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fractional excretion of sodium

Tomotaka Ando, Yoshitaka Okuhara, Yoshiyuki Orihara, Koichi Nishimura, Kyoko Yamamoto, Tohru Masuyama, Shinichi Hirotani
Recently, we and other group have reported that furosemide administration along with hypertonic saline solution enhanced diuretic efficiency of furosemide. However, little is known about factors which associated with high diuretic efficiency by hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy. To identify predictors of diuretic efficiency in the hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy, we recruited 30 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients with volume overload (77 ± 10 years, systolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 ml/min/1...
March 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Ganesh Pathare, Manuel Anderegg, Giuseppe Albano, Florian Lang, Daniel G Fuster
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) participates in the orchestration of mineral metabolism by inducing phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . It is known that FGF23 release is stimulated by aldosterone and extracellular volume depletion. To characterize this effect further in a model of mild hypovolemia, we studied mice lacking the thiazide sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Our data indicate that NCC knockout mice (KO) have significantly higher FGF23, PTH and aldosterone concentrations than corresponding wild type (WT) mice...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
D Adin, C Atkins, M G Papich
INTRODUCTION: Diuretic failure is a potential life-ending event but is unpredictable and poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate pharmacodynamic markers of furosemide-induced diuresis and to investigate mechanisms of diuretic braking in dogs receiving constant rate infusion (CRI) of furosemide. ANIMALS: Six healthy male dogs. METHODS: Raw data and stored samples from one arm of a previously published study were further analyzed to mechanistically investigate causes of diuretic braking in these dogs...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Caroline M Gorvin, Angela Rogers, Michelle Stewart, Anju Paudyal, Tertius A Hough, Lydia Teboul, Sara Wells, Steve Dm Brown, Roger D Cox, Rajesh V Thakker
The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ), encoded by AP2S1 , forms a heterotetrameric complex, with AP2α, AP2β, and AP2μ subunits, that is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and AP2σ loss-of-function mutations impair internalization of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, and cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type-3 (FHH3). Mice with AP2σ mutations that would facilitate investigations of the in vivo role of AP2σ, are not available, and we therefore embarked on establishing such mice...
May 2, 2017: JBMR Plus
James B Diskin, Christopher Brandon Walker, Michael D Oberle, Charles J Diskin
The fractional excretion of urea is a useful tool to evaluate renal function in oliguric states; however, it remains unexplored in nonoliguric states. We evaluated its use to predict responses in patients with type 1 cardiorenal syndrome. This was a prospective observational study of 116 patients with type 1 cardiorenal syndrome referred over a 4-year period. Fractional excretion of urea and sodium, ejection fraction, mean arterial pressure, age, sex, diabetes, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), serum sodium and blood urea nitrogen were analyzed for effects upon serum creatinine and survival...
January 26, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Tatiana Martins Aniteli, Flávia Ramos de Siqueira, Luciene Machado Dos Reis, Wagner Vasques Dominguez, Elizabeth Maria Costa de Oliveira, Patrícia Castelucci, Rosa Maria Affonso Moysés, Vanda Jorgetti
Hyperphosphatemia is a common condition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and can lead to bone disease, vascular calcification, and increased risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is absorbed in the intestine, an important step in the maintenance of homeostasis. In CKD, it is not clear to what extent Pi absorption is modulated by dietary Pi. Thus, we investigated 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) Wistar rats to test whether acute variations in dietary Pi concentration over 2 days would alter hormones involved in Pi metabolism, expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporters, apoptosis, and the expression of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) in different segments of the small intestine...
January 25, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fernanda Oliveira Coelho, Lecticia Barbosa Jorge, Ana Carolina de Bragança Viciana, Talita Rojas Sanches, Fernando Dos Santos, Claudia Maria B Helou, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
The klotho gene, which encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and a secreted protein, is expressed predominantly by the distal renal tubules and is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism, ion channel regulation, intracellular signaling pathways, and longevity. Klotho deficiency aggravates acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis. Exposure to nicotine also worsens kidney injury. Here, we investigated renal klotho expression in a mouse model of chronic (28-day) nicotine exposure, in which mice received nicotine or vehicle (saccharine) in drinking water, comparing wild-type (klotho+/+) mice, klotho-haploinsufficient (klotho+/-) mice, and their respective controls, in terms of the effects of that exposure...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark M Smits, Petter Bjornstad, Mark H H Kramer, Michaela Diamant, Ewout J Hoorn, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS: To determine the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists (RA) on uric acid (UA) levels and kidney UA clearance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study involved post-hoc analyses of 4 controlled clinical trials, which assessed actions of GLP-1RA administration on kidney physiology. The immediate effects of GLP-1RA exenatide infusion vs placebo were determined in 9 healthy overweight men (Study-A) and in 52 overweight T2DM patients (Study-B). The effects of 12 weeks of long-acting GLP-1RA liraglutide vs placebo in 36 overweight T2DM patients (Study-C) and of 8 weeks of short-acting GLP-1RA lixisenatide vs once-daily titrated insulin glulisine in 35 overweight T2DM patients (Study-D) were also examined...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Saeed Hajihashemi, Tahereh Jafarian, Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Ali Rahbari, Fatemeh Ghanbari
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Z.multiflora (ZM) hydroalcoholic extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats categorized into four groups: 1) the control group without injection, 2) the gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg, i.p) 3) the gentamicin and Z. Multiflora treated group; Z. Multiflora extract(0...
