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Medication dosage calculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145417/associations-between-medical-cannabis-and-prescription-opioid-use-in-chronic-pain-patients-a-preliminary-cohort-study
#1
Jacob M Vigil, Sarah S Stith, Ian M Adams, Anthony P Reeve
BACKGROUND: Current levels and dangers of opioid use in the U.S. warrant the investigation of harm-reducing treatment alternatives. PURPOSE: A preliminary, historical, cohort study was used to examine the association between enrollment in the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program (MCP) and opioid prescription use. METHODS: Thirty-seven habitual opioid using, chronic pain patients (mean age = 54 years; 54% male; 86% chronic back pain) enrolled in the MCP between 4/1/2010 and 10/3/2015 were compared to 29 non-enrolled patients (mean age = 60 years; 69% male; 100% chronic back pain)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141737/nursing-students-and-medication-errors-why-don-t-they-question
#2
Tonya Schneidereith
In health care, efforts have been aimed at reducing medication errors rates; yet, medication errors continue to affect approximately 5% of hospitalized patients. In health care education, simulation provides nursing students a safe opportunity for hands-on medication administration, often including dosage calculation. However, the safety checks associated with medication administration-including the Five Rights-are frequently overlooked. Although the efforts aimed toward increasing medication safety include external factors (such as environmental measures and electronic resources), recent observations in simulation suggest a different problem...
November 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138378/-body-surface-area-formulas-for-the-calculation-of-the-chemotherapy-dosage
#3
Haruna Hatahira, Kazuhiro Iguchi, Sayaka Sasaoka, Yumi Motooka, Shiori Hasegawa, Misa Naganuma, Akiho Fukuda, Tomofumi Ohmori, Tatsuhiko Yoshida, Kaoru Mogushi, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
Body surface area(BSA)is a parameter frequently used to calculate the chemotherapy dosage. Several different equations for predicting BSA have been developed. We examined the formula suggested for BSA calculation for 62 chemotherapy drugs where the recommended dosage was based on patient BSA. We found that the description of the formula to be used for BSA calculation was not provided in the package inserts or in the drug interview forms in the majority of cases; the BSA formula was mentioned in the guide for appropriate use of medication in only 8 of 62 chemotherapy drugs...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137042/associations-among-medication-regimen-complexity-medical-specialty-and-medication-possession-ratio-in-newly-diagnosed-hypertensive-patients-a-population-based-study
#4
Chen-Pei Ho, Jih-I Yeh, Shu-Hui Wen, Tony Jer-Fu Lee
The aim of this study was to explore the associations among the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI), medical specialty, and medication possession ratio (MPR) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.Data from 19,859 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were collected from 2,000,000 random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All study participants were followed for 1 year after the first diagnosis of hypertension. MPR was defined as total days of antihypertensive drugs supplied/365 days...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123622/retrospective-analysis-of-the-financial-break-even-point-for-intrathecal-morphine-pump-use-in-korea
#5
Eun Kyoung Kim, Ji Yeon Shin, Anyela Marcela Castañeda, Seung Jae Lee, Hyun Kyu Yoon, Yong Chul Kim, Jee Youn Moon
Background: The high cost of intrathecal morphine pump (ITMP) implantation may be the main obstacle to its use. Since July 2014, the Korean national health insurance (NHI) program began paying 50% of the ITMP implantation cost in select refractory chronic pain patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the financial break-even point and patients' satisfaction in patients with ITMP treatment after the initiation of the NHI reimbursement. Methods: We collected data retrospectively or via direct phone calls to patients who underwent ITMP implantation at a single university-based tertiary hospital between July 2014 and May 2016...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103789/an-in-situ-simulation-based-educational-outreach-project-for-pediatric-trauma-care-in-a-rural-trauma-system
#6
Lilly Bayouth, Sarah Ashley, Jackie Brady, Bryan Lake, Morgan Keeter, David Schiller, Walter C Robey, Stephen Charles, Kari M Beasley, Eric A Toschlog, Shannon W Longshore
BACKGROUND: Outcome disparities between urban and rural pediatric trauma patients persist, despite regionalization of trauma systems. Rural patients are initially transported to the nearest emergency department (ED), where pediatric care is infrequent. We aim to identify educational intervention targets and increase provider experience via pediatric trauma simulation. METHODS: Prospective study of simulation-based pediatric trauma resuscitation was performed at three community EDs...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080937/population-pharmacokinetics-and-dosing-considerations-for-the-use-of-linezolid-in-overweight-and-obese-adult-patients
#7
Piergiorgio Cojutti, Manjunath P Pai, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND: Linezolid is an anti-Gram-positive antimicrobial agent used at a fixed dose of 600 mg every 12 h. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of linezolid in a retrospective cohort of overweight and obese hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) of an area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC24)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio > 100, defined as the pharmacodynamic target of efficacy, with incremental candidate dosages...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061086/pharmacogenetics-based-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-tenofovir-in-thai-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Kanokrat Rungtivasuwan, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Siwaporn Mitruk, David M Burger, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Baralee Punyawudho
AIM: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model and identify sources of variability, genetic and nongenetic factors, of tenofovir. METHODS: The ABCC2 and ABCC4 polymorphisms were genotyped in 342 patients. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model and investigate the influence of these polymorphisms and other patient specific covariates on the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir. RESULTS: The estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation, concomitant use of lopinavir/ritonavir and ABCC4 3463A>G polymorphism were associated with tenofovir apparent oral clearance (CL/F)...
