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Medication dosage calculation

Heming Guo, Chen Fang, Yun Huang, Yufang Pei, Linqi Chen, Ji Hu
AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have indicated that DPP4 inhibitors could be used for type 1diabetes (T1DM). Here, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of DPP4 inhibitor therapy in patients with T1DM. METHODS: We conducted searches on Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE for relevant studies published before November 21, 2015...
September 28, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Monika Edlinger, Maria A Rettenbacher, Georg Kemmler, Falko Biedermann, Christian G Widschwendter, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Alex Hofer
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether the choice and dosage of antipsychotic medication differ between patients with schizophrenia starting treatment in an inpatient or outpatient unit. In addition, we investigated whether the reason for the introduction of new antipsychotic medication had an impact on the treatment setting and whether the use of benzodiazepines differed between inpatients and outpatients. METHOD: From October 1997 to September 2010, patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision aged between 18 and 65 years were allocated to a naturalistic drug-monitoring program when starting treatment with a second-generation antipsychotic drug...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Anupam Kapur, Ranjeeta Angomchanu, Madhusudan Dey
BACKGROUND: Fibroid or myoma is the commonest reported tumor of uterus, and is one of the important reasons for hysterectomy in our setting. Different drugs are available for medical management of fibroid uterus including mifepristone, a progesterone antagonist. Varying dosage regimen for mifepristone was studied as medical management of fibroid uterus. The aim of the project was to study the effect of mifepristone on the symptoms and size of fibroids, especially using a low-dose regimen for 6 months...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
William Wei Lim Chin, Angelika Joos
: Over the past two decades, there has been growing concern over the lack of proper medication for children. This review attempts to evaluate the current progress of EU Pediatric Regulation made since 2007. The lack of properly evaluated pediatric medication has for long been a source of concern in the European Union. The drugs that were used in the past were often not properly evaluated, and dosage was arbitrarily calculated. Therefore, it was necessary to establish the Pediatric Regulation (EC no...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Brett Williams, Samantha Davis
A student's accuracy on drug calculation tests may be influenced by maths anxiety, which can impede one's ability to understand and complete mathematic problems. It is important for healthcare students to overcome this barrier when calculating drug dosages in order to avoid administering the incorrect dose to a patient when in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maths anxiety on healthcare students' ability to accurately calculate drug dosages by performing a scoping review of the existing literature...
September 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Klaas van der Spek, Debby L Gerritsen, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie H J M G Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia H W Smeets, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans
BACKGROUND: This study explores the appropriateness of psychotropic drug (PD) use for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 559 patients with dementia residing on dementia special care units in Dutch nursing homes was conducted. Appropriateness of PD use was assessed using the Appropriate Psychotropic drug use In Dementia (APID) index. The APID index score is calculated using information about individual PDs from patients' medical records...
October 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Janice B Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential effect of substituting glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates for renal clearance estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault method (CrCL-CG) to calculate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) dosing. DESIGN: Simulation and retrospective data analysis. SETTING: Community, academic institution, nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 19 to 80 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2011/12) (n = 4,687) and medically stable research participants aged 25 to 105 (n = 208)...
August 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Emily Siu, Kalaimaran Sadasivam, Nanna Christiansen
INTRODUCTION: Prescription errors, including continuous infusion prescriptions are one major source of concern in the paediatric population. Evidence suggests that use of an electronic or web-based calculator could minimise these errors. In our paediatric critical care unit (PCCU) we have created an electronic continuous infusion prescription chart to target errors in this area and conducted an audit to assess its effect on error reduction. AIM: To create an electronic continuous infusion prescription chart and audit its effect on prescription errors...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Nour Ajjan, Sian Shenton
UNLABELLED: The BNF-C 2014-20151 highlighted some key changes to the dosing of paracetamol in paediatrics, including a change in maximum daily dosage of oral paracetamol from 90 mg/kg/day to 75 mg/kg/day for post-operative pain, and inclusion of age-banded dosing for pain and pyrexia.The local Trust Paediatric Acute Pain Management Manual2 has acknowledged this change, but advised a maximum daily dose of 80 mg/kg/day. This audit was undertaken to determine whether national proposed changes were implemented in practice, in comparison with local guidelines...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds, Fatima McKenzie, MacKenzie B Austgen, Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Marianne S Matthias, Adam T Hirsh
OBJECTIVE: Describe obstetrical providers' management of a hypothetical case on chronic pain in pregnancy and determine whether practices differ based on patient race. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a self-administered survey at a clinical conference. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six obstetrician-gynecologists and one nurse practitioner were surveyed. METHODS: A case-vignette described a pregnant patient presenting with worsening chronic lower back pain, requesting an opioid refill and increased dosage...
