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fractional excretion of sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147470/retrospective-analysis-of-inferior-vena-cava-collapsibility-with-point-of-care-ultrasound-and-urine-sodium-and-fena-in-patients-with-early-stage-acute-kidney-injury
#1
Faizan Babar, Gurkeerat Singh, Mustafa Noor, Bruce Sabath
Early stage acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for an increase in mortality. Accurate assessment of volume status is a major challenge during the early stages of acute renal injury. Determining volume status based on the history and physical exam lacks accuracy. Urine sodium and free excretion of sodium (FENa) provide objective evidence of intravascular volume status when interpreted carefully and is helpful to delineate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. In recent years point of care ultrasound has been used to assess volume status...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126251/evidence-for-a-role-of-pdz-domain-containing-proteins-to-mediate-hypophosphatemia-in-calcium-stone-formers
#2
Kristin J Bergsland, Fredric L Coe, Joan H Parks, John R Asplin, Elaine M Worcester
Background: Hypophosphatemia (HYP) is common among calcium stone formers (SFs) and in rare cases is associated with mutations in sodium-phosphate cotransporters or in Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1), but the majority of cases are unexplained. We hypothesized that reduced sodium-phosphate cotransporter activity mediated via NHERF1 or a similar PDZ domain-containing protein, causes HYP. If so, other transport activities controlled by NHERF1, such as NHE3 and URAT1, might be reduced in HYP...
November 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120960/external-validation-and-comparison-of-formulae-estimating-24-h-sodium-intake-from-a-fasting-morning-urine-sample
#3
Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot, Adrien Joseph, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Anne Boutten, Jimmy Mullaert, Marie-Pia d' Ortho, François Vrtovsnik, Ph Gabriel Steg, Martin Flamant
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular events is controversial, but most large epidemiological studies estimated sodium intake using formulae based on single urine samples, the validity of which is debated. We evaluated sodium intake estimating formulae in a large cohort of adult patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients were asked to collect 24-h urine the day before admission. Validity of the 24-h urine collection was assessed by comparing creatinine clearance from this collection to the mean creatinine clearance from six fractionated urine samples...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106785/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-three-different-mechanisms-of-dysnatremia-onset-after-a-child-s-craniopharyngioma-surgery
#4
(no author information available yet)
Craniopharyngioma, due to its sellar location, can be perioperatively complicated by different types of dysnatremia. We present a rare postoperative onset of a combination of three different mechanisms of dysnatremia with N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and renal function parameters in a boy with a good outcome after craniopharyngioma surgery: 1/ Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) onset immediately after the operation, hypernatremia with peak serum sodium (SNa) 158 mmol/l) caused by free water polyuria (electrolyte-free water clearance, EWC 0...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065098/effects-of-sodium-nitrite-on-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-vs-healthy-study-participants-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#5
Jeppe B Rosenbæk, Bodil G Hornstrup, Andreas N Jørgensen, Jesper Mortensen, Erling B Pedersen, Jesper N Bech
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a key player in regulating vascular tone. Impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis plays an important role in hypertension. Replenishing of nitric oxide by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) has not been investigated in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). We aimed to determine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052786/tolvaptan-promotes-urinary-excretion-of-sodium-and-urea-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Satoshi Minami, Takayuki Hamano, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masayuki Mizui, Yoshiki Kimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan (TLV) promotes aquaresis; however, little is known about its effect on solute excretion in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied CKD patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) or those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving TLV. Patients with an increased urine volume of more than twice of daily variance were defined as "responders" in HF. We compared the ability of the urinary osmolality (U-OSM) change and urinary creatinine concentration ([U-Cr]) change to discriminate "responders"...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052707/the-spectrum-of-subclinical-primary-aldosteronism-and-incident-hypertension-a-cohort-study
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jenifer M Brown, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Matthew A Allison, Rene Baudrand, Joachim H Ix, Bryan Kestenbaum, Ian H de Boer, Anand Vaidya
