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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214742/what-s-the-agreement-between-self-reported-and-biochemical-verification-of-drug-use-a-look-at-permanent-supportive-housing-residents
#1
Alexis Rendon, Melvin Livingston, Sumihiro Suzuki, Whitney Hill, Scott Walters
Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214629/effects-of-metal-ion-replacement-on-pyrazinamidase-activity-a-quantum-mechanical-study
#2
Mahmoud Khadem-Maaref, Faramarz Mehrnejad, Arash Phirouznia
Pyrazinamidase (PZase), a metalloenzyme, is responsible for acidic modification of pyrazinamide (PZA), a drug used in tuberculosis treatment. The metal coordination site of the enzyme is able to coordinate various divalent metal cofactors. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that metal ions, such as Co(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+), are able to reactivate metal-depleted PZase, while others including Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Mg(2+), cannot restore activity. In this study, we investigated binding of various metal ions to the metal coordination site (MCS) of the enzyme using quantum mechanical calculations...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214150/self-efficacy-for-deprescribing-a-survey-for-health-care-professionals-using-evidence-based-deprescribing-guidelines
#3
Barbara Farrell, Lisa Richardson, Lalitha Raman-Wilms, David de Launay, Mhd Wasem Alsabbagh, James Conklin
BACKGROUND: Although polypharmacy is associated with significant morbidity, deprescribing can be challenging. In particular, clinicians express difficulty with their ability to deprescribe (i.e. reduce or stop medications that are potentially inappropriate). Evidence-based deprescribing guidelines are designed to help clinicians take action on reducing or stopping medications that may be causing more harm than benefit. OBJECTIVES: Determine if implementation of evidence-based guidelines increases self-efficacy for deprescribing proton pump inhibitor (PPI), benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) and antipsychotic (AP) drug classes...
January 28, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213593/randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-placebo-controlled-study-to-evaluate-the-analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-vvz-149-injections-for-postoperative-pain-following-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#4
Srdjan S Nedeljkovic, Darin J Correll, Xiaodong Bao, Natacha Zamor, Jose L Zeballos, Yi Zhang, Mark J Young, Johanna Ledley, Jessica Sorace, Kristen Eng, Carlyle P Hamsher, Rajivan Maniam, Jonathan W Chin, Becky Tsui, Sunyoung Cho, Doo H Lee
INTRODUCTION: In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213179/the-dispersion-releaser-technology-is-an-effective-method-for-testing-drug-release-from-nanosized-drug-carriers
#5
Christine Janas, Marc-Philip Mast, Li Kirsamer, Carlo Angioni, Fiona Gao, Werner Mäntele, Jennifer Dressman, Matthias G Wacker
The dispersion releaser (DR) is a dialysis-based setup for the analysis of the drug release from nanosized drug carriers. It is mounted into dissolution apparatus2 of the United States Pharmacopoeia. The present study evaluated the DR technique investigating the drug release of the model compound flurbiprofen from drug solution and from nanoformulations composed of the drug and the polymer materials poly (lactic acid), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or Eudragit(®)RSPO. The drug loaded nanocarriers ranged in size between 185...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212930/molecular-recognition-between-pancreatic-lipase-and-natural-and-synthetic-inhibitors
#6
Martiniano Bello, Basilio-Antonio Lucia, Fragoso-Vázquez Jonathan, Avalos-Soriano Anaguiven, Correa-Basurto José
Pancreatic lipase (PL) is a primary lipase critical for triacylglyceride digestion in humans and is considered as a promising target for the treatment of obesity. Although the current synthetic drugs available for treating obesity have been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting PL, their prolonged usage results in severe side effects. Based on this argument, in this study, we evaluated the structural and energetic features linked to molecular recognition between two well-known PL inhibitors, orlistat (ORL, synthetic inhibitor) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, natural inhibitor) and PL through molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of ORL and EGCG at the PL binding site when it is isolated (PL) from the heterodimer complex, forming the heterodimer complex with colipase (PLCL) and lacking structural calcium...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212667/assessing-the-interruption-of-the-transmission-of-human-helminths-with-mass-drug-administration-alone-optimizing-the-design-of-cluster-randomized-trials
#7
Roy Anderson, Sam Farrell, Hugo Turner, Judd Walson, Christl A Donnelly, James Truscott
BACKGROUND: A method is outlined for the use of an individual-based stochastic model of parasite transmission dynamics to assess different designs for a cluster randomized trial in which mass drug administration (MDA) is employed in attempts to eliminate the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in defined geographic locations. The hypothesis to be tested is: Can MDA alone interrupt the transmission of STH species in defined settings? Clustering is at a village level and the choice of clusters of villages is stratified by transmission intensity (low, medium and high) and parasite species mix (either Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm dominant)...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212466/withdrawn-propranolol-for-migraine-prophylaxis
#8
REVIEW
Klaus Linde, Karin Rossnagel
BACKGROUND: Propranolol is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for migraine prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether there is evidence that propranolol is more effective than placebo and as effective as other drugs for the interval (prophylactic) treatment of patients with migraine. SEARCH METHODS: Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE/PubMed (1966 to May 2003) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 2, 2003), and by screening bibliographies of reviews and identified articles...
