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fractional excretion of sodium

Louis J Imbriano, Joseph Mattana, James Drakakis, John K Maesaka
BACKGROUND: There is controversy over the prevalence of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral or renal salt wasting (RSW), 2 syndromes with identical common clinical and laboratory parameters but different therapies. The traditional approach to the hyponatremic patient relies on volume assessment, but there are limitations to this method. METHODS: We used an algorithm that relies on fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) to evaluate patients with hyponatremia and present 4 illustrative cases...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yimin Yao, Gerard Davis, Joanne C Harrison, Robert J Walker, Ivan A Sammut
Renal innervation operates in conjunction with the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to control tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. This relationship remains unexplored in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigates the effects of acute RAS inhibition and chronic renal denervation on renal function in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in mRen-2 rats prior to conducting chronic bilateral denervation in diabetic and normoglycaemic animals. At 12-weeks post-diabetic induction, renal haemodynamics and tubular handling of sodium and water were measured before and after acute captopril infusion...
October 3, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Jianling Li, Qiaoling He, Weifeng Wu, Qingjie Li, Rongjie Huang, Xiaofeng Pan, Wenying Lai
Renal sympathetic nerve activity has an important role in renal disease-associated hypertension and in the modulation of fluid homeostasis. In the present study, changes in renal function and renal sodium/potassium handling were investigated in groups of 12-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats with renal denervation (RDNX group) or sham denervation (sham group). The RDNX group excreted significantly more sodium than the sham group during the 2-week observation period (P<0.05). Following bilateral renal denervation, the fractional lithium excretion was elevated in the RDNX group compared with the sham group, but no significant effect was observed of renal denervation on the fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium or the fractional excretion of potassium...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xuming Sun, Ellen Tommasi, Doris Molina, Renu Sah, K Bridget Brosnihan, Debra I Diz, Snezana Petrovic
Diets rich in grains and meat and low in fruits and vegetables (acid-producing diets) associate with incident hypertension, whereas vegetarian diets associate with lower blood pressure (BP). However, the pathways that sense and mediate the effects of acid-producing diets on BP are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of the deletion of an acid sensor GPR4 on BP. GPR4 is a proton-sensing, G protein-coupled receptor and an acid sensor in brain, kidney and blood vessels. We found that GPR4 mRNA was higher in subfornical organ (SFO) than other brain regions...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Sarah A Hosgood, Michael L Nicholson
BACKGROUND: The measurement of urinary biomarkers during ex-vivo normothermic kidney perfusion (EVKP) may aid in the assessment of a kidney prior to transplantation. This study measured levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) during EVKP in a series of discarded human kidneys. METHODS: Fifty six kidneys from deceased donors were recruited into the study. Each kidney underwent 60 minutes of EVKP and was scored based on the macroscopic appearance, renal blood flow and urine output...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
Peter Gross, Thomas Pusl
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that arises from disturbances in water metabolism. In cases of acute advanced hyponatremia, serious symptoms are predominant, while chronic mild hyponatremia causes minor symptoms such as slowness, depression or unsteadiness of gait. Any therapy of hyponatremia depends on the severity of its symptoms and on its specific etiology and diagnosis. Concerning the differential diagnosis of the type of hyponatremia, it is initially helpful to distinguish between euvolemic, hypervolemic and hypovolemic forms of hyponatremia...
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Tomoko S Kato, Hiroshi Nakamura, Mai Murata, Kishio Kuroda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Akie Shimada, Satoshi Matsushita, Taira Yamamoto, Atsushi Amano
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid management is an important component of patient care following cardiac surgery. Our aim in this study was to determine the benefits of tolvaptan, an oral selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist that causes electrolyte-free water diuresis, in postoperative fluid management. We prospectively examined the effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27)...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Piet M Ter Wee, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31...
September 1, 2016: Diabetes Care
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking renin-angiotensin system by direct renin inhibition using aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO). METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UO for 72 hours. Group-Alsk (n=12) received aliskiren (30 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water starting one day before creating UO and continued until the terminal experiment five days post reversal when renal functions were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
S-M Kurt Lee, Miguel A Lanaspa, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyponatremia associated with high urinary fractional excretion of uric acid which persists after serum sodium is corrected is the cardinal feature of salt losing nephropathy (SLN). We hypothesize that low grade proximal tubular injury is present in SLN because the proximal tubule is the main site of uric acid and sodium transport. METHODS: Five subjects with SLN were compared to four subjects with recurrent hyponatremia and three healthy individuals...