August 14, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
V-R de Ocenda, S Almeida-Prieto, A Luzardo-Álvarez, J L Barja, F J Otero-Espinar, J Blanco-Méndez
The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was studied after single intravenous (10 mg kg(-1) ) and oral (100 mg kg(-1) ) administration. The plasma concentration-time data of florfenicol were described by an open one-compartment model. The elimination half-life (t1/2 ) was estimated to be 21.0 h, and the total body clearance, Cl, was determined as 0.028 L kg h(-1) . The apparent volume distribution (Vd ) was calculated to be 0.86 L kg(-1) and the mean residence time (MRTiv ) was 30...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Daiki Yasunaga, Yuichi Tasaka, Satoshi Murakami, Akihiro Tanaka, Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists in Japan currently play a key role in patient hospital care. Their responsibilities include filling prescriptions, checking a patient's medication history, and providing appropriate information to other health care workers. More importantly, pharmacists' interventions can also result in reductions in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and, ultimately, in cost savings. This study aimed to determine the economic value of such interventions at a hospital in Japan. METHODS: At a single Japanese hospital, we analyzed 1452 pharmaceutical interventions by pharmacists, including recommending antibiotic dosage regimens, attending ward rounds with multidisciplinary health providers, providing drug information, and reporting ADRs...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Lih-Rou Rau, Shu-Wei Tsao, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai
Herein, we describe an approach that immobilizes low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (low-MW HA) on the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which can serve as a cellular probe and photodamage media, to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of HA-based GNPs (HGNPs) as a mediator of laser-induced photothermal cell damage. In addition, it is known that solid tumors contain a higher content of low-MW HA than normal tissues. Thus, we used low-MW HA rather than high-MW HA used in other studies. In the present study, we conjugated low-MW HA, which is a linear polysaccharide with a disaccharide repeat unit, to prevent a reduction of the ligand-receptor binding efficiency in contrast to the conjugation of protein or peptides, which have unique three-dimensional structures...
August 8, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Ming Ren Toh, Lita Chew
BACKGROUND: Unused medicines represent a major source of wastage in healthcare systems around the world. Previous studies have suggested the potential cost savings from recycling the waste medicines. However, issues of product safety and integrity often deter healthcare institutions from recycling donated medications. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of medication recycling and to assess the actual cost savings from recycling waste medicines and whether reusability of waste medicines differed among various drug classes and donor sources...
July 18, 2016: Palliative Medicine
Arletta Añez, Manuel Moscoso, Cecilia Garnica, Carlos Ascaso
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) continues to be the first-line medication used worldwide in the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria. The dose recommended by the World Health Organization is 25 mg/kg independently of the age of the subject. Nonetheless, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in children are different from those in adults and may influence the drug concentrations in blood and become risk factors for therapeutic failure and/o resistance to CQ. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the data from a clinical trial in which children over 5 years of age were administered 25 mg/kg of CQ, and CQ concentrations in blood were measured at day 7 of follow-up...
2016: Malaria Journal
Unnum Chowdhry, Amanda Jacques, Alan Karovitch, Pierre Giguère, My-Linh Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Recent approval of the new oral anticoagulants dabigatran and rivaroxaban has led to rapid changes in anticoagulant prescribing practices. Postmarketing reports have highlighted safety concerns with these agents, and their use outside of evidence-based recommendations was noted at the authors' centre. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with inappropriate prescribing of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study investigated randomly selected dabigatran or rivaroxaban prescriptions for patients admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital between January 2010 and December 2012...
May 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Johannes W Dietrich, Gabi Landgrafe-Mende, Evelin Wiora, Apostolos Chatzitomaris, Harald H Klein, John E M Midgley, Rudolf Hoermann
Although technical problems of thyroid testing have largely been resolved by modern assay technology, biological variation remains a challenge. This applies to subclinical thyroid disease, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, and those 10% of hypothyroid patients, who report impaired quality of life, despite normal thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations under levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement. Among multiple explanations for this condition, inadequate treatment dosage and monotherapy with L-T4 in subjects with impaired deiodination have received major attention...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Stephanie Gollwitzer, Karel Kostev, Mareike Hagge, Johannes Lang, Wolfgang Graf, Hajo M Hamer
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of patient and drug characteristics on medication adherence in people with epilepsy (PWE) in a large cohort representative of the German population. METHODS: Information was obtained from the Disease Analyzer database that collects anonymous demographic and medical data from practice computer systems throughout Germany. From 2010 to 2013, adult PWE were retrospectively analyzed regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED)...
August 2, 2016: Neurology
Attyla Drabik, Andreas Sturm, Margit Blömacher, Ulf Helwig
BACKGROUND: The treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with moderate to severe inflammatory activity with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibodies leads to a clinical remission rate of 10% after 8 weeks of therapy. However, it must be taken into account that patient selection in clinical trials clearly influences both response and remission rates. An unsatisfactory response to anti-TNFα medication after week 12 often leads to a discontinuation of treatment. The early prediction of clinical response could therefore help optimize therapy and potentially avoid ineffective treatments...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Luca Miceli, Rym Bednarova, Miriam DI Cesare, Elisabetta Santori, Marco Spizzichino, Lidia DI Minco, Renato Botti, Massimo Casciello, Giorgio Della Rocca
BACKGROUND: In Italy since the 38/2010 law concerning Palliative Care and pain therapy has been promulgated, the consumption of opioids started increasing. However, despite the availability of a large amount of data regarding opioid prescription, a database including all patients on chronic opioid therapy does not yet exist. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of analgesic opioid consumption was performed between January 2013 and December 2013 using the data of national refunded medications for outpatients, collected by Italian Ministry of Health...
June 28, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
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