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legionellosis, legionella

Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Research
Emilie Bédard, Simon Lévesque, Philippe Martin, Linda Pinsonneault, Kiran Paranjape, Cindy Lalancette, Charles-Éric Dolcé, Manuela Villion, Louis Valiquette, Sébastien P Faucher, Michèle Prévost
OBJECTIVE To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year. SETTING A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada. METHODS Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists...
September 19, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jeanette J Rainey, Tiffani Phelps, Jianrong Shi
BACKGROUND: Because mass gatherings create environments conducive for infectious disease transmission, public health officials may recommend postponing or canceling large gatherings during a moderate or severe pandemic. Despite these recommendations, limited empirical information exists on the frequency and characteristics of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014...
2016: PloS One
Catrine Ahlen, Marianne Aas, Jadwiga Krusnell, Ole-Jan Iversen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. METHODS: Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Anna Katsiaflaka, Spyros Pournaras, Ioulia Kristo, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Maria Kyritsi, Emmanuel Velonakis, Alkiviadis C Vatopoulos, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
: The aim of this study is to explore the dispersion, clonality, and virulence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 to 14 in the Greek environment. Eighty L. pneumophila serogroup 2 to 14 strains isolated from water distribution systems of hotels, hospitals, athletic venues, and ferries in Greece were tested by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for serogroup discrimination and molecularly by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) for genetic diversity. Fifty-six of 80 strains were also typed by the sequence-based typing (SBT) method...
October 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Girish S Shroff, Edith M Marom, Carol C Wu, Myrna C B Godoy, Wei Wei, Andrea Ihegword, Xiang-Yang Han, Mylene T Truong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the computed tomography (CT) findings of non-pneumophila Legionella pneumonia and to compare these CT findings to those caused by Legionella pneumophila in oncologic patients. METHODS: Chest CT scans of 34 oncologic patients with culture-proven Legionella infection (16 L. pneumophila and 18 non-pneumophila Legionella) were retrospectively reviewed. Radiologic checkpoints included consolidation, ground-glass opacities, cavitation, nodules, tree-in-bud opacities, septal thickening, pleural effusions, and adenopathy, as well as the halo, reversed halo, and bulging fissure signs...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Lucianna Vaccaro, Fernando Izquierdo, Angela Magnet, Carolina Hurtado, Mireya A Salinas, Thiago Santos Gomes, Santiago Angulo, Santiago Salso, Jesús Pelaez, Maria Isabel Tejeda, Almudena Alhambra, Carmen Gómez, Ana Enríquez, Eva Estirado, Soledad Fenoy, Carmen Del Aguila
Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia, with worldwide relevance, caused by Legionella spp. Approximately 90% of all cases of legionellosis are caused by Legionella pneumophila, but other species can also be responsible for this infection. These bacteria are transmitted by inhalation of aerosols or aspiration of contaminated water. In Spain, environmental studies have demonstrated the presence of Legionella non-pneumophila species in drinking water treatment plants and water distribution networks...
2016: PloS One
In-Yeong Hwang, Eun-Hee Park, Yon-Koung Park, Sun-Hee Park, Gyung-Hye Sung, Hye-Young Park, Young-Choon Lee
Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15)...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
A Mothes, S Léotard, I Nicolle, A Smets, D Chirio, C Rotomondo, F Tiger, P Del Giudice, C Perrin, D Néri, C Foucault, M Della Guardia, H Hyvernat, P-M Roger
BACKGROUND: The use of rapid microbiological tests is supported by antimicrobial stewardship policies. Targeted antibiotic therapy (TAT) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with positive urinary antigen test (UAT) has been associated with a favorable impact on outcome. We aimed to determine the factors associated with TAT prescription. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including all patients presenting with CAP and positive UAT for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Legionella pneumophila from January 2010 to December 2013...
July 1, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Annalisa Bianchi, Fabrizio Ernesto Pregliasco, Michela Consonni, Marina Tesauro
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evidence previous cases of legionellosis or proven or suspected pneumonia in seven hospital facilities for the mentally disabled in Northern Italy, where no clinical surveillance had been previously carried out. An additional aim was to highlight the occurrence of strains of Legionella pneumophila of clinical and environmental origin by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT), comparing them to world surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A clinical survey was perfomed from 2003-2012, analyzing 615 medical records for hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia, with particular attention to legionellosis...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Laurel E Garrison, Jasen M Kunz, Laura A Cooley, Matthew R Moore, Claressa Lucas, Stephanie Schrag, John Sarisky, Cynthia G Whitney
BACKGROUND: The number of reported cases of Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella, is increasing in the United States. During 2000-2014, the rate of reported legionellosis cases increased from 0.42 to 1.62 per 100,000 persons; 4% of reported cases were outbreak-associated. Legionella is transmitted through aerosolization of contaminated water. A new industry standard for prevention of Legionella growth and transmission in water systems in buildings was published in 2015...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sophia David, Massimo Mentasti, Rediat Tewolde, Martin Aslett, Simon R Harris, Baharak Afshar, Anthony Underwood, Norman K Fry, Julian Parkhill, Timothy G Harrison
Sequence-based typing (SBT), analogous to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), is the current "gold standard" typing method for investigation of legionellosis outbreaks caused by Legionella pneumophila However, as common sequence types (STs) cause many infections, some investigations remain unresolved. In this study, various whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based methods were evaluated according to published guidelines, including (i) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method, (ii) extended MLST using different numbers of genes, (iii) determination of gene presence or absence, and (iv) a kmer-based method...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Bidya Prasad, Kerry A Hamilton, Charles N Haas
A novel method was used to incorporate in vivo host-pathogen dynamics into a new robust outbreak model for legionellosis. Dose-response and time-dose-response (TDR) models were generated for Legionella longbeachae exposure to mice via the intratracheal route using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The best-fit TDR model was then incorporated into two L. pneumophila outbreak models: an outbreak that occurred at a spa in Japan, and one that occurred in a Melbourne aquarium. The best-fit TDR from the murine dosing study was the beta-Poisson with exponential-reciprocal dependency model, which had a minimized deviance of 32...
