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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098535/outbreak-of-legionnaire-s-disease-caused-by-legionella-pneumophila-serogroups-1-and-13
#1
Toshiro Kuroki, Junko Amemura-Maekawa, Hitomi Ohya, Ichiro Furukawa, Miyuki Suzuki, Tomoka Masaoka, Kastuhiro Aikawa, Kazumi Hibi, Masatomo Morita, Ken-Ichi Lee, Makoto Ohnishi, Fumiaki Kura
In Japan, hot springs and public baths are the major sources of legionellosis. In 2015, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred among 7 patients who had visited a spa house. Laboratory investigation indicated that L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and 13 strains caused the outbreak and that these strains were genetically related.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059171/comparison-of-sputum-microbiome-of-legionellosis-associated-patients-and-other-pneumonia-patients-indications-for-polybacterial-infections
#2
Hila Mizrahi, Avi Peretz, René Lesnik, Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Yehonatan Sharaby, Nina Pastukh, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G Höfle, Malka Halpern
Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections resulting in severe pneumonia. Here we analyze and compare the bacterial microbiome of sputum samples from pneumonia patients in relation to the presence and abundance of the genus Legionella. The prevalence of Legionella species was determined by culture, PCR, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Nine sputum samples out of the 133 analyzed were PCR-positive using Legionella genus-specific primers. Only one sample was positive by culture. Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of Legionella-positive and Legionella-negative sputum samples, confirmed that indeed, Legionella was present in the PCR-positive sputum samples...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029126/legionella-risk-management-and-control-in-potable-water-systems-argument-for-the-abolishment-of-routine-testing
#3
Harriet Whiley
Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health significance. One of the main sources of Legionella is potable water systems. As a consequence of aging populations there is an increasing demographic considered at high risk for Legionellosis and, as such, a review of the guidelines is required. Worldwide, Legionella has been detected from many potable water sources, suggesting it is ubiquitous in this environment. Previous studies have identified the limitations of the current standard method for Legionella detection and the high possibility of it returning both false negative and false positive results...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959883/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-legionella-strains-isolated-from-public-water-sources-in-macau-and-guangzhou
#4
Lina Xiong, He Yan, Lei Shi, Ziyao Mo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC50/MIC90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#5
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805070/legionella-pneumophila-prevents-proliferation-of-its-natural-host-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#6
Luce Mengue, Matthieu Régnacq, Willy Aucher, Emilie Portier, Yann Héchard, Ascel Samba-Louaka
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous, pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Like many other amoeba-resistant microorganisms, L. pneumophila resists host clearance and multiplies inside the cell. Through its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, the bacterium injects more than three hundred effectors that modulate host cell physiology in order to promote its own intracellular replication. Here we report that L. pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797349/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-64-year-old-woman-presenting-with-fever-confusion-ophthalmoplegia-and-pneumonia
#7
Daniel H Johnson, Michael Modica, Rachel Coleman, Charles V Sanders, Fred A Lopez
Legionella pneumophila is a major cause of atypical community-acquired pneumonia, which is commonly severe enough to require hospitalization. Though primarily a respiratory infection, Legionellosis involves the central nervous system (CNS) in up to 50% of patients, and diagnosis can be obscured by the absence of obvious respiratory symptomatology. A reversible diffuse encephalopathy is the most common neurologic complication, but focal CNS involvement can sometimes be the initial presentation. We report a case of a woman infected with Legionella pneumophila presenting with vague symptomatology and focal neurologic findings...
September 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779835/legionellosis-in-poland-in-2014
#8
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and its prior versions along with the legionellosis case reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH. RESULTS: In Poland, both two forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of disease accompanied by pneumonia) and Pontiac fever (mild, influenza-like form of infection) - are routinely reported to the surveillance...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717486/legionellosis-in-the-occupational-setting
#9
REVIEW
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640674/energy-conservation-and-the-promotion-of-legionella-pneumophila-growth-the-probable-role-of-heat-exchangers-in-a-nosocomial-outbreak
#10
Emilie Bédard, Simon Lévesque, Philippe Martin, Linda Pinsonneault, Kiran Paranjape, Cindy Lalancette, Charles-Éric Dolcé, Manuela Villion, Louis Valiquette, Sébastien P Faucher, Michèle Prévost
OBJECTIVE To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year. SETTING A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada. METHODS Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536770/mass-gatherings-and-respiratory-disease-outbreaks-in-the-united-states-should-we-be-worried-results-from-a-systematic-literature-review-and-analysis-of-the-national-outbreak-reporting-system
#11
Jeanette J Rainey, Tiffani Phelps, Jianrong Shi
BACKGROUND: Because mass gatherings create environments conducive for infectious disease transmission, public health officials may recommend postponing or canceling large gatherings during a moderate or severe pandemic. Despite these recommendations, limited empirical information exists on the frequency and characteristics of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515183/a-single-legionella-pneumophila-genotype-in-the-freshwater-system-in-a-ship-experiencing-three-separate-outbreaks-of-legionellosis-in-6-years
#12
Catrine Ahlen, Marianne Aas, Jadwiga Krusnell, Ole-Jan Iversen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. METHODS: Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496776/epidemiological-investigation-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-2-to-14-isolates-from-water-samples-by-amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism-and-sequence-based-typing-and-detection-of-virulence-traits
#13
Anna Katsiaflaka, Spyros Pournaras, Ioulia Kristo, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Maria Kyritsi, Emmanuel Velonakis, Alkiviadis C Vatopoulos, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
: The aim of this study is to explore the dispersion, clonality, and virulence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 to 14 in the Greek environment. Eighty L. pneumophila serogroup 2 to 14 strains isolated from water distribution systems of hotels, hospitals, athletic venues, and ferries in Greece were tested by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for serogroup discrimination and molecularly by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) for genetic diversity. Fifty-six of 80 strains were also typed by the sequence-based typing (SBT) method...
