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Medication dosage calculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332426/effects-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-medications-on-menopausal-age
#1
Ülkü Türk Börü, Cansu Köseoğlu Toksoy, Cem Bölük, Adnan Bilgiç, Mustafa Taşdemir
Objectives We aimed to determine whether multiple sclerosis (MS) and methylprednisolone and disease-modifying drugs have an effect on menopausal age. Methods A total of 86 patients and 98 healthy subjects were included in this study. The natural menopausal age of the patients and healthy subjects were compared. The cumulative dosages of methylprednisolone, beta interferons (IFNβs), and glatiramer acetate were calculated. The effects of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), duration of the disease, and cumulative dosage of medications on menopausal age were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315812/doing-the-math-a-simple-approach-to-topical-timolol-dosing-for-infantile-hemangiomas
#2
Renata Dalla Costa, Brea Prindaville, Karen Wiss
Topical timolol maleate has recently gained popularity as a treatment for superficial infantile hemangiomas, but calculating a safe dose of timolol can be time consuming, which may limit the medication's use in fast-paced clinical environments. This report offers a simplified calculation of the maximum daily safe dosage as 1 drop of medication per kilogram of body weight.
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241505/knowledge-behaviours-training-and-attitudes-of-nurses-during-preparation-and-administration-of-intravenous-medications-in-intensive-care-units-icu-a-multicenter-italian-study
#3
Marco Di Muzio, Corrado De Vito, Daniela Tartaglini, Paolo Villari
BACKGROUND: Medication errors can put at risk the life of patients hospitalized in the ICUs. These errors occur more frequently in the ICUs due to their peculiar medical framework. There is not much information about the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and training needs of the nurses who work in ICUs towards the medication errors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at describing the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and training needs of the Italian nurses who work in ICUs towards the use of IV drugs, and identifying the strategies that nurses can adopt to prevent the occurrence of medication errors...
December 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225743/comparison-of-the-clinical-performance-of-the-modified-marsh-model-for-propofol-between-underweight-and-normal-weight-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#4
Soo-Kyung Park, Ji Hyun Park, Hyun Uk Kang, Byung-Moon Choi, Gyu-Jeong Noh
Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the clinical performance of the modified Marsh model for propofol between underweight and normal-weight patients with Crohn's disease. Methods: The medical records of 50 patients who underwent elective surgery for Crohn's disease were reviewed retrospectively. Propofol and remifentanil were administered using target effect-site concentration (Ce)-controlled infusion with the modified Marsh and Minto models...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205633/a-combined-connectivity-mapping-and-pharmacoepidemiology-approach-to-identify-existing-medications-with-breast-cancer-causing-or-preventing-properties
#5
John Busby, Liam Murray, Ken Mills, Shu-Dong Zhang, Fabio Liberante, Chris R Cardwell
PURPOSE: We applied a novel combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiological approach to identify medications that alter breast cancer risk. METHODS: The connectivity mapping process identified 6 potentially cancer-causing (meloxicam, azithromycin, rizatriptan, citalopram, rosiglitazone, and verapamil) and 4 potentially cancer-preventing (bendroflumethiazide, sertraline, fluvastatin, and budesonide) medications that were suitable for pharmacoepidemiological investigation...
December 4, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178536/effects-of-an-energy-restricted-low-carbohydrate-high-unsaturated-fat-low-saturated-fat-diet-versus-a-high-carbohydrate-low-fat-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-a-2-year-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Jeannie Tay, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Thomas P Wycherley, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, William S Yancy, Grant D Brinkworth
AIM: To examine whether a low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated/low saturated fat diet (LC) improves glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: 115 adults with T2D (mean[SD]; BMI:34.6[4.3]kg/m2 , age:58[7]yrs, HbA1c:7.3[1.1]%) were randomized to one of two planned energy-matched, hypocaloric diets combined with aerobic/resistance exercise (1hr,3d/wk) for 2 years:(1) LC:14% energy as carbohydrate, 28% protein, 58% fat [<10% saturated fat]) or (2) low fat, high-carbohydrate, low glycemic index diet (HC):53% CHO, 17% protein, 30% fat [<10% saturated fat])...