October 24, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027036/risk-factors-of-ceftriaxone-associated-biliary-pseudolithiasis-in-adults-influence-of-renal-dysfunction
#9
Aya Imafuku, Naoki Sawa, Akinari Sekine, Masahiro Kawada, Rikako Hiramatsu, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Eiko Hasegawa, Noriko Hayami, Jyunichi Hoshino, Yoshifumi Ubara, Kenmei Takaichi
BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone (CTRX) is a known cause of biliary pseudolithiasis (BPL) mainly in children. Biliary elimination of CTRX increases in patients with renal dysfunction. However, the influence of renal dysfunction on the incidence of CTRX-associated BPL has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative incidence of CTRX-associated BPL in adults and to assess if renal dysfunction is a risk factor. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 478 patients treated with CTRX to assess the incidence and risk factors of CTRX-associated BPL...
October 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026287/ocular-pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability-of-bimatoprost-ophthalmic-solutions-administered-once-or-twice-daily-in-rabbits-and-clinical-dosing-implications
#10
Jie Shen, Margot L Goodkin, Warren Tong, Mayssa Attar
PURPOSE: Fixed-combination medications can benefit patients requiring multiple agents to lower their intraocular pressure (IOP), but combining agents with complementary mechanisms of action is challenging if their dosing frequency differs. This study compares in vivo pharmacokinetic and ocular tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% ophthalmic solutions dosed once or twice daily. Reports of twice-daily dosing in glaucoma patients are also reviewed. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were administered bimatoprost 0...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024264/deutetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia-a-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-profile-for-this-newly-approved-novel-medication-what-is-the-number-needed-to-treat-number-needed-to-harm-and-likelihood-to-be-helped-or-harmed
#11
REVIEW
Leslie Citrome
OBJECTIVE: Deutetrabenazine is a deuterated formulation of tetrabenazine. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the efficacy, tolerability and safety of deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD). DATA SOURCES: The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, for the search terms 'deutetrabenazine' OR 'SD-809', and by also querying the EMBASE (Elsevier) commercial database for clinical poster abstracts, and by asking the manufacturer for copies of posters presented at congresses...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993930/in-search-of-a-standard-when-analyzing-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-heart-failure-using-claims-data-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Katrin Krueger, Nina Griese-Mammen, Ingrid Schubert, Marita Kieble, Lea Botermann, Ulrich Laufs, Charlotte Kloft, Martin Schulz
To determine and address medication non-adherence is important and may improve patient outcomes. Our aim was to perform a systematic review on the operationalization of adherence measures in patients with heart failure using claims data. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A quality check of the full-text articles was performed using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. We included 28 studies. Eleven studies used the medication possession ratio, 15 the proportion of days covered, and six studies used own methods to calculate medication adherence...