January 16, 2018: Drug Research
Firouzeh Gholampour, Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Seyed Mohammad Owji, Jaafar Vatanparast
Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Bulent Ergin, Coert J Zuurbier, Aysegul Kapucu, Can Ince
The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the deterioration of tissue perfusion and oxygenation and enhanced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the hemodynamic and inflammatory effects of hypertonic saline (HS) protect the kidney by promoting renal microcirculatory oxygenation and possible deleterious effects of HS due to its high sodium content on renal functional and structural injury following ischemia/reperfusion. Mechanically ventilated and anesthetized rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): a sham-operated control group; a group subjected to renal ischemia for 45 min by supra-aortic occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion (I/R); and I/R group treated with a continuous i...
December 27, 2017: Shock
Jeannine Witte, Josephine Lampe, Anna Koenen, Ines Urbaneck, Antje Steinbach, Rainer Rettig, Olaf Grisk
OBJECTIVE: Antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) induce arterial hypertension which may limit their use. Renal fractional sodium excretion (FENa) is reduced in early RTKI-induced hypertension, whereas fractional lithium excretion is unaltered. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activated distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption contributes to RTKI-induced hypertension. METHODS: Amiloride-sensitive and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-sensitive fractional sodium reabsorption (FRNa) and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as well as sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundances were determined in sunitinib-treated and control rats...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Fernando Elijovich, Ginger L Milne, Nancy J Brown, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Cheryl L Laffer
We measured epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) in 21 normotensive subjects classified as salt resistant (13) or salt sensitive (8) with an inpatient protocol of salt loading (460 mEq Na+/24 hours, HiNa) and depletion (10 mEq Na+/24 hours+furosemide 40 mg×3, LoNa). No urine EETs were detected; hence, enzyme linked innumosorbent assay 14,15-DHETs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids) were considered the total converted 14,15-urine pool. We report ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry plasma EETs, DHETs, and their sum (plasma total pool) for the 3 regioisomers (8,9-, 11,12-, 14,15-) and their sum (08,15-)...
December 26, 2017: Hypertension
Brian M Waldman, Robert A Augustyniak, Haiping Chen, Noreen F Rossi
Spontaneous dynamic exercise promotes sympathoinhibition and decreases arterial pressure in two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. Renal sympathetic nerves stimulate renin secretion and increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We hypothesized that daily voluntary wheel running exercise by 2K-1C rats will decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone as well as normalize urinary sodium and potassium excretion independent of changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
Yuichi Uwai, Tatsuya Kawasaki, Tomohiro Nabekura
We previously reported the contribution of sodium-phosphate cotransporter to the tubular reabsorption of lithium in rats. In the present study, the dose dependency of the renal handling of lithium was examined in rats. When lithium chloride at 1.25 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg was intravenously injected as a bolus, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve of lithium until 60 minutes were calculated to be 6.23 mEq·min/l, 8.77 mEq·min/l and 64.6 mEq·min/l, respectively. The renal clearance of lithium and its fractional excretion increased with increments in the dose administered...
February 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Nabil Abu-Amer, Eldar Priel, Steven J D Karlish, Zvi Farfel, Haim Mayan
BACKGROUND: Hypomagnesemia is a known predisposing condition for the appearance of digitalis toxicity. The detection of a genetic form of Mg urinary wasting with hypomagnesemia being caused by a mutation in the γ subunit (FXYD2) of the Na,K-ATPase, the pharmacological target of Digoxin, prompted us to investigate whether Digoxin administration increases urinary Mg excretion. METHODS: Two groups of subjects, with rapid atrial fibrillation, received intravenous Digoxin (n = 9) or verapamil (n = 8), for heart rate control...
2018: Nephron
Faizan Babar, Gurkeerat Singh, Mustafa Noor, Bruce Sabath
Early stage acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for an increase in mortality. Accurate assessment of volume status is a major challenge during the early stages of acute renal injury. Determining volume status based on the history and physical exam lacks accuracy. Urine sodium and free excretion of sodium (FENa) provide objective evidence of intravascular volume status when interpreted carefully and is helpful to delineate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. In recent years point of care ultrasound has been used to assess volume status...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Kristin J Bergsland, Fredric L Coe, Joan H Parks, John R Asplin, Elaine M Worcester
Background: Hypophosphatemia (HYP) is common among calcium stone formers (SFs) and in rare cases is associated with mutations in sodium-phosphate cotransporters or in Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1), but the majority of cases are unexplained. We hypothesized that reduced sodium-phosphate cotransporter activity mediated via NHERF1 or a similar PDZ domain-containing protein, causes HYP. If so, other transport activities controlled by NHERF1, such as NHE3 and URAT1, might be reduced in HYP...
November 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot, Adrien Joseph, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Anne Boutten, Jimmy Mullaert, Marie-Pia d' Ortho, François Vrtovsnik, Ph Gabriel Steg, Martin Flamant
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular events is controversial, but most large epidemiological studies estimated sodium intake using formulae based on single urine samples, the validity of which is debated. We evaluated sodium intake estimating formulae in a large cohort of adult patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients were asked to collect 24-h urine the day before admission. Validity of the 24-h urine collection was assessed by comparing creatinine clearance from this collection to the mean creatinine clearance from six fractionated urine samples...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
(no author information available yet)
Craniopharyngioma, due to its sellar location, can be perioperatively complicated by different types of dysnatremia. We present a rare postoperative onset of a combination of three different mechanisms of dysnatremia with N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and renal function parameters in a boy with a good outcome after craniopharyngioma surgery: 1/ Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) onset immediately after the operation, hypernatremia with peak serum sodium (SNa) 158 mmol/l) caused by free water polyuria (electrolyte-free water clearance, EWC 0...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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