August 26, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Yunyun Li, Yuqin Fan, Jiating Zhao, Xiaohan Xu, Hui Jing, Lihai Shang, Yuxi Gao, Bai Li, Yu-Feng Li
Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant and is generated by microbial methylation of elemental or inorganic mercury in the environment. Previous study found decreased hepatic MDA levels and urinary mercury levels in methylmercury poisoned rats after sodium selenite treatment. This study further found increased mercury levels in serum samples from methylmercury poisoned rats after selenium treatment. By using size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, three Hg- binding protein fractions and two Se-binding protein fractions were identified with the molecular weight of approximately 21, 40, and 75 kDa and of 40 and 75 kDa, respectively...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Siu-Hin Wan, Susanna R Stevens, Barry A Borlaug, Kevin J Anstrom, Anita Deswal, G Michael Felker, Michael M Givertz, Bradley A Bart, W H Wilson Tang, Margaret M Redfield, Horng H Chen
BACKGROUND: The ROSE AHF trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure) found that when compared with placebo, neither low-dose dopamine (2 µg/kg per minute) nor low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg per minute without bolus) enhanced decongestion or preserved renal function in AHF patients with renal dysfunction. However, there may be differential responses to vasoactive agents in AHF patients with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction (EF). This post hoc analysis examined potential interaction between treatment effect and EF (EF ≤40% versus >40%) on the ROSE AHF end points...
August 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
S Tentori, C Lanzani, L Citterio, E Brioni, M Simonini, L Zagato, E Messaggio, P Manunta
OBJECTIVE: The genetic basis of salt sensitive (SSH) hypertension consists in a very complex network of dynamic interaction among genetic-environmental factors that may change with aging. The existence of a regulatory genetic network (RGN) as triggering mechanism of SSH has been already postulated for Adducin-Endogenous Ouabain-Na+-K+ ATPase (ADD-EO-NKA) system. The observation that Klotho (KL) is a newly discovered aging suppressor gene can directly affect the Na+, K+-ATPase activity opening new possible interaction with the RGN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anudeep Kaur, Tajpreet Kaur, Balbir Singh, Devendra Pathak, Harpal Singh Buttar, Amrit Pal Singh
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in curcumin-mediated renoprotection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. METHODS: Rats were subjected to bilateral renal I/R (40 min I, 24 hours R) to induce AKI. Kidney injury was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium, and macroproteinuria...
August 3, 2016: Renal Failure
Gholamali Javedan, Farzad Shidfar, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Marjan Ajami, Fazel Gorjipour, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia, Hamidreza Pazoki Toroudi
SCOPE: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are dietary components with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of CLA pretreatment in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Animals were treated with CLAs (200mg/kg/day) or water for two weeks prior to sham surgery or to surgery to induce IRI. Renal function, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation markers, were evaluated...
July 28, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Daniel F Arruda-Junior, Flavia L Martins, Rafael Dariolli, Leonardo Jensen, Ednei L Antonio, Leonardo Dos Santos, Paulo J F Tucci, Adriana C C Girardi
Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in humans and experimental heart failure (HF) models, suggesting that DPPIV may play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Renal dysfunction is one of the key features of HF, but it remains to be determined whether DPPIV inhibitors are capable of improving cardiorenal function after the onset of HF. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that DPPIV inhibition by vildagliptin improves renal water and salt handling and exerts anti-proteinuric effects in rats with established HF...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
K L Kelly, K J Drobatz, J D Foster
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem in small-animal patients and carries a guarded prognosis with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in oligoanuric dogs. Fenoldopam, a selective dopamine agonist, has been shown to increase urine output in healthy dogs and cats; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of fenoldopam infusion on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) in healthy dogs...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Luca Zazzeron, Davide Ottolina, Eleonora Scotti, Michele Ferrari, Paola Bruzzone, Silvio Sibilla, Cristina Marenghi, Luciano Gattinoni, Pietro Caironi
BACKGROUND: Although the loop-diuretic furosemide is widely employed in critically ill patients with known long-term effects on plasma electrolytes, accurate data describing its acute effects on renal electrolyte handling and the generation of plasma electrolyte alterations are lacking. We hypothesized that the long-term effects of furosemide on plasma electrolytes and acid-base depend on its immediate effects on electrolyte excretion rate and patient clinical baseline characteristics...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Marie Louise V Kristensen, Casper Kierulf-Lassen, Per Mose Nielsen, Søren Krag, Henrik Birn, Lene N Nejsum, Rikke Nørregaard
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can lead to impaired urine concentration ability and increased fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa). Local ischemic preconditioning improves renal water and sodium handling after I/R injury. Here, we investigate whether remote ischemic perconditioning (rIPeC) prevents dysregulation of renal water and salt handling in response to I/R injury and mechanisms that may be involved. Rats were subjected to right nephrectomy and randomized into a sham group or an I/R group. In the I/R group, rats were subjected to 37 min of renal ischemia and 3 days of reperfusion...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
Yuichiro Ueda, Susumu Ookawara, Kiyonori Ito, Haruhisa Miyazawa, Yoshio Kaku, Taro Hoshino, Kaoru Tabei, Yoshiyuki Morishita
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is one of the more serious complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the cause of potassium retention is a reduction in urinary potassium excretion. However, few studies have examined the extent of the decrease of urinary potassium excretion in detail with respect to decreased renal function. METHODS: Nine hundred eighty-nine patients with CKD (CKD stages G1 and G2 combined: 135; G3a: 107; G3b: 170; G4: 289; and G5: 288) were evaluated retrospectively...
June 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
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