October 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454787/pulmonary-legionellosis-in-oncologic-patients-findings-on-chest-ct
#14
Girish S Shroff, Edith M Marom, Carol C Wu, Myrna C B Godoy, Wei Wei, Andrea Ihegword, Xiang-Yang Han, Mylene T Truong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the computed tomography (CT) findings of non-pneumophila Legionella pneumonia and to compare these CT findings to those caused by Legionella pneumophila in oncologic patients. METHODS: Chest CT scans of 34 oncologic patients with culture-proven Legionella infection (16 L. pneumophila and 18 non-pneumophila Legionella) were retrospectively reviewed. Radiologic checkpoints included consolidation, ground-glass opacities, cavitation, nodules, tree-in-bud opacities, septal thickening, pleural effusions, and adenopathy, as well as the halo, reversed halo, and bulging fissure signs...
November 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442238/first-case-of-legionnaire-s-disease-caused-by-legionella-anisa-in-spain-and-the-limitations-on-the-diagnosis-of-legionella-non-pneumophila-infections
#15
Lucianna Vaccaro, Fernando Izquierdo, Angela Magnet, Carolina Hurtado, Mireya A Salinas, Thiago Santos Gomes, Santiago Angulo, Santiago Salso, Jesús Pelaez, Maria Isabel Tejeda, Almudena Alhambra, Carmen Gómez, Ana Enríquez, Eva Estirado, Soledad Fenoy, Carmen Del Aguila
Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia, with worldwide relevance, caused by Legionella spp. Approximately 90% of all cases of legionellosis are caused by Legionella pneumophila, but other species can also be responsible for this infection. These bacteria are transmitted by inhalation of aerosols or aspiration of contaminated water. In Spain, environmental studies have demonstrated the presence of Legionella non-pneumophila species in drinking water treatment plants and water distribution networks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405130/distribution-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroups-isolated-from-water-systems-of-public-facilities-in-busan-south-korea
#16
In-Yeong Hwang, Eun-Hee Park, Yon-Koung Park, Sun-Hee Park, Gyung-Hye Sung, Hye-Young Park, Young-Choon Lee
Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15)...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377444/community-acquired-pneumonia-and-positive-urinary-antigen-tests-factors-associated-with-targeted-antibiotic-therapy
#17
A Mothes, S Léotard, I Nicolle, A Smets, D Chirio, C Rotomondo, F Tiger, P Del Giudice, C Perrin, D Néri, C Foucault, M Della Guardia, H Hyvernat, P-M Roger
BACKGROUND: The use of rapid microbiological tests is supported by antimicrobial stewardship policies. Targeted antibiotic therapy (TAT) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with positive urinary antigen test (UAT) has been associated with a favorable impact on outcome. We aimed to determine the factors associated with TAT prescription. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including all patients presenting with CAP and positive UAT for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Legionella pneumophila from January 2010 to December 2013...
October 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294627/genotypic-diversity-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-environmental-and-clinical-strains-assessed-by-sequence-based-typing-in-association-with-retrospective-clinical-surveillance-in-northern-italy
#18
Annalisa Bianchi, Fabrizio Ernesto Pregliasco, Michela Consonni, Marina Tesauro
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evidence previous cases of legionellosis or proven or suspected pneumonia in seven hospital facilities for the mentally disabled in Northern Italy, where no clinical surveillance had been previously carried out. An additional aim was to highlight the occurrence of strains of Legionella pneumophila of clinical and environmental origin by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT), comparing them to world surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A clinical survey was perfomed from 2003-2012, analyzing 615 medical records for hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia, with particular attention to legionellosis...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281485/vital-signs-deficiencies-in-environmental-control-identified-in-outbreaks-of-legionnaires-disease-north-america-2000-2014
#19
Laurel E Garrison, Jasen M Kunz, Laura A Cooley, Matthew R Moore, Claressa Lucas, Stephanie Schrag, John Sarisky, Cynthia G Whitney
BACKGROUND: The number of reported cases of Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella, is increasing in the United States. During 2000-2014, the rate of reported legionellosis cases increased from 0.42 to 1.62 per 100,000 persons; 4% of reported cases were outbreak-associated. Legionella is transmitted through aerosolization of contaminated water. A new industry standard for prevention of Legionella growth and transmission in water systems in buildings was published in 2015...
June 10, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280420/evaluation-of-an-optimal-epidemiological-typing-scheme-for-legionella-pneumophila-with-whole-genome-sequence-data-using-validation-guidelines
#20
Sophia David, Massimo Mentasti, Rediat Tewolde, Martin Aslett, Simon R Harris, Baharak Afshar, Anthony Underwood, Norman K Fry, Julian Parkhill, Timothy G Harrison
Sequence-based typing (SBT), analogous to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), is the current "gold standard" typing method for investigation of legionellosis outbreaks caused by Legionella pneumophila However, as common sequence types (STs) cause many infections, some investigations remain unresolved. In this study, various whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based methods were evaluated according to published guidelines, including (i) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method, (ii) extended MLST using different numbers of genes, (iii) determination of gene presence or absence, and (iv) a kmer-based method...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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