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Medication dosage calculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888640/chronotherapy-versus-conventional-statins-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hyperlipidaemia
#1
REVIEW
Jose Manuel Izquierdo-Palomares, Jesus Maria Fernandez-Tabera, Maria N Plana, Almudena Añino Alba, Pablo Gómez Álvarez, Inmaculada Fernandez-Esteban, Luis Carlos Saiz, Pilar Martin-Carrillo, Óscar Pinar López
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein play an important role in the development of atheromas and, therefore, in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol biosynthesis follows a circadian rhythm and is principally produced at night (between 12:00 am and 6:00 am). The adjustment of hypolipaemic therapy to biologic rhythms is known as chronotherapy. Chronotherapy is based on the idea that medication can have different effects depending on the hour at which it is taken...
November 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885650/anti-il-12-23p40-antibodies-for-induction-of-remission-in-crohn-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
John K MacDonald, Tran M Nguyen, Reena Khanna, Antje Timmer
BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab (CNTO 1275) and briakinumab (ABT-874) are monoclonal antibodies that target the standard p40 subunit of the cytokines interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 (IL-12/23p40), which are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to assess the efficacy and safety of anti-IL-12/23p40 antibodies for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from inception to 12 September 2016: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL)...
November 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877065/poor-adhesion-of-fentanyl-transdermal-patches-may-mimic-end-of-dosage-failure-after-48-hours-and-prompt-early-patch-replacement-in-hospitalized-cancer-pain-patients
#3
Isabelle Arnet, Sabrina Schacher, Eva Balmer, Dieter Koeberle, Kurt E Hersberger
CONTEXT: Renewal of fentanyl transdermal patch (transdermal therapeutic system [TTS]) should occur every 3 days (72 hours) according to manufacturer's guidelines. Some studies mentioned patients reporting end-of-dose failure, and thus, some authors recommend shortening the interval of application to 2 days (48 hours). However, reasons for early replacement are mostly unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of early replacement of fentanyl TTS in a cancer center in Basel, Switzerland, and to assess the reasons for early replacement in stationary patients...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865754/perinatal-nurse-home-visiting-referral-patterns-among-women-with-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-philadelphia
#4
Joan R Bloch, Susan Zupan, Amy E McKeever, Jennifer L Barkin
OBJECTIVE: To examine access to perinatal nurse home visiting services for high-risk pregnant women who have diabetes or hypertension. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis. SETTING: Philadelphia, PA. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women who had a live birth during 2012 and those referred to a community-based agency for perinatal nurse home visiting because of their diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension. METHODS: Access to services was measured by examining referral information (dosage, diagnosis, gestational age at time of referral, and insurance type) retrieved from administrative logs of the community-based organization that provides perinatal home visiting to high-risk pregnant women...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853927/the-impact-of-parkinson-disease-on-patients-sexuality-and-relationship
#5
C Buhmann, S Dogac, E Vettorazzi, U Hidding, C Gerloff, T P Jürgens
This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832773/assessment-of-drug-use-patterns-in-terms-of-the-who-patient-care-and-facility-indicators-at-four-hospitals-in-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Kassa Daka Gidebo, Temesgen Sidamo Summoro, Zewde Zema Kanche, Eskinder Wolka Woticha
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered care is now the goal for virtually all healthcare systems. The aim of this research was to evaluate the patient care quality in regard to drug dispensing in four hospitals in southern Ethiopia namely Wolaita Sodo University teaching and referral hospital (WSUTRH), Tercha zonal hospital (TZH), Sodo Christian hospital (SCH) and Dubo St. Mary's Catholic primary hospital (DSMCPH). METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted by using the WHO patient care and facility indicators between September 10 and October 20, 2014...
