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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250292/discrimination-between-legionnaires-disease-and-pneumococcal-pneumonia-based-on-the-clinical-and-laboratory-features-a-quantitative-approach-using-the-modified-winthrop-university-hospital-weighted-point-system
#1
Hiroki Yamakuchi, Yohei Hamada, Tosiharu Urakami, Yosuke Aoki
Objective Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a common form of lobar pneumonia, but the optimum diagnostic modality has long been a subject of debate due to incomplete sensitivity and specificity. A delay in the initiation of specific therapy for LD is associated with increased mortality. The decision to treat a patient for Legionella must be made quickly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the modified Winthrop-University Hospital WUH system to identify LD while discriminating against pneumococcal pneumonia at the time of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228245/legionellosis-acquired-through-a-dental-unit-a-case-study
#2
C Schönning, C Jernberg, D Klingenberg, S Andersson, A Pääjärvi, E Alm, E Tano, B Lytsy
In 2012, an elderly immunocompromised man died from legionellosis at a hospital in Uppsala, Sweden. The patient had visited a dental ward at the hospital during the incubation period. Legionella spp. at a concentration of 2000 colony-forming units/L were isolated from the cupfiller outlet providing water for oral rinsing. Isolates from the patient and the dental unit were Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subgroup Knoxville and ST9. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing strongly suggested that the isolates were of common origin...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188095/prevalence-of-legionella-species-isolated-from-shower-water-in-public-bath-facilities-in-toyama-prefecture-japan
#3
Jun-Ichi Kanatani, Junko Isobe, Shiho Norimoto, Keiko Kimata, Chieko Mitsui, Junko Amemura-Maekawa, Fumiaki Kura, Tetsutaro Sata, Masanori Watahiki
AIMS: We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. METHODS: The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166862/legionella-prevalence-and-risk-of-legionellosis-in-japanese-households
#4
T Kuroki, Y Watanabe, H Teranishi, S Izumiyama, J Amemura-Maekawa, F Kura
This study determined the occurrence of legionellae in private houses for which there were no available data on aquatic environments other than the water supply system. From June 2013 to November 2014, we collected 138 water and 90 swab samples from aquatic environments in 19 houses. Legionella DNA was detected via a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in 66 (47·8%) water and 17 (18·9%) swab samples. High Legionella DNA detection rates were observed in water samples from washing machines and aquariums...
February 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159784/temperature-dependent-growth-modeling-of-environmental-and-clinical-legionella-pneumophila-mlva-genotypes
#5
Yehonatan Sharaby, Sarah Rodríguez-Martínez, Olga Oks, Marina Pecellin, Hila Mizrahi, Avi Peretz, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred Höfle, Malka Halpern
Legionella pneumophila cause waterborne infections resulting in severe pneumonia. High resolution genotyping of L. pneumophila isolates can be achieved by Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA). Recently, we found that different MLVA genotypes of L. pneumophila, dominated different sites in a small drinking-water network, with a genotype-related temperature and abundance regime. The current study focuses on understanding the temperature-dependent growth kinetics of the genotypes that dominated the water network...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159177/microbiology-and-epidemiology-of-legionnaire-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Almudena Burillo, María Luisa Pedro-Botet, Emilio Bouza
Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141673/implementation-of-a-legionella-ordinance-for-multifamily-housing-garland-texas
#7
Ellen A Whitney, Sarah Blake, Ruth L Berkelman
CONTEXT: The incidence of legionellosis has sharply increased in the United States as a result of contaminated water systems. Jurisdictions across the country are considering whether to develop and implement regulations to protect individuals against Legionnaires' disease with its associated high morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: This article sheds light on the implementation and effectiveness of a 2005 citywide Legionella testing mandate of multifamily housing cooling towers in Garland, Texas...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123918/severe-legionella-pneumophila-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-success-story-300-kilometers-away
#8
Miguel Jacob, Helena C Ramos, Bruno Morgado
The most significant outbreak of Legionella pneumophila, or Legionnaires' Disease, ever registered in Portugal occurred in 2014, and was considered one of the largest in European history. This relatively rare infection has a dire prognosis if not timely identified and correctly treated, presenting with a high lethality rate. We describe a case of infection by Legionella pneumophila in a previously healthy individual during an outbreak that originated 300 kilometers away from our hospital. The patient presented to the Emergency Department and after an initial assessment, was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)...
