feature of salt losing nephropathy (SLN). We hypothesize that low grade proximal tubular injury is present in SLN because the proximal tubule is the main site of uric acid and sodium transport. METHODS: Five subjects with SLN were compared to four subjects with recurrent hyponatremia and three healthy individuals...
2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542163/elevated-mercury-bound-to-serum-proteins-in-methylmercury-poisoned-rats-after-selenium-treatment
#19
Yunyun Li, Yuqin Fan, Jiating Zhao, Xiaohan Xu, Hui Jing, Lihai Shang, Yuxi Gao, Bai Li, Yu-Feng Li
Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant and is generated by microbial methylation of elemental or inorganic mercury in the environment. Previous study found decreased hepatic MDA levels and urinary mercury levels in methylmercury poisoned rats after sodium selenite treatment. This study further found increased mercury levels in serum samples from methylmercury poisoned rats after selenium treatment. By using size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, three Hg- binding protein fractions and two Se-binding protein fractions were identified with the molecular weight of approximately 21, 40, and 75 kDa and of 40 and 75 kDa, respectively...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512103/differential-response-to-low-dose-dopamine-or-low-dose-nesiritide-in-acute-heart-failure-with-reduced-or-preserved-ejection-fraction-results-from-the-rose-ahf-trial-renal-optimization-strategies-evaluation-in-acute-heart-failure
#20
Siu-Hin Wan, Susanna R Stevens, Barry A Borlaug, Kevin J Anstrom, Anita Deswal, G Michael Felker, Michael M Givertz, Bradley A Bart, W H Wilson Tang, Margaret M Redfield, Horng H Chen
BACKGROUND: The ROSE AHF trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure) found that when compared with placebo, neither low-dose dopamine (2 µg/kg per minute) nor low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg per minute without bolus) enhanced decongestion or preserved renal function in AHF patients with renal dysfunction. However, there may be differential responses to vasoactive agents in AHF patients with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction (EF). This post hoc analysis examined potential interaction between treatment effect and EF (EF ≤40% versus >40%) on the ROSE AHF end points...
August 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
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