November 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145417/associations-between-medical-cannabis-and-prescription-opioid-use-in-chronic-pain-patients-a-preliminary-cohort-study
#7
Jacob M Vigil, Sarah S Stith, Ian M Adams, Anthony P Reeve
BACKGROUND: Current levels and dangers of opioid use in the U.S. warrant the investigation of harm-reducing treatment alternatives. PURPOSE: A preliminary, historical, cohort study was used to examine the association between enrollment in the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program (MCP) and opioid prescription use. METHODS: Thirty-seven habitual opioid using, chronic pain patients (mean age = 54 years; 54% male; 86% chronic back pain) enrolled in the MCP between 4/1/2010 and 10/3/2015 were compared to 29 non-enrolled patients (mean age = 60 years; 69% male; 100% chronic back pain)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141737/nursing-students-and-medication-errors-why-don-t-they-question
#8
Tonya Schneidereith
In health care, efforts have been aimed at reducing medication errors rates; yet, medication errors continue to affect approximately 5% of hospitalized patients. In health care education, simulation provides nursing students a safe opportunity for hands-on medication administration, often including dosage calculation. However, the safety checks associated with medication administration-including the Five Rights-are frequently overlooked. Although the efforts aimed toward increasing medication safety include external factors (such as environmental measures and electronic resources), recent observations in simulation suggest a different problem...
November 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138378/-body-surface-area-formulas-for-the-calculation-of-the-chemotherapy-dosage
#9
Haruna Hatahira, Kazuhiro Iguchi, Sayaka Sasaoka, Yumi Motooka, Shiori Hasegawa, Misa Naganuma, Akiho Fukuda, Tomofumi Ohmori, Tatsuhiko Yoshida, Kaoru Mogushi, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
Body surface area(BSA)is a parameter frequently used to calculate the chemotherapy dosage. Several different equations for predicting BSA have been developed. We examined the formula suggested for BSA calculation for 62 chemotherapy drugs where the recommended dosage was based on patient BSA. We found that the description of the formula to be used for BSA calculation was not provided in the package inserts or in the drug interview forms in the majority of cases; the BSA formula was mentioned in the guide for appropriate use of medication in only 8 of 62 chemotherapy drugs...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137042/associations-among-medication-regimen-complexity-medical-specialty-and-medication-possession-ratio-in-newly-diagnosed-hypertensive-patients-a-population-based-study
#10
Chen-Pei Ho, Jih-I Yeh, Shu-Hui Wen, Tony Jer-Fu Lee
The aim of this study was to explore the associations among the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI), medical specialty, and medication possession ratio (MPR) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.Data from 19,859 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were collected from 2,000,000 random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All study participants were followed for 1 year after the first diagnosis of hypertension. MPR was defined as total days of antihypertensive drugs supplied/365 days...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123622/retrospective-analysis-of-the-financial-break-even-point-for-intrathecal-morphine-pump-use-in-korea
#11
Eun Kyoung Kim, Ji Yeon Shin, Anyela Marcela Castañeda, Seung Jae Lee, Hyun Kyu Yoon, Yong Chul Kim, Jee Youn Moon
Background: The high cost of intrathecal morphine pump (ITMP) implantation may be the main obstacle to its use. Since July 2014, the Korean national health insurance (NHI) program began paying 50% of the ITMP implantation cost in select refractory chronic pain patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the financial break-even point and patients' satisfaction in patients with ITMP treatment after the initiation of the NHI reimbursement. Methods: We collected data retrospectively or via direct phone calls to patients who underwent ITMP implantation at a single university-based tertiary hospital between July 2014 and May 2016...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103789/an-in-situ-simulation-based-educational-outreach-project-for-pediatric-trauma-care-in-a-rural-trauma-system
#12
Lilly Bayouth, Sarah Ashley, Jackie Brady, Bryan Lake, Morgan Keeter, David Schiller, Walter C Robey, Stephen Charles, Kari M Beasley, Eric A Toschlog, Shannon W Longshore
BACKGROUND: Outcome disparities between urban and rural pediatric trauma patients persist, despite regionalization of trauma systems. Rural patients are initially transported to the nearest emergency department (ED), where pediatric care is infrequent. We aim to identify educational intervention targets and increase provider experience via pediatric trauma simulation. METHODS: Prospective study of simulation-based pediatric trauma resuscitation was performed at three community EDs...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080937/population-pharmacokinetics-and-dosing-considerations-for-the-use-of-linezolid-in-overweight-and-obese-adult-patients
#13
Piergiorgio Cojutti, Manjunath P Pai, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND: Linezolid is an anti-Gram-positive antimicrobial agent used at a fixed dose of 600 mg every 12 h. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of linezolid in a retrospective cohort of overweight and obese hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) of an area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC24)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio > 100, defined as the pharmacodynamic target of efficacy, with incremental candidate dosages...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061086/pharmacogenetics-based-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-tenofovir-in-thai-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Kanokrat Rungtivasuwan, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Siwaporn Mitruk, David M Burger, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Baralee Punyawudho
AIM: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model and identify sources of variability, genetic and nongenetic factors, of tenofovir. METHODS: The ABCC2 and ABCC4 polymorphisms were genotyped in 342 patients. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model and investigate the influence of these polymorphisms and other patient specific covariates on the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir. RESULTS: The estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation, concomitant use of lopinavir/ritonavir and ABCC4 3463A>G polymorphism were associated with tenofovir apparent oral clearance (CL/F)...
