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Nicotine cough

Tanvir Walele, Jim Bush, Annelize Koch, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Grant O'Connell
The safety profile of Puritane™, a closed system electronic vapour product (EVP), was evaluated when used by smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) for 24 months in a real-life setting. The study was a two-centre ambulatory clinical study with 209 healthy volunteers. Outcome measures included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests, exposure to nicotine and selected smoke constituents, nicotine withdrawal effects and smoking desire. No serious AEs related to EVP use were observed...
February 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jason D Robinson, Paul M Cinciripini, Maher Karam-Hage, Henri-Jean Aubin, Lowell C Dale, Raymond Niaura, Robert M Anthenelli
Despite the withdrawal of CB1 antagonists, such as rimonabant, from the market and from active clinical development because of concerns about their side effect profiles, research suggests that the endocannabinoid system may play an important role in modulating nicotine's effects. We report the combined results, using a pooled analysis, of three previously unpublished trials assessing rimonabant as a smoking cessation pharmacotherapy conducted between 2002 and 2004. Smokers (n = 2097) motivated to quit were enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, STRATUS EU, US, and META, which consisted of a 10-week treatment period with either rimonabant 20 mg (n = 789), 5 mg (n = 518; used in only two of the three studies), or placebo (n = 790), in conjunction with brief counseling...
January 2018: Addiction Biology
Ana C N Marques Gomes, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara, Reem Kayyali, Federico Buonocore, Gianpiero Calabrese
OBJECTIVES: To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. SETTING: A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. CONTEXT: E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK...
November 10, 2016: BMJ Open
Peter V Dicpinigaitis
Multiple previous studies have shown that otherwise healthy tobacco cigarette smokers have suppressed cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers and furthermore, that smoking cessation, even after years of tobacco use, leads to prompt enhancement of cough reflex sensitivity. Thus, cough reflex sensitivity is demonstrated to be a dynamic phenomenon, responding to the presence or absence of influences such as tobacco smoke. These studies, however, were unable to identify whether it was the influence of nicotine, or one or more of the numerous components of tobacco cigarette smoke, that were responsible for this effect...
February 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ana S Cravo, Jim Bush, Girish Sharma, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Simon Craige, Tanvir Walele
A randomised, parallel group clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety profile of an e-vapour product (EVP; 2.0% nicotine) in smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) switching to use the EVP for 12 weeks. During the study, no clinically significant product-related findings were observed in terms of vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests and standard clinical laboratory parameters. Adverse events (AEs) reported by EVP subjects were more frequent during the first week after switching to the EVP...
November 15, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jian-Rong Zhou, Tetsuya Shirasaki, Fumio Soeda, Kazuo Takahama
In this study, we investigated the effects of suplatast on acutely dissociated single neurons of sensory and paratracheal ganglia using a patch-clamp technique. Suplatast had little effect on various responses caused by capsaicin, acid, bradykinin, serotonin and adenosine 5'-triphosphate in rat sensory neurons. Suplatast, even at 10-3 M, also did not induce any current at various membrane potentials in rat and guinea pig paratracheal ganglia neurons. Further, acetylcholine- and bradykinin-induced depolarizations were not affected by suplatast...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Fabio Cibella, Davide Campagna, Pasquale Caponnetto, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Massimo Caruso, Cristina Russo, Donald W Cockcroft, Riccardo Polosa
Quitting smoking is the most important step smokers can take to improve their health. Nonetheless, there is little information on long-term improvements in lung function and/or respiratory symptoms after smoking cessation. Here we illustrate long-term changes in spirometric indices as well as in respiratory symptoms in smokers invited to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Prospective evaluation of cigarette consumption, spirometry and symptoms was performed in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of smokers receiving EC containing 2...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Xingzhi Cai, Ping Zhang, Sufen Lu, Zongwang Zhang, Ailan Yu, Donghua Liu, Shanshan Wu
To investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on pain in highly nicotine-dependent patients after thoracic surgery.Highly nicotine-dependent men underwent thoracic surgery and received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil. In dexmedetomidine group (experimental group, n = 46), dexmedetomidine was given at a loading dose of 1 μg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by continuous infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/h until 30 minutes before the end of surgery. The saline group (control group, n = 48) received the same volume of saline...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brent O Caldwell, Julian Crane
INTRODUCTION: In order to replicate the rewarding effects of smoking, nicotine replacement therapies must deliver nicotine via the pulmonary route. We aimed to measure the efficacy of a simple pressurized metered dose inhaler containing nicotine combined with a nicotine patch for smoking cessation. METHODS: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled, parallel group trial conducted at the University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. Five-hundred two adults (≥18 years) who smoked at least nine cigarettes per day, with a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence ≥3 who wanted to quit, were randomized (1:1)...
October 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Sarah I Pratt, James Sargent, Luke Daniels, Meghan M Santos, Mary Brunette
INTRODUCTION: Up to 75% of people with serious mental illness (SMI) smoke, and most are highly dependent on nicotine, consuming more cigarettes per day than smokers without mental illness. Even with evidence-based treatment, relapses are common, resulting in high morbidity and early mortality from tobacco-related diseases. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are theoretically safer because they deliver no tar or carbon monoxide; however, their appeal is largely untested in people with SMI...