November 10, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818251/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-a-new-carrier-methodology-in-the-controlled-release-of-the-active-components-in-a-polypill
#7
Antonio L Doadrio, José M Sánchez-Montero, Juan C Doadrio, Antonio J Salinas, María Vallet-Regí
Polypill is a medication designed for preventing heart attacks through a combination of drugs. Current formulations contain blood pressure-lowering drugs and others, such statins or acetylsalicylic acid. These drugs exhibit different physical chemical features, and consequently different release kinetics. Therefore, the concentration in plasma of some of them after the release process can be out of the therapeutic range. This paper investigates a new methodology for the control dosage of a polypill recently reported containing hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, losartan and simvastatin in a 12...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741478/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-dpp4-inhibitors-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Heming Guo, Chen Fang, Yun Huang, Yufang Pei, Linqi Chen, Ji Hu
AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have indicated that DPP4 inhibitors could be used for type 1diabetes (T1DM). Here, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of DPP4 inhibitor therapy in patients with T1DM. METHODS: We conducted searches on Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE for relevant studies published before November 21, 2015...
September 28, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662459/prescribing-practice-in-inpatients-versus-outpatients-with-schizophrenia-initiating-treatment-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-a-naturalistic-follow-up-study
#9
Monika Edlinger, Maria A Rettenbacher, Georg Kemmler, Falko Biedermann, Christian G Widschwendter, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Alex Hofer
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether the choice and dosage of antipsychotic medication differ between patients with schizophrenia starting treatment in an inpatient or outpatient unit. In addition, we investigated whether the reason for the introduction of new antipsychotic medication had an impact on the treatment setting and whether the use of benzodiazepines differed between inpatients and outpatients. METHOD: From October 1997 to September 2010, patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision aged between 18 and 65 years were allocated to a naturalistic drug-monitoring program when starting treatment with a second-generation antipsychotic drug...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651652/efficacy-of-use-of-long-term-low-dose-mifepristone-for-the-treatment-of-fibroids
#10
Anupam Kapur, Ranjeeta Angomchanu, Madhusudan Dey
BACKGROUND: Fibroid or myoma is the commonest reported tumor of uterus, and is one of the important reasons for hysterectomy in our setting. Different drugs are available for medical management of fibroid uterus including mifepristone, a progesterone antagonist. Varying dosage regimen for mifepristone was studied as medical management of fibroid uterus. The aim of the project was to study the effect of mifepristone on the symptoms and size of fibroids, especially using a low-dose regimen for 6 months...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646479/moving-toward-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-regulatory-requirements-for-pediatric-medicines
#11
William Wei Lim Chin, Angelika Joos
: Over the past two decades, there has been growing concern over the lack of proper medication for children. This review attempts to evaluate the current progress of EU Pediatric Regulation made since 2007. The lack of properly evaluated pediatric medication has for long been a source of concern in the European Union. The drugs that were used in the past were often not properly evaluated, and dosage was arbitrarily calculated. Therefore, it was necessary to establish the Pediatric Regulation (EC no...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589091/maths-anxiety-and-medication-dosage-calculation-errors-a-scoping-review
#12
Brett Williams, Samantha Davis
A student's accuracy on drug calculation tests may be influenced by maths anxiety, which can impede one's ability to understand and complete mathematic problems. It is important for healthcare students to overcome this barrier when calculating drug dosages in order to avoid administering the incorrect dose to a patient when in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maths anxiety on healthcare students' ability to accurately calculate drug dosages by performing a scoping review of the existing literature...
September 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587349/only-10-of-the-psychotropic-drug-use-for-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-dementia-is-fully-appropriate-the-proper-i-study
#13
Klaas van der Spek, Debby L Gerritsen, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie H J M G Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia H W Smeets, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans
BACKGROUND: This study explores the appropriateness of psychotropic drug (PD) use for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 559 patients with dementia residing on dementia special care units in Dutch nursing homes was conducted. Appropriateness of PD use was assessed using the Appropriate Psychotropic drug use In Dementia (APID) index. The APID index score is calculated using information about individual PDs from patients' medical records...