October 24, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027036/risk-factors-of-ceftriaxone-associated-biliary-pseudolithiasis-in-adults-influence-of-renal-dysfunction
#15
Aya Imafuku, Naoki Sawa, Akinari Sekine, Masahiro Kawada, Rikako Hiramatsu, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Eiko Hasegawa, Noriko Hayami, Jyunichi Hoshino, Yoshifumi Ubara, Kenmei Takaichi
BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone (CTRX) is a known cause of biliary pseudolithiasis (BPL) mainly in children. Biliary elimination of CTRX increases in patients with renal dysfunction. However, the influence of renal dysfunction on the incidence of CTRX-associated BPL has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative incidence of CTRX-associated BPL in adults and to assess if renal dysfunction is a risk factor. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 478 patients treated with CTRX to assess the incidence and risk factors of CTRX-associated BPL...
October 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026287/ocular-pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability-of-bimatoprost-ophthalmic-solutions-administered-once-or-twice-daily-in-rabbits-and-clinical-dosing-implications
#16
Jie Shen, Margot L Goodkin, Warren Tong, Mayssa Attar
PURPOSE: Fixed-combination medications can benefit patients requiring multiple agents to lower their intraocular pressure (IOP), but combining agents with complementary mechanisms of action is challenging if their dosing frequency differs. This study compares in vivo pharmacokinetic and ocular tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% ophthalmic solutions dosed once or twice daily. Reports of twice-daily dosing in glaucoma patients are also reviewed. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were administered bimatoprost 0...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024264/deutetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia-a-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-profile-for-this-newly-approved-novel-medication-what-is-the-number-needed-to-treat-number-needed-to-harm-and-likelihood-to-be-helped-or-harmed
#17
REVIEW
Leslie Citrome
OBJECTIVE: Deutetrabenazine is a deuterated formulation of tetrabenazine. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the efficacy, tolerability and safety of deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD). DATA SOURCES: The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, for the search terms 'deutetrabenazine' OR 'SD-809', and by also querying the EMBASE (Elsevier) commercial database for clinical poster abstracts, and by asking the manufacturer for copies of posters presented at congresses...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993930/in-search-of-a-standard-when-analyzing-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-heart-failure-using-claims-data-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Katrin Krueger, Nina Griese-Mammen, Ingrid Schubert, Marita Kieble, Lea Botermann, Ulrich Laufs, Charlotte Kloft, Martin Schulz
To determine and address medication non-adherence is important and may improve patient outcomes. Our aim was to perform a systematic review on the operationalization of adherence measures in patients with heart failure using claims data. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A quality check of the full-text articles was performed using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. We included 28 studies. Eleven studies used the medication possession ratio, 15 the proportion of days covered, and six studies used own methods to calculate medication adherence...
October 9, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986058/impact-of-switching-to-polypill-based-therapy-by-baseline-potency-of-medication-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-space-collaboration-dataset
#19
Ruth Webster, Chris Bullen, Anushka Patel, Vanessa Selak, Sandrine Stepien, Simon Thom, Anthony Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Fixed dose combinations of cardiovascular therapy ('polypills') have now been launched in several dozen countries. There is considerable clinical interest in the effects of switching to polypill-based care from typical current treatment regimens, especially if polypills contain components at sub-maximal dosage. METHODS: The SPACE Collaboration includes three trials of polypill based care vs usual care in patients with established CVD or at high calculated risk...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943823/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-meropenem-in-critically-ill-young-children
#20
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Adela Enache, Arun Chopra
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of meropenem in critically ill children. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective medical record review from a 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital of patients ages 1 to 9 years who received meropenem with concurrent therapeutic drug monitoring. RESULTS: There were 9 patients ages 1 to 9 years (mean age, 3...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
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