May 26, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Bekir S Kocazeybek, Pelin Yuksel, Dilek Keskin, Suhail Sheikh, Zafer Habip, Serap Sahin Yavuzer, Reyhan Caliskan, Yagız Meric Altun, Mert Kuskucu, Mahir Cengiz, Harika Oyku Dinc, Asiye Karakullukcu, Sevgi Ergin, Suat Saribas, Nail Yilmaz, Hrisi Bahar Tokman
BACKGROUND: Although Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the common disease causing serogroup, rare serogroups can also may cause legionellosis. A 54-year-old male patient (index case) reported that he had been on a religious trip (for visiting, tomb of Ali, which is important for Shias) to Iraq with a large group (50 shia pilgrims from Kars city of Turkey) two weeks prior to admission. Due to civil war, the hotel where the patient stayed in Iraq lacked proper hygiene. A large number of people in the travel group were experiencing the same symptoms...
May 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jean-Marc Berjeaud, Sylvie Chevalier, Margot Schlusselhuber, Emilie Portier, Clémence Loiseau, Willy Aucher, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Julien Verdon
Legionella pneumophila, the major causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is found in freshwater environments in close association with free-living amoebae and multispecies biofilms, leading to persistence, spread, biocide resistance, and elevated virulence of the bacterium. Indeed, legionellosis outbreaks are mainly due to the ability of this bacterium to colonize and persist in water facilities, despite harsh physical and chemical treatments. However, these treatments are not totally efficient and, after a lag period, L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brian H Raphael, Deborah J Baker, Elizabeth Nazarian, Pascal Lapierre, Dianna Bopp, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Shatavia S Morrison, Claressa E Lucas, Jeffrey W Mercante, Kimberlee A Musser, Jonas M Winchell
UNLABELLED: A total of 30 Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates representing 10 separate legionellosis laboratory investigations ("outbreaks") that occurred in New York State between 2004 and 2012 were selected for evaluation of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) approaches for molecular subtyping of this organism. Clinical and environmental isolates were available for each outbreak and were initially examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sequence-based typing alleles were extracted from WGS data yielding complete sequence types (ST) for isolates representing 8 out of the 10 outbreaks evaluated in this study...
June 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Elisa Andreozzi, Federica Barbieri, Maria F Ottaviani, Luca Giorgi, Francesca Bruscolini, Anita Manti, Michela Battistelli, Luigia Sabatini, Anna Pianetti
Legionnaires' disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila, an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. In man-made water systems microbial biofilms increase the resistance of legionella to disinfection, posing a significant threat to public health. Disinfection methods currently used in water systems have been shown to be ineffective against legionella over the long-term, allowing recolonization by the biofilm-protected microorganisms. In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jessie A Gleason, Natalie R Kratz, Rebecca D Greeley, Jerald A Fagliano
The incidence of legionellosis, caused by the bacteria Legionella which are commonly found in the environment, has been increasing in New Jersey (NJ) over the last decade. The majority of cases are sporadic with no known source of exposure. Meteorological factors may be associated with increases in legionellosis. Time series and case-crossover study designs were used to evaluate associations of legionellosis and meteorological factors (temperature (daily minimum, maximum, and mean), precipitation, dew point, relative humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed (daily maximum and mean), gust, and visibility)...
June 2016: EcoHealth
Alexander K T Kirschner
In developed countries, legionellae are one of the most important water-based bacterial pathogens caused by management failure of engineered water systems. For routine surveillance of legionellae in engineered water systems and outbreak investigations, cultivation-based standard techniques are currently applied. However, in many cases culture-negative results are obtained despite the presence of viable legionellae, and clinical cases of legionellosis cannot be traced back to their respective contaminated water source...
April 15, 2016: Water Research
Anika Wunderlich, Carmen Torggler, Dennis Elsässer, Christian Lück, Reinhard Niessner, Michael Seidel
World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L...
March 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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