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legionellosis, legionella

Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
K D Lucas, C Wheeler, P McLendon, B N Leistikow, J C Mohle-Boetani
A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred at a California state prison in August 2015. We conducted environmental and epidemiological investigations to identify the most likely source of exposure and characterise morbidity. Sixty-four inmates had probable Legionnaires' disease; 14 had laboratory-confirmed legionellosis. Thirteen (17%) inmates were hospitalised; there were no deaths. Ill inmates were more likely to be ⩾65 years old (P < 0.01), have the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Genevieve Marchand, Judith Lord, Carole Pépin, Nancy Lacombe
Legionella has a global distribution, mainly in aquatic and man-made environments. Under the right conditions, this bacterium is a notorious human pathogen responsible for severe pulmonary illnesses. Legionellosis outbreaks are reported around the world, and exposure to water droplet aerosols containing Legionella pneumophila is usually the mechanism of its transmission. Even if L. pneumophila causes most outbreaks, Legionella longbeachae also accounts for some cases. Unlike most other Legionella strains, L...
January 3, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Verlaine J Timms, Rebecca Rockett, Nathan L Bachmann, Elena Martinez, Qinning Wang, Sharon C-A Chen, Neisha Jeoffreys, Peter J Howard, Anna Smith, Sheena Adamson, Robin Gilmour, Vicky Sheppeard, Vitali Sintchenko
The city of Sydney, Australia, experienced a persistent outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) pneumonia in 2016. To elucidate the source and guide public health actions the genomes of clinical and environmental Lp1 isolates recovered over 7 weeks were examined. A total of 48 isolates from human cases and cooling towers were sequenced and compared using SNP-based, core-genome MLST and pangenome approaches. All three methods confirmed phylogenetic relatedness between isolates associated with outbreaks in the Central Business District (CBD) in March and May and Suburb 1...
December 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Adam M Szewc, Steve Taylor, Gary D Cage, Daphne de Mello
Legionellaceae are composed of a single genus, Legionella, which is currently comprised of over 52 species. L. pneumophila, L. micdadei, L. longbeachae, and L. dumoffi are clinically considered the most important, with L. pneumophila causing >90%1,7 of cases of legionnaires disease (LD). Since LD's recognition in 1976 following an outbreak of pneumonia involving delegates of an American Legion convention in Philadelphia, there has been increased awareness and importance of the isolation, detection, and reporting of these cases...
December 22, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Aaron J Prussin, David Otto Schwake, Linsey C Marr
Legionella is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. Legionella can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Incidence of the disease is higher in the summertime, possibly because of increased use of cooling towers for air conditioning systems and differences in water chemistry when outdoor temperatures are higher...
October 2017: Building and Environment
Pascal Lapierre, Elizabeth Nazarian, Yan Zhu, Danielle Wroblewski, Amy Saylors, Teresa Passaretti, Scott Hughes, Anthony Tran, Ying Lin, John Kornblum, Shatavia S Morrison, Jeffrey W Mercante, Robert Fitzhenry, Don Weiss, Brian H Raphael, Jay K Varma, Howard A Zucker, Jennifer L Rakeman, Kimberlee A Musser
During the summer of 2015, New York, New York, USA, had one of the largest and deadliest outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the history of the United States. A total of 138 cases and 16 deaths were linked to a single cooling tower in the South Bronx. Analysis of environmental samples and clinical isolates showed that sporadic cases of legionellosis before, during, and after the outbreak could be traced to a slowly evolving, single-ancestor strain. Detection of an ostensibly virulent Legionella strain endemic to the Bronx community suggests potential risk for future cases of legionellosis in the area...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Vassilios Sandalakis, Maria Keramarou, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
OBJECTIVES: Although a number of human Legionnaires' disease in tourists are recorded annually in Europe, there are few cases where a direct link can be made between the infected person and the source of infection (hotel or other accommodation). We present a scheme followed in order to track down and identify the source of infection in a tourist suffering from L. pneumophila sg 5 infection, who was accommodated in seven different hotels during his holidays in the island of Crete, and we comment on various difficulties and draw-backs of the process...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
David Haefliger, Christian Chuard
Legionellosis refers to the two clinical syndromes caused by Legionella : Pontiac fever, a benign febrile illness and Legionnaires'disease (or pneumonia). Clinically and radiologically, Legionnaires'disease presents itself as a « typical » pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia. Diagnosis is usually made by using urinary antigen testing. Culture and PCR are also helpful. Legionella is resistant to betalactam antibiotics, and is treated by quinolones or macrolides.