August 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Satoru Ebihara, Hideaki Izukura, Midori Miyagi, Ikuko Okuni, Hideki Sekiya, Takae Ebihara
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of swallowing and coughing leads to life-threatening aspiration pneumonia, especially in the elderly. In order to induce the cough and swallowing reflexes efficiently, sensory inputs to trigger the reflexes are essential. METHODS: Both the cough and swallowing reflexes respond to mechanical and chemical stimuli. However, the mechanisms of action of the two reflexes are not homogeneous. Some substances stimulate both reflexes, but others stimulate one of the reflexes and inhibit the other one...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Claudio Lucchiari, Marianna Masiero, Giulia Veronesi, Patrick Maisonneuve, Stefania Spina, Costantino Jemos, Emanuela Omodeo Salè, Gabriella Pravettoni
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes' power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers' baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review...
February 3, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Arielle S Selya, Sanda Cristina Oancea, Sunita Thapa
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is the largest known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about the role of time to first cigarette (TTFC), an indicator of nicotine dependence (ND). This study examines whether daily TTFC is associated with pulmonary outcomes, independently of smoking behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1461 current adult smokers were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010...
June 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jemima Tiwaa Marfo, Kazutoshi Fujioka, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshiko Aoyama, Mayumi Ishizuka, Kumiko Taira
Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old)...
2015: PloS One
Carl D D'Ruiz, Donald W Graff, X Sherwin Yan
BACKGROUND: This randomized, partially single-blinded, 6-period crossover clinical study of adult smokers compared the nicotine pharmacokinetics, impacts on smoking urge and tolerability of various formulations of one brand of e-cigarettes with that of a tobacco cigarette. METHODS: Five e-cigarettes with different e-liquid formulations containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine and a conventional tobacco cigarette were randomized among 24 subjects under two exposure sessions consisting of a 30-min controlled and a one-hour ad lib use period to assess plasma nicotine levels, impacts on smoking urge and adverse events...
2015: BMC Public Health
Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Alfredo Lee Chang, Alis J Dicpinigaitis, Abdissa Negassa
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes (e-cigs) have attained widespread popularity, yet knowledge of their physiologic effects remains minimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single exposure to e-cig vapor on cough reflex sensitivity. METHODS: Thirty healthy nonsmokers underwent cough reflex sensitivity measurement using capsaicin cough challenge at baseline, 15 min, and 24 h after e-cig exposure (30 puffs 30 s apart). The end point of cough challenge is the concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs (C5)...
January 2016: Chest
Chunguang Ren, Xuejun Zhang, Zhong Liu, Changying Li, Zongwang Zhang, Feng Qi
UNLABELLED: Smoking is one of the most common addictions in the world. Nicotine inhalation could increase the risk of cardiorespiratory diseases. However, the solution that improved postoperative analgesia for highly nicotine-dependent patients undergoing thoracic surgery has not been specifically addressed.This CONSORT-prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial investigated the efficacy of combination of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil for highly nicotine (Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence ≥6)-dependent patients after thoracic surgery...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Louis-Philippe Boulet, Gail M Gauvreau, Donald W Cockcroft, Beth Davis, Luc Vachon, Yvon Cormier, Paul M O'Byrne
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety, tolerability and clinical activity of ASM-024, a new cholinergic compound with dual nicotinic and muscarinic activity, in mild allergic asthma. METHODS: The present study involved 24 stable, mild allergic asthmatic subjects. In a cross-over design, ASM-024 (50 mg or 200 mg) or placebo were administered once daily by nebulization over three periods of nine consecutive days separated by a three-week washout. The effect of each treatment on the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20), early and late asthmatic responses, and allergen-induced inflammation were measured...
July 2015: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Elian Dupré, Elodie Lesne, Jérémy Guérin, Marc F Lensink, Alexis Verger, Jérôme de Ruyck, Guillaume Brysbaert, Hervé Vezin, Camille Locht, Rudy Antoine, Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
The two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS controls the virulence regulon of the whooping-cough agent Bordetella pertussis. The periplasmic moiety of the homodimeric sensor kinase BvgS is composed of four bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT) perception domains followed by α helices that extend into the cytoplasmic membrane. In the virulent phase, the default state of B. pertussis, the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety of BvgS acts as kinase by autophosphorylating and transferring the phosphoryl group to the response regulator BvgA...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Elmas Kasap, Ahmet Ayer, Hümeyra Bozoğlan, Cigdem Ozen, Ilhan Eslek, Hakan Yüceyar
BACKGROUND: Psychological factors and psychiatric disorders play a role in a variety of gastrointestinal illnesses, including esophageal diseases. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in patients with schizophrenia in Turkey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with schizophrenia and one hundred control individuals were enrolled in the study, which was undertaken at the Manisa State Hospital for Mental Health and Neurological Disorders and Celal Bayar University Gastroenterology Department...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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