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Medication calculation

Zakaria Aboulbanine, Naïma El Khayati
The use of phase space in medical linear accelerator Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly improves the execution time and leads to results comparable to those obtained from full calculations. The classical representation of phase space stores directly the information of millions of particles, producing bulky files. This paper presents a virtual source model (VSM) based on a reconstruction algorithm, taking as input a compressed file of roughly 800 kb derived from phase space data freely available in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Majdi Ashour
BACKGROUND: People living in the Gaza Strip have experienced a protracted political conflict and extreme socioeconomic adversity since 1948. Economic conditions have deteriorated markedly since the onset of the Palestinian Intifada in 1987 and have been exacerbated by the economic siege after 2006. The health system in the Gaza Strip has faced additional challenges. The aim of this study was to assess how Palestinian households in the Gaza Strip experienced health care services during this period of political turmoil, socioeconomic adversity, and challenges to health services...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Joan Torres Puig-Gros, Rosa Mar Alzuria Alós
OBJECTIVE: Sometimes and when a registry is not available, influenza vaccination (IV) is based on vaccination records reported by citizens. When the opportunity of comparing both information sources exists, sometimes, discrepancies between both have been observed. The objectives of this study are: to know the IV coverage in pregnant women (both referred and recorded in the clinical history), to determine the concordance between both sources of information and to quantify the lost opportunities of IV due to errors in verbalization...
March 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Chuan-Zhi Kang, Wan-Zhen Yang, Ge Mo, Li Zhou, Jing-Yi Jiang, Chao-Geng Lv, Sheng Wang, Tao Zhou, Ye Yang, Lan-Ping Guo
The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Yong-Nan Jin, Bing Zhang, Ning Li
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has the characteristics of long course of disease and difficulty in treatment. The conventional therapy may easily induce adverse drug reactions or events (ADR/ADE) due to the long-time medication. Thus, it should be given special attentions to treatment benefit and medication risk of RA patients. Aconitum, a kind of toxic traditional Chinese herbs, is an important complement therapy for RA, with some controversy in clinical application. Coming straight to the practical problem of combined use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and Western medicines (WM), this study conducted quantitative assessment on the benefits and risks of Aconitum using combined with WM or not, which was carried out by the method of multi-criteria decision analysis model...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Imran Hameed Khaliq, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood, Naveed Akhter, Muhammad Danish Sarfraz, Khadija Asim, Khalid Masood Gondal
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death incurring highest morbidity and mortality amongst women of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the role of two public sector tertiary care hospitals' management in reducing out of pocket (OOP) expenses on direct medical costs borne by breast carcinoma patients' household from diagnosis through treatment. Moreover, the study intended to explore the reasons of opting private diagnostic facilities by the said patients during the services taken from the foresaid tertiary care centers...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Leticia L Lauricella, Priscila B Costa, Michele Salati, Paulo M Pego-Fernandes, Ricardo M Terra
INTRODUCTION: Database quality measurement should be considered a mandatory step to ensure an adequate level of confidence in data used for research and quality improvement. Several metrics have been described in the literature, but no standardized approach has been established. We aimed to describe a methodological approach applied to measure the quality and inter-rater reliability of a regional multicentric thoracic surgical database (Paulista Lung Cancer Registry, PLCR). METHODS: Data from the first 3 years of the PLCR underwent an audit process with 3 metrics: completeness, consistency, and inter-rater reliability (IRR)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Raimund Lechner, Thomas Küpper, Markus Tannheimer
INTRODUCTION: History is full of examples of the influence of the mountain environment on warfare. The aim of this article is to identify the main environmental hazards and summarize countermeasures to mitigate the impact of this unique environment. METHODS: A selective PubMed and Internet search was conducted. Additionally, we searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and included the recommendations of the leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies...
March 15, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Dipen D Patel, Marta Rosenberg, Laura Rosenberg, Guillermo Foncerrada, Clark R Andersen, Karel D Capek, Jesus Leal, Jong O Lee, Carlos Jimenez, Ludwik Branski, Walter J Meyer, David N Herndon
INTRODUCTION: Children 5 and younger are at risk for sustaining serious burn injuries. The causes of burns vary depending on demographic, cultural and socioeconomic variables. At this pediatric burn center we provided medical care to children from Mexico with severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of demographic distribution and modifiable risk factors of burns in young children to help guide prevention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed with children 5 and younger from Mexico who were injured from 2000-2013...
March 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Elisabet Esquivel-Prados, Elisa Pareja-Martínez, Joanna C Moullin, Fernando Martínez-Martínez, José P García-Corpas
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus taking oral antidiabetic medications. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. LOCATION: Community pharmacies in Granada (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: 124 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus taking oral antidiabetic medications. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Eligible participants had a face-to-face interview to administer the translated MMAS-8 into spanish and measure their glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level using the A1CNow+® Multi-Test A1C system...