October 11, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
Matteo Iervolino, Benedetta Mancini, Sandra Cristino
The contamination of industrial cooling towers has been identified as one cause of legionellosis, but the real risk has been underestimated. Two different disinfection treatments were tested on Legionella colonization in an industrial Cooling Tower System (CTS). Environmental monitoring of Legionella, P. aeruginosa, and a heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 36 °C was performed from June to October 2016. The disinfection procedures adopted were based on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and silver salts (Ag⁺), in addition to an anti-algal treatment, then using hyperclorination as a shock, and then continuous treatment by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
M Kotrbancová, M Špaleková, M Fulová, K Trnková, J Perželová
The diagnosis of legionellosis, especially of its severe, life-threatening form, Legionnaires' disease, is complicated, primarily because of non-typical symptoms of the infection, not always dominating atypical pneumonia, and often a very dramatic septic course of the disease with multiorgan failures. The diagnosis of the acute phase of the disease can be established by the detection of Legionella antigen in urine and by PCR/real-time PCR detection of Legionella DNA in serum and lower respiratory tract and urine samples...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
B Casini, A Baggiani, M Totaro, A Mansi, A L Costa, F Aquino, M Miccoli, P Valentini, F Bruschi, P L Lopalco, G Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as an alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: To investigate the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
P Laganà, S Delia, E Avventuroso, M Casale, G Dattilo
Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, in addition to classic pathogens were isolated exigent Gram negative bacteria as A. baumannii, A. lwoffii, C. burnetii, Bartonella, Chlamydia and Legionella. We present our experience of Legionella isolations in environmental sample (water and air) collected from the Cardiology units belonging to two hospitals in Messina (Italy). A total of 80 samples were carried out, 30 and 50, respectively in the first and in the second structure: 55 of water and 25 of aerosol...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
X Lizana, A López, S Benito, G Agustí, M Ríos, N Piqué, A M Marqués, F Codony
BACKGROUND: Viability quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (v-qPCR) is a recent analytical approach for only detecting live microorganisms by DNA amplification-based methods This approach is based on the use of a reagent that irreversibly fixes dead cells DNA. In this study, we evaluate the utility of v-qPCR versus culture method for Legionellosis risk management. METHODS: The present study was performed using 116 real samples. Water samples were simultaneously analysed by culture, v-qPCR and qPCR methods...
November 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Catharina Kober, Reinhard Niessner, Michael Seidel
Increasing numbers of legionellosis outbreaks within the last years have shown that Legionella are a growing challenge for public health. Molecular biological detection methods capable of rapidly identifying viable Legionella are important for the control of engineered water systems. The current gold standard based on culture methods takes up to 10 days to show positive results. For this reason, a flow-based chemiluminescence (CL) DNA microarray was developed that is able to quantify viable and non-viable Legionella spp...
August 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kouki Tomari, Saeko Morino, Yuho Horikoshi
A 1-month-old girl developed respiratory failure due to bilateral interstitial pneumonia after bathing in reheated and reused water. A molecular test for sputum and an environmental culture detected L. pneumophila serotype 1. This is the first report of infantile legionellosis contracted from a bath tub at home.
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Marine Vandewalle-Capo, Clémence Massip, Ghislaine Descours, Joséphine Charavit, Joelle Chastang, Pierre Alain Billy, Sandrine Boisset, Gerard Lina, Christophe Gilbert, Max Maurin, Sophie Jarraud, Christophe Ginevra
Legionnaires' disease is a severe pneumonia mainly caused by Legionella pneumophila that is treated by antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to describe the susceptibility of clinical strains of L. pneumophila to eight antibiotics used for treatment of legionellosis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 109 well-characterised clinical strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were determined by the broth microdilution method without charcoal and were compared with antibiotic-resistant strains selected in vitro...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Daoyi Xi, Yan Dou, Wei Ren, Shuang Yang, Lu Feng, Boyang Cao, Lei Wang
Among the 50 species and 70 serogroups of Legionella identified, Legionella pneumophila, comprising three subsp. (subsp. pneumophila, subsp. fraseri, and subsp. pasculleii), is recognized as the major cause of epidemic legionellosis. Rapid and reliable assays to identify pathogenic Legionella spp., and the three L. pneumophila subsp. in particular, are in great demand. In this study, we analyzed the gyrB genes of eleven Legionella spp. and subsp., comprising L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. feeleii, L...
July 10, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Aurélie Hennebique, Marie Bidart, Sophie Jarraud, Laëtitia Beraud, Carole Schwebel, Max Maurin, Sandrine Boisset
The emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant mutants of Legionella pneumophila in infected humans was previously reported using a next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) approach. This finding could explain part of the therapeutic failures observed in legionellosis patients treated with these antibiotics. The aim of this study was to develop digital PCR (dPCR) assays allowing rapid and accurate detection and quantification of these resistant mutants in respiratory samples, especially when the proportion of mutants in a wild-type background is low...
September 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pasqualina Laganà, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
<b>Introduction.</b> The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well maintained...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
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