December 21, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098535/outbreak-of-legionnaire-s-disease-caused-by-legionella-pneumophila-serogroups-1-and-13
#9
Toshiro Kuroki, Junko Amemura-Maekawa, Hitomi Ohya, Ichiro Furukawa, Miyuki Suzuki, Tomoka Masaoka, Kastuhiro Aikawa, Kazumi Hibi, Masatomo Morita, Ken-Ichi Lee, Makoto Ohnishi, Fumiaki Kura
In Japan, hot springs and public baths are the major sources of legionellosis. In 2015, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred among 7 patients who had visited a spa house. Laboratory investigation indicated that L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and 13 strains caused the outbreak and that these strains were genetically related.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059171/comparison-of-sputum-microbiome-of-legionellosis-associated-patients-and-other-pneumonia-patients-indications-for-polybacterial-infections
#10
Hila Mizrahi, Avi Peretz, René Lesnik, Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Yehonatan Sharaby, Nina Pastukh, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G Höfle, Malka Halpern
Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections resulting in severe pneumonia. Here we analyze and compare the bacterial microbiome of sputum samples from pneumonia patients in relation to the presence and abundance of the genus Legionella. The prevalence of Legionella species was determined by culture, PCR, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Nine sputum samples out of the 133 analyzed were PCR-positive using Legionella genus-specific primers. Only one sample was positive by culture. Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of Legionella-positive and Legionella-negative sputum samples, confirmed that indeed, Legionella was present in the PCR-positive sputum samples...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029126/legionella-risk-management-and-control-in-potable-water-systems-argument-for-the-abolishment-of-routine-testing
#11
Harriet Whiley
Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health significance. One of the main sources of Legionella is potable water systems. As a consequence of aging populations there is an increasing demographic considered at high risk for Legionellosis and, as such, a review of the guidelines is required. Worldwide, Legionella has been detected from many potable water sources, suggesting it is ubiquitous in this environment. Previous studies have identified the limitations of the current standard method for Legionella detection and the high possibility of it returning both false negative and false positive results...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959883/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-legionella-strains-isolated-from-public-water-sources-in-macau-and-guangzhou
#12
Lina Xiong, He Yan, Lei Shi, Ziyao Mo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC50/MIC90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#13
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805070/legionella-pneumophila-prevents-proliferation-of-its-natural-host-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#14
Luce Mengue, Matthieu Régnacq, Willy Aucher, Emilie Portier, Yann Héchard, Ascel Samba-Louaka
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous, pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Like many other amoeba-resistant microorganisms, L. pneumophila resists host clearance and multiplies inside the cell. Through its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, the bacterium injects more than three hundred effectors that modulate host cell physiology in order to promote its own intracellular replication. Here we report that L. pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797349/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-64-year-old-woman-presenting-with-fever-confusion-ophthalmoplegia-and-pneumonia
#15
Daniel H Johnson, Michael Modica, Rachel Coleman, Charles V Sanders, Fred A Lopez
Legionella pneumophila is a major cause of atypical community-acquired pneumonia, which is commonly severe enough to require hospitalization. Though primarily a respiratory infection, Legionellosis involves the central nervous system (CNS) in up to 50% of patients, and diagnosis can be obscured by the absence of obvious respiratory symptomatology. A reversible diffuse encephalopathy is the most common neurologic complication, but focal CNS involvement can sometimes be the initial presentation. We report a case of a woman infected with Legionella pneumophila presenting with vague symptomatology and focal neurologic findings...
September 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779835/legionellosis-in-poland-in-2014
#16
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and its prior versions along with the legionellosis case reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH. RESULTS: In Poland, both two forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of disease accompanied by pneumonia) and Pontiac fever (mild, influenza-like form of infection) - are routinely reported to the surveillance...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717486/legionellosis-in-the-occupational-setting
#17
REVIEW
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640674/energy-conservation-and-the-promotion-of-legionella-pneumophila-growth-the-probable-role-of-heat-exchangers-in-a-nosocomial-outbreak
#18
Emilie Bédard, Simon Lévesque, Philippe Martin, Linda Pinsonneault, Kiran Paranjape, Cindy Lalancette, Charles-Éric Dolcé, Manuela Villion, Louis Valiquette, Sébastien P Faucher, Michèle Prévost
OBJECTIVE To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year. SETTING A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada. METHODS Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536770/mass-gatherings-and-respiratory-disease-outbreaks-in-the-united-states-should-we-be-worried-results-from-a-systematic-literature-review-and-analysis-of-the-national-outbreak-reporting-system
#19
Jeanette J Rainey, Tiffani Phelps, Jianrong Shi
BACKGROUND: Because mass gatherings create environments conducive for infectious disease transmission, public health officials may recommend postponing or canceling large gatherings during a moderate or severe pandemic. Despite these recommendations, limited empirical information exists on the frequency and characteristics of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515183/a-single-legionella-pneumophila-genotype-in-the-freshwater-system-in-a-ship-experiencing-three-separate-outbreaks-of-legionellosis-in-6-years
#20
Catrine Ahlen, Marianne Aas, Jadwiga Krusnell, Ole-Jan Iversen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. METHODS: Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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