February 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212414/decline-in-infection-related-morbidities-following-drug-mediated-reductions-in-the-intensity-of-schistosoma-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Gisele Andrade, David J Bertsch, Andrea Gazzinelli, Charles H King
BACKGROUND: Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212183/cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-opioid-tolerance-a-translational-study
#10
Chih-Peng Lin, Kai-Hsiang Kang, Huang-Ju Tu, Ming-Yueh Wu, Tzu-Hung Lin, Houng-Chi Liou, Wei-Zen Sun, Wen-Mei Fu
BACKGROUND: Long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain may lead to analgesic tolerance, especially when administered intrathecally, thus preventing adequate pain relief. Discovering drug targets to treat opioid tolerance using a mechanism-based approach targeting opioid-induced neuroinflammation provides new therapeutic opportunities. In this study, we provide translational evidence that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of opioid tolerance. METHODS: The CXCL12 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of opioid-tolerant patients were compared with those of opioid-naive subjects...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212181/effect-of-a-high-rate-versus-a-low-rate-oxytocin-infusion-for-maintaining-uterine-contractility-during-elective-cesarean-delivery-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Adrienne Duffield, Christine McKenzie, Brendan Carvalho, Bharathi Ramachandran, Victoria Yin, Yasser Y El-Sayed, Edward T Riley, Alexander J Butwick
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is routinely used as prophylaxis against uterine atony. During elective cesarean delivery (CD), an oxytocin bolus is used to initiate adequate uterine tone, followed by an oxytocin infusion to maintain uterine contractility. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin maintenance infusion rate influences total estimated blood loss (EBL). METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in 51 women undergoing elective CD. Women were randomly assigned to receive an oxytocin maintenance infusion of 2...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211134/effect-of-age-on-the-performance-of-bispectral-and-entropy-indices-during-sevoflurane-pediatric-anesthesia-a-pharmacometric-study
#12
Alberto Sciusco, Joseph F Standing, Yucheng Sheng, Pasquale Raimondo, Gilda Cinnella, Michele Dambrosio
BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) and entropy monitors have been proposed for use in children, but research has not supported their validity for infants. However, effective monitoring of young children may be even more important than for adults, to aid appropriate anesthetic dosing and reduce the chance of adverse consequences. This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationships between age and the predictive performance of BIS and entropy monitors in measuring the anesthetic drug effects within a pediatric surgery setting...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208872/analgesics-self-medication-and-its-association-with-sleep-quality-among-medical-undergraduates
#13
Amit Kumar, Vandana, Ahmad Nadeem Aslami
INTRODUCTION: Self medication especially with analgesics is a common practice among undergraduate medical students. Variation in analgesic self medication prevalence and pattern is often seen due to geographical and target population differences. The mutual influence of pain and sleep quality might persuade students self medication behaviour. AIM: To assess analgesic self medication and its association with sleep quality among the medical undergraduates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from December 2015 to February 2016 among 320 medical undergraduates...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208749/graphic-warning-labels-and-the-cost-savings-from-reduced-smoking-among-pregnant-women
#14
John A Tauras, Richard M Peck, Kai-Wen Cheng, Frank J Chaloupka
Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208662/characterization-molecular-docking-and-in-vitro-dissolution-studies-of-solid-dispersions-of-20-s-protopanaxadiol
#15
Qi Zhang, Yiqiong Pu, Bing Wang, Yuqin Wang, Tina Tingxia Dong, Tao Guo, Tong Zhang, Zhenzhen Cai
In this study, we prepared solid dispersions (SDs) of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) using a melting-solvent method with different polymers, in order to improve the solubility and dissolution performance of drugs with poor water solubility. The SDs were characterized via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular docking and dynamics study. DSC and PXRD results indicated that PPD crystallinity in SDs was significantly reduced, and that the majority of PPD is amorphous...