Background: Primary aldosteronism is recognized as a severe form of renin-independent aldosteronism that results in excessive mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation. Objective: To investigate whether a spectrum of subclinical renin-independent aldosteronism that increases risk for hypertension exists among normotensive persons. Design: Cohort study. Setting: National community-based study. Participants: 850 untreated normotensive participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with measurements of serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA)...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046296/geraniin-is-a-diuretic-by-inhibiting-the-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-nkcc2
#8
Erika Moreno, Juan A Gayosso, Jose Ramón Montejano, Georgina Almaguer, Norma Vázquez, Cristino Cruz, Adriana Mercado, Norma A Bobadilla, Gerardo Gamba, Alfredo Sierra, Victoria Ramírez
Geranium seemannii Peyr is a perennial plant endemic in central Mexico that has been widely used for its diuretic effect, but the responsible compound of this effect is unknown as well as the mechanism by which the diuretic effect is achieved. Geraniin is one of the compounds isolated from this kind of geranium. This study was designed to determinate whether geraniin possesses diuretic activity and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Geraniin was extracted and purified from Geranium seemannii Peyr. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1) Control, 2) 75 mg/kg of geraniin, 3) 20 mg/Kg of furosemide, and 4) 10 mg/Kg of hydrochlorothiazide...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951782/influence-of-genetic-variants-on-renal-uric-acid-handling-in-response-to-frusemide-an-acute-intervention-study
#9
Nicola Dalbeth, Jordyn Allan, Gregory D Gamble, Amanda Phipps-Green, Tanya J Flynn, Borislav Mihov, Anne Horne, Robert Doughty, Lisa K Stamp, Tony R Merriman
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variation in the renal urate transporters SLC2A9 (GLUT9) and SLC22A11 (OAT4) has been reported to interact with diuretics to increase the risk of developing gout. The aim of this study was to determine whether variation in SLC2A9 or SLC22A11 influences acute renal handling of uric acid in response to frusemide. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, healthy participants (n=100) attended a study visit with oral intake of 40 mg frusemide. Blood and urine samples were obtained at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after frusemide intake...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951774/the-effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-the-renal-dysfunction-in-the-obstructed-kidney-in-the-rat
#10
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
INTRODUCTION: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most active catechin polyphenol extracted from the green tea. EGCG has protective effects in various renal and non-renal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EGCG on the alterations in renal functional parameters following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the rat. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UUO for 72 hours. Group-EGCG (n=10) received intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg/day of EGCG whereas Group-Vx (n=10) had only normal saline...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940861/intrarenal-mas-and-at1-receptors-play-a-role-in-mediating-the-excretory-actions-of-renal-interstitial-angiotensin-1-7-infusion-in-anaesthetized-rats
#11
Julie O'Neill, Vincent Healy, Edward J Johns
We investigated whether Angiotensin (1-7) induced renal haemodynamic and excretory actions were solely dependent upon intra-renal Mas receptor activation or required functional AT1 receptors. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was enhanced by manipulating dietary sodium intake in anaesthetized rats. Angiotensin (1-7) and AT1 and Mas receptor antagonists were infused into the kidney at the cortico-medullary border Mas receptor expression was measured in the kidney. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), urine flow (UF) and fractional sodium excretion (FENa) were 93{plus minus}4 mmHg, 46...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940314/dietary-sodium-induces-a-redistribution-of-the-tubular-metabolic-workload
#12
Khalil Udwan, Ahmed Abed, Isabelle Roth, Eva Dizin, Marc Maillard, Carla Bettoni, Johannes Loffing, Carsten A Wagner, Aurélie Edwards, Eric Feraille
KEY POINTS: Body Na(+) content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na(+) excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na(+) intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na(+) intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na(+) transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low dietary Na(+) intake increased Na(+) reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939330/effect-of-a-physical-activity-programme-in-the-aquatic-environment-on-haemodynamic-constants-in-pregnant-women
#13
Juana María Vázquez-Lara, Carlos Ruiz-Frutos, Luciano Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús Ramírez-Rodrigo, Carmen Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Gema Torres-Luque
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a physical activity programme in the aquatic environment with immersion up to the neck, of six weeks duration, on haemodynamic constants in pregnant women. METHODS: A six-week physical activity programme in the aquatic environment was carried out with a total of 46 pregnant women, who were distributed into an experimental group (n = 18), which participated in the programme, and a control group (n = 28), which followed routine care...