March 15, 2018: Atencion Primaria
Frederick Fasslrinner, Johannes Schetelig, Andreas Burchert, Michael Kramer, Rudolf Trenschel, Ute Hegenbart, Michael Stadler, Kerstin Schäfer-Eckart, Michael Bätzel, Hans Eich, Martin Stuschke, Rita Engenhart-Cabillic, Mechthild Krause, Peter Dreger, Andreas Neubauer, Gerhard Ehninger, Dietrich Beelen, Wolfgang E Berdel, Timo Siepmann, Matthias Stelljes, Martin Bornhäuser
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intensity of conditioning before allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been studied in a randomised phase 3 trial comparing reduced-intensity conditioning with myeloablative conditioning in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission. Because of the short follow-up of the original trial, whether reduced-intensity conditioning increases the risk of late relapse compared with myeloablative conditioning remained unclear...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Mike Fruscione, Russell Kirks, Allyson Cochran, Keith Murphy, Erin H Baker, John B Martinie, David A Iannitti, Dionisios Vrochides
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons NSQIP® Surgical Risk Calculator (SRC) was developed to estimate postoperative outcomes. Our goal was to develop and validate an institution-specific risk calculator for patients undergoing major hepatectomy at Carolinas Medical Center (CMC). METHODS: Outcomes generated by the SRC were recorded for 139 major hepatectomies performed at CMC (2008-2016). Novel predictive models for seven postoperative outcomes were constructed and probabilities calculated...
March 14, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
N Touati, P Schöffski, S Litière, I Judson, S Sleijfer, W T van der Graaf, A Italiano, N Isambert, T Gil, J Y Blay, D Stark, T Brodowicz, S Marréaud, A Gronchi
AIMS: Epithelioid sarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma associated with a high rate of local recurrence after wide resection and high incidence of distant metastasis. Little is known about the clinical course and response to systemic treatments in epithelioid sarcoma patients. We carried out a retrospective analysis of clinical data from epithelioid sarcoma patients to provide a reference for the design of future epithelioid sarcoma-specific studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from patients with epithelioid sarcoma entered in prospective multi-sarcoma phase II/III trials were pooled: EORTC trial 62012 (doxorubicin versus doxorubicin/ifosfamide), 62043 (pazopanib), 62072 (pazopanib versus placebo) and 62091 (doxorubicin versus trabectedin)...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
J Hansen, L Zhang, A Eaton, R Baxter, C A Robertson, M D Decker, D P Greenberg, E Bassily, N P Klein
BACKGROUND: Menactra® vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the United States in 2005 for persons 11-55 years of age, in 2007 for children 2-10 years of age, and in 2011 for infants/toddlers 9-23 months of age. We conducted two studies at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), an integrated health care organization, to assess the safety of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds and 9-23-month-olds receiving the vaccine during routine clinical care. METHODS: We conducted observational, retrospective studies of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds (October 2007-October 2010) and in 9-23-month-olds (June 2011-June 2014)...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
David Barbic, Brian Kim, Qadeem Salehmohamed, Kate Kemplin, Christopher R Carpenter, Skye Pamela Barbic
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common finding in geriatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Our primary objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa 3DY (O3DY) and Short Blessed Test (SBT) as screening tools for the detection of CD in the ED. Our secondary objective was to estimate the inter-rater reliability of these instruments. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional comparative study at an inner-city academic medical centre (annual ED visit census 86 000)...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Mohammed Dalwai, Katie Tayler-Smith, Michèle Twomey, Masood Nasim, Abdul Qayum Popal, Waliul Haq Haqdost, Olivia Gayraud, Sophia Cheréstal, Lee Wallis, Pola Valles
OBJECTIVE: The South African Triage Scale (SATS) has demonstrated good validity in the EDs of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported sites in Afghanistan and Haiti; however, corresponding reliability in these settings has not yet been reported on. This study set out to assess the inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the SATS in four MSF-supported EDs in Afghanistan and Haiti (two trauma-only EDs and two mixed (including both medical and trauma cases) EDs). METHODS: Under classroom conditions between December 2013 and February 2014, ED nurses at each site assigned triage ratings to a set of context-specific vignettes (written case reports of ED patients)...
March 16, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Andrea Padoan, Laura Sciacovelli, Ada Aita, Giorgia Antonelli, Mario Plebani
BACKGROUND: Measurement uncertainty (MU) estimation has been introduced by ISO 15189 for the accreditation of clinical laboratories. Although MU reporting is not required, its inclusion in medical reports is of potential assistance to physicians in results interpretation. METHODS: MU reporting was evaluated with respect to different test purposes, namely comparison with reference intervals (RI), patient monitoring or comparison with clinical decision limits. Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, Coagulation and Clinical Immunology measurands were used as examples...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Xiaoming Zhang, Boran Zhou, Andre Miranda, Landon W Trost
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that is characterized by progressive corporal smooth muscle fibrosis. There is currently no widely accepted methods to characterize the extent and severity of penile fibrosis. AIM: The purpose of this study is to translate a novel ultrasound vibro-elastography (UVE) technique for noninvasively measuring viscoelasticity of the penis. METHODS: A pilot study was performed of UVE in men with ED and/or Peyronie's disease (PD)...
March 13, 2018: Urology
David Morrison, James Shaffer, Gui-Shuang Ying, Gil Binenbaum
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of treatment-related ocular complications and disease progression following treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of eyes treated for ROP at 30 North American neonatal intensive care units in the Postnatal Growth and ROP (G-ROP) Study. Data from the time of treatment through 15 months were abstracted from medical records by certified data collectors. Treatment-related complication (cataract, hyphema, glaucoma, corneal abrasion/opacity), and disease-progression (retinal fold, dragging, or stage 4 or 5 detachment) were calculated by treatment modality...
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
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