October 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549687/potential-effect-of-substituting-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-for-estimated-creatinine-clearance-for-dosing-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#14
Janice B Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential effect of substituting glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates for renal clearance estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault method (CrCL-CG) to calculate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) dosing. DESIGN: Simulation and retrospective data analysis. SETTING: Community, academic institution, nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 19 to 80 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2011/12) (n = 4,687) and medically stable research participants aged 25 to 105 (n = 208)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540209/creating-and-auditing-a-new-electronic-continuous-infusion-prescription-chart-for-a-paediatric-critical-care-unit
#15
Emily Siu, Kalaimaran Sadasivam, Nanna Christiansen
INTRODUCTION: Prescription errors, including continuous infusion prescriptions are one major source of concern in the paediatric population. Evidence suggests that use of an electronic or web-based calculator could minimise these errors. In our paediatric critical care unit (PCCU) we have created an electronic continuous infusion prescription chart to target errors in this area and conducted an audit to assess its effect on error reduction. AIM: To create an electronic continuous infusion prescription chart and audit its effect on prescription errors...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540194/comparing-oral-paracetamol-doses-in-paediatrics-with-the-new-bnf-c-dosing
#16
Nour Ajjan, Sian Shenton
UNLABELLED: The BNF-C 2014-20151 highlighted some key changes to the dosing of paracetamol in paediatrics, including a change in maximum daily dosage of oral paracetamol from 90 mg/kg/day to 75 mg/kg/day for post-operative pain, and inclusion of age-banded dosing for pain and pyrexia.The local Trust Paediatric Acute Pain Management Manual2 has acknowledged this change, but advised a maximum daily dose of 80 mg/kg/day. This audit was undertaken to determine whether national proposed changes were implemented in practice, in comparison with local guidelines...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524827/obstetrical-providers-management-of-chronic-pain-in-pregnancy-a-vignette-study
#17
Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds, Fatima McKenzie, MacKenzie B Austgen, Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Marianne S Matthias, Adam T Hirsh
OBJECTIVE: Describe obstetrical providers' management of a hypothetical case on chronic pain in pregnancy and determine whether practices differ based on patient race. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a self-administered survey at a clinical conference. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six obstetrician-gynecologists and one nurse practitioner were surveyed. METHODS: A case-vignette described a pregnant patient presenting with worsening chronic lower back pain, requesting an opioid refill and increased dosage...
August 14, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502011/pharmacokinetic-model-of-florfenicol-in-turbot-scophthalmus%C3%A2-maximus-establishment-of-optimal-dosage-and-administration-in-medicated-feed
#18
V-R de Ocenda, S Almeida-Prieto, A Luzardo-Álvarez, J L Barja, F J Otero-Espinar, J Blanco-Méndez
The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was studied after single intravenous (10 mg kg(-1) ) and oral (100 mg kg(-1) ) administration. The plasma concentration-time data of florfenicol were described by an open one-compartment model. The elimination half-life (t1/2 ) was estimated to be 21.0 h, and the total body clearance, Cl, was determined as 0.028 L kg h(-1) . The apparent volume distribution (Vd ) was calculated to be 0.86 L kg(-1) and the mean residence time (MRTiv ) was 30...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446592/economic-contributions-of-pharmaceutical-interventions-by-pharmacists-a-retrospective-report-in-japan
#19
Daiki Yasunaga, Yuichi Tasaka, Satoshi Murakami, Akihiro Tanaka, Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists in Japan currently play a key role in patient hospital care. Their responsibilities include filling prescriptions, checking a patient's medication history, and providing appropriate information to other health care workers. More importantly, pharmacists' interventions can also result in reductions in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and, ultimately, in cost savings. This study aimed to determine the economic value of such interventions at a hospital in Japan. METHODS: At a single Japanese hospital, we analyzed 1452 pharmaceutical interventions by pharmacists, including recommending antibiotic dosage regimens, attending ward rounds with multidisciplinary health providers, providing drug information, and reporting ADRs...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439142/selective-targeting-and-restrictive-damage-for-nonspecific-cells-by-pulsed-laser-activated-hyaluronan-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Lih-Rou Rau, Shu-Wei Tsao, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai
Herein, we describe an approach that immobilizes low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (low-MW HA) on the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which can serve as a cellular probe and photodamage media, to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of HA-based GNPs (HGNPs) as a mediator of laser-induced photothermal cell damage. In addition, it is known that solid tumors contain a higher content of low-MW HA than normal tissues. Thus, we used low-MW HA rather than high-MW HA used in other studies. In the present study, we conjugated low-MW HA, which is a linear polysaccharide with a disaccharide repeat unit, to prevent a reduction of the ligand-receptor binding efficiency in contrast to the conjugation of protein or peptides, which have unique three-dimensional structures...
August 8, 2016: Biomacromolecules
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