February 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208210/heterogeneous-costs-of-alcohol-and-drug-problems-across-cities-and-counties-in-california
#16
Ted R Miller, Peter Nygaard, Andrew Gaidus, Joel W Grube, William R Ponicki, Bruce A Lawrence, Paul J Gruenewald
BACKGROUND: Estimates of economic and social costs related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and abuse are usually made at state and national levels. Ecological analyses demonstrate, however, that substantial variations exist in the incidence and prevalence of AOD use and problems including impaired driving, violence, and chronic disease between smaller geopolitical units like counties and cities. This study examines the ranges of these costs across counties and cities in California...
February 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207928/industry-sponsorship-and-research-outcome
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Lundh, Joel Lexchin, Barbara Mintzes, Jeppe B Schroll, Lisa Bero
BACKGROUND: Clinical research affecting how doctors practice medicine is increasingly sponsored by companies that make drugs and medical devices. Previous systematic reviews have found that pharmaceutical-industry sponsored studies are more often favorable to the sponsor's product compared with studies with other sources of sponsorship. A similar association between sponsorship and outcomes have been found for device studies, but the body of evidence is not as strong as for sponsorship of drug studies...
February 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206666/high-expression-of-fas-cd95-on-cd4-circulating-t-cells-an-exclusion-criterion-in-the-diagnosis-of-mycosis-fungoides
#18
Aurélie Du-Thanh, Anne Serre-Cousiné, Pierre Portalès, Céline Girard, Bernard Guillot, Olivier Dereure
The aim of this 10-year monocentric prospective study was to determine a cut-off value of Fas/CD95 expression by peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in discriminating patients with mycosis fungoides from controls with cutaneous benign lymphocytic conditions. CD95 expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes was measured using flow cytometry in 330 patients referred for diagnosis: 104 with mycosis fungoides and 226 with eczema, psoriasis, drug reaction, etc. The sensitivity and specificity of different thresholds of CD95 expression were calculated regarding the final diagnosis of patients with mycosis fungoides or controls...
February 16, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205402/quantum-chemistry-descriptors-for-photosensitizers-based-on-macrocycles
#19
Fernanda Bettanin, Felipe C T Antonio, Kathia M Honorio, Paula Homem-de-Mello
Phthalocyanines, porphyrins, and chlorins have been widely studied as photosensitizers. Both experimental and computational strategies are employed in order to propose new and more active molecules derived from those macrocycles. In this context, there are two main strategies used: (i) the addition of different substituents and (ii) the complexation of the macrocycle with different metallic ions. In this work, we present selected descriptors based on quantum chemistry calculations for forty macrocycles, including some approved drugs...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203110/variability-in-delivered-dose-and-respirable-delivered-dose-from-nebulizers-are-current-regulatory-testing-guidelines-sufficient-to-produce-meaningful-information
#20
Ross Hm Hatley, Sarah M Byrne
BACKGROUND: To improve convenience to patients, there have been advances in the operation of nebulizers, resulting in fast treatment times and less drug lost to the environment. However, limited attention has been paid to the effects of these developments on the delivered dose (DD) and respirable delivered dose (RDD). Published pharmacopoeia and ISO testing guidelines for adult-use testing utilize a single breathing pattern, which may not be sufficient to enable effective comparisons between the devices...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
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