October 9, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986058/impact-of-switching-to-polypill-based-therapy-by-baseline-potency-of-medication-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-space-collaboration-dataset
#13
Ruth Webster, Chris Bullen, Anushka Patel, Vanessa Selak, Sandrine Stepien, Simon Thom, Anthony Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Fixed dose combinations of cardiovascular therapy ('polypills') have now been launched in several dozen countries. There is considerable clinical interest in the effects of switching to polypill-based care from typical current treatment regimens, especially if polypills contain components at sub-maximal dosage. METHODS: The SPACE Collaboration includes three trials of polypill based care vs usual care in patients with established CVD or at high calculated risk...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943823/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-meropenem-in-critically-ill-young-children
#14
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Adela Enache, Arun Chopra
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of meropenem in critically ill children. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective medical record review from a 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital of patients ages 1 to 9 years who received meropenem with concurrent therapeutic drug monitoring. RESULTS: There were 9 patients ages 1 to 9 years (mean age, 3...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942096/evaluation-of-students-knowledge-about-paediatric-dosage-calculations
#15
Nurcan Özyazıcıoğlu, Ayla İrem Aydın, Semra Sürenler, Hava Gökdere Çinar, Dilek Yılmaz, Burcu Arkan, Gülseren Çıtak Tunç
Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students)...
September 19, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932728/laparoscopic-gastrojejunostomy-versus-duodenal-stenting-in-unresectable-gastric-cancer-with-gastric-outlet-obstruction
#16
Sa-Hong Min, Sang-Yong Son, Do-Hyun Jung, Chang-Min Lee, Sang-Hoon Ahn, Do Joong Park, Hyung-Ho Kim
PURPOSE: To compare the outcome between laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy (LapGJ) and duodenal stenting (DS) in terms of oral intake, nutritional status, patency duration, effect on chemotherapy and survival. METHODS: Medical records of 115 patients, who had LapGJ or duodenal stent placement between July 2005 and September 2015 in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, have been reviewed retrospectively. Oral intake was measured with Gastric Outlet Obstruction Scoring System...
September 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899441/use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-depression-a-population-based-study
#17
Alice Laudisio, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Antonella Gemma, Silvia Giovannini, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Davide L Vetrano, Luca Padua, Roberto Bernabei, Giuseppe Zuccalà
Treatment with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) might be associated with neuropsychological side effects. We examined the association between use of PPIs and depressive symptoms in an elderly population. Mood was assessed by the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in all 344 inhabitants of Tuscania (Italy) aged 75 years and over, without exclusion criteria; depression was defined by a GDS score ≥11. Use of PPIs was associated with a higher GDS score in linear regression analysis (B = 2.43; 95% CI = 0.49-4...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859395/association-of-high-dose-postoperative-opioids-with-recurrence-risk-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-reinterpreting-eras-protocols-for-long-term-oncologic-surgery-outcomes
#18
T K Oh, J H Jeon, J M Lee, M S Kim, J H Kim, H Lim, S-E Kim, W Eom
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is associated with a poor prognosis and high postoperative recurrence rate. Although postoperative opioid use has been associated with cancer recurrence, its relevance in ESCC has not been determined. Therefore, this study investigated whether high-dose postoperative opioid use was associated with recurrence risk in patients with ESCC. For this retrospective analysis, the medical records of patients who were diagnosed with ESCC and who underwent surgery between January 2006 and December 2010 in the National Cancer Center, Korea were evaluated...
October 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830854/a-mobile-device-app-to-reduce-medication-errors-and-time-to-drug-delivery-during-pediatric-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-study-protocol-of-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#19
Johan N Siebert, Frederic Ehrler, Christian Lovis, Christophe Combescure, Kevin Haddad, Alain Gervaix, Sergio Manzano
BACKGROUND: During pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), vasoactive drug preparation for continuous infusions is complex and time-consuming. The need for individual specific weight-based drug dose calculation and preparation places children at higher risk than adults for medication errors. Following an evidence-based and ergonomic driven approach, we developed a mobile device app called Pediatric Accurate Medication in Emergency Situations (PedAMINES), intended to guide caregivers step-by-step from preparation to delivery of drugs requiring continuous infusion...
August 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768341/prediction-model-of-serum-lithium-concentrations
#20
Kazunari Yoshida, Hiroyuki Uchida, Takefumi Suzuki, Masahiro Watanabe, Nariyasu Yoshino, Hitoshi Houchi, Masaru Mimura, Noriyasu Fukuoka
Introduction Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary for lithium, but clinical application of several prediction strategies is still limited because of insufficient predictive accuracy. We herein proposed a suitable model, using creatinine clearance (CLcr)-based lithium clearance (Li-CL). Methods Patients receiving lithium provided the following information: serum lithium and creatinine concentrations, time of blood draw, dosing regimen, concomitant medications, and demographics. Li-CL was calculated as a daily dose per trough concentration for each subject, and the mean of Li-CL/CLcr was used to estimate Li-CL for another 30 subjects...
August 2, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
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