September 19, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928059/garlic-extract-increases-non-clipped-kidney-tubular-natriuresis-and-diuresis-in-the-2-kidney-1-clip-rat-model-significance-in-hypertension
#14
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
September 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904363/calcitriol-reduces-kidney-development-disorders-in-rats-provoked-by-losartan-administration-during-lactation
#15
Lucas Ferreira de Almeida, Heloísa Della Coletta Francescato, Cleonice Giovanini Alves da Silva, Roberto Silva Costa, Terezila Machado Coimbra
Calcitriol has important effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, as well as on the regulation of the renin gene. Disturbances in renal development can be observed in rats exposed to angiotensin II (AngII) antagonists during lactation period. The lack of tubular differentiation in losartan-treated rats can affect calcitriol uptake. This study evaluated the effect of calcitriol administration in renal development disturbances in rats provoked by losartan (AngII type 1 receptor antagonist) administration during lactation...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888328/a-population-based-approach-to-assess-the-heritability-and-distribution-of-renal-handling-of-electrolytes
#16
Flore Moulin, Belen Ponte, Menno Pruijm, Daniel Ackermann, Yassine Bouatou, Idris Guessous, Georg Ehret, Olivier Bonny, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi, Jan A Staessen, Fred Paccaud, Pierre-Yves Martin, Michel Burnier, Bruno Vogt, Olivier Devuyst, Murielle Bochud
The handling of electrolytes by the kidney is essential for homeostasis. However, the heritability of these processes, the first step in gene discovery, is poorly known. To help clarify this, we estimated the heritability of serum concentration, urinary excretion, renal clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, and chloride in a population-based study. Nuclear families were randomly selected from the general population in Lausanne, Geneva, and Bern, Switzerland, and urine collected over 24-hour periods...
September 6, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814438/collecting-duct-prorenin-receptor-knockout-reduces-renal-function-increases-na-excretion-and-mitigates-renal-responses-in-angii-induced-hypertensive-mice
#17
Minolfa C Prieto, Virginia Reverte, Mykola Mamenko, Marta Kuczeriska, Luciana C Veiras, Carla B Rosales, Matthew McLellan, Oliver Gentile, V Behrana Jensen, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Alicia A McDonough, Oleh M Pochynyuk, Alexis A Gonzalez
Augmented intratubular angiotensin (ANG) II is a key determinant of enhanced distal Na+ reabsorption via activation of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and other transporters, which leads to the development of high blood pressure (BP). In ANGII-induced hypertension, there is increased expression of the prorenin receptor (PRR) in the collecting duct (CD), which has been implicated in the stimulation of the sodium transporters and resultant hypertension. The impact of PRR deletion along the nephron on BP regulation and Na+ handling remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810844/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-handling-of-water-and-sodium-gfr-and-central-hemodynamics-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-during-inhibition-of-the-nitric-oxide-system-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#18
Safa Al Therwani, My Emma Sofie Malmberg, Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Jesper Noergaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min...
August 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807212/comparison-of-normothermic-and-hypothermic-perfusion-in-porcine-kidneys-donated-after-cardiac-death
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matthew F Blum, Qiang Liu, Basem Soliman, Paul Dreher, Toshihiro Okamoto, Emilio D Poggio, David A Goldfarb, William M Baldwin, Cristiano Quintini
BACKGROUND: Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is an alternative strategy for preserving kidneys donated after cardiac death (DCD). The relative efficacy of prolonged NMP compared to hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) in DCD kidneys with moderate ischemic injury is undetermined. This study compares NMP and HMP kidney preservation in a porcine DCD model. METHODS: Ten porcine kidneys underwent NMP or HMP preservation following 45 minutes of warm ischemia and 5 hours of cold ischemia...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774377/association-of-estimated-sodium%C3%A2-intake%C3%A2-with-adverse-cardiac-structure-and%C3%A2-function-from-the-hypergen-study
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Senthil Selvaraj, Luc Djoussé, Frank G Aguilar, Eva E Martinez, Vincenzo B Polsinelli, Marguerite R Irvin, Donna K Arnett, Sanjiv J Shah
BACKGROUND: The optimal level of sodium intake remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether examination of left ventricular longitudinal strain (LS), circumferential strain, and e' velocity can provide insight into thresholds for the detrimental effects of estimated sodium intake (ESI) on subclinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We performed speckle-tracking analysis on HyperGEN (Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network) study echocardiograms with available urinary sodium data (N = 2,996)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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