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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104349/ten-questions-concerning-the-aerosolization-and-transmission-of-legionella-in-the-built-environment
#1
Aaron J Prussin, David Otto Schwake, Linsey C Marr
Legionella is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. Legionella can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Incidence of the disease is higher in the summertime, possibly because of increased use of cooling towers for air conditioning systems and differences in water chemistry when outdoor temperatures are higher...
October 2017: Building and Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047425/legionnaires-disease-outbreak-caused-by-endemic-strain-of-legionella-pneumophila-new-york-new-york-usa-2015
#2
Pascal Lapierre, Elizabeth Nazarian, Yan Zhu, Danielle Wroblewski, Amy Saylors, Teresa Passaretti, Scott Hughes, Anthony Tran, Ying Lin, John Kornblum, Shatavia S Morrison, Jeffrey W Mercante, Robert Fitzhenry, Don Weiss, Brian H Raphael, Jay K Varma, Howard A Zucker, Jennifer L Rakeman, Kimberlee A Musser
During the summer of 2015, New York, New York, USA, had one of the largest and deadliest outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the history of the United States. A total of 138 cases and 16 deaths were linked to a single cooling tower in the South Bronx. Analysis of environmental samples and clinical isolates showed that sporadic cases of legionellosis before, during, and after the outbreak could be traced to a slowly evolving, single-ancestor strain. Detection of an ostensibly virulent Legionella strain endemic to the Bronx community suggests potential risk for future cases of legionellosis in the area...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022684/legionellosis-a-walk-through-to-identification-of-the-source-of-infection
#3
Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Vassilios Sandalakis, Maria Keramarou, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
OBJECTIVES: Although a number of human Legionnaires' disease in tourists are recorded annually in Europe, there are few cases where a direct link can be made between the infected person and the source of infection (hotel or other accommodation). We present a scheme followed in order to track down and identify the source of infection in a tourist suffering from L. pneumophila sg 5 infection, who was accommodated in seven different hotels during his holidays in the island of Crete, and we comment on various difficulties and draw-backs of the process...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022658/-legionellosis
#4
David Haefliger, Christian Chuard
Legionellosis refers to the two clinical syndromes caused by Legionella : Pontiac fever, a benign febrile illness and Legionnaires'disease (or pneumonia). Clinically and radiologically, Legionnaires'disease presents itself as a « typical » pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia. Diagnosis is usually made by using urinary antigen testing. Culture and PCR are also helpful. Legionella is resistant to betalactam antibiotics, and is treated by quinolones or macrolides.
October 11, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954435/industrial-cooling-tower-disinfection-treatment-to-prevent-legionella-spp
#5
Matteo Iervolino, Benedetta Mancini, Sandra Cristino
The contamination of industrial cooling towers has been identified as one cause of legionellosis, but the real risk has been underestimated. Two different disinfection treatments were tested on Legionella colonization in an industrial Cooling Tower System (CTS). Environmental monitoring of Legionella, P. aeruginosa, and a heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 36 °C was performed from June to October 2016. The disinfection procedures adopted were based on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and silver salts (Ag⁺), in addition to an anti-algal treatment, then using hyperclorination as a shock, and then continuous treatment by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948808/-legionellosis-and-its-diagnosis
#6
M Kotrbancová, M Špaleková, M Fulová, K Trnková, J Perželová
The diagnosis of legionellosis, especially of its severe, life-threatening form, Legionnaires' disease, is complicated, primarily because of non-typical symptoms of the infection, not always dominating atypical pneumonia, and often a very dramatic septic course of the disease with multiorgan failures. The diagnosis of the acute phase of the disease can be established by the detection of Legionella antigen in urine and by PCR/real-time PCR detection of Legionella DNA in serum and lower respiratory tract and urine samples...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917570/detection-of-viable-but-nonculturable-legionella-in-hospital-water-network-following-monochloramine-disinfection
#7
Beatrice Casini, Angelo Baggiani, Michele Totaro, Antonella Mansi, Anna Laura Costa, Francesco Aquino, Mario Miccoli, Paola Valentini, Fabrizio Bruschi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Gaetano Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis still remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as a good alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: We investigated the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900358/risk-assessment-of-legionellosis-in-cardiology-units
#8
REVIEW
P Laganà, S Delia, E Avventuroso, M Casale, G Dattilo
Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, in addition to classic pathogens were isolated exigent Gram negative bacteria as A. baumannii, A. lwoffii, C. burnetii, Bartonella, Chlamydia and Legionella. We present our experience of Legionella isolations in environmental sample (water and air) collected from the Cardiology units belonging to two hospitals in Messina (Italy). A total of 80 samples were carried out, 30 and 50, respectively in the first and in the second structure: 55 of water and 25 of aerosol...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882518/viability-qpcr-a-new-tool-for-legionella-risk-management
#9
X Lizana, A López, S Benito, G Agustí, M Ríos, N Piqué, A M Marqués, F Codony
BACKGROUND: Viability quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (v-qPCR) is a recent analytical approach for only detecting live microorganisms by DNA amplification-based methods This approach is based on the use of a reagent that irreversibly fixes dead cells DNA. In this study, we evaluate the utility of v-qPCR versus culture method for Legionellosis risk management. METHODS: The present study was performed using 116 real samples. Water samples were simultaneously analysed by culture, v-qPCR and qPCR methods...
November 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863324/quantification-of-viable-and-non-viable-legionella-spp-by-heterogeneous-asymmetric-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-harpa-on-a-flow-based-chemiluminescence-microarray
#10
Catharina Kober, Reinhard Niessner, Michael Seidel
Increasing numbers of legionellosis outbreaks within the last years have shown that Legionella are a growing challenge for public health. Molecular biological detection methods capable of rapidly identifying viable Legionella are important for the control of engineered water systems. The current gold standard based on culture methods takes up to 10 days to show positive results. For this reason, a flow-based chemiluminescence (CL) DNA microarray was developed that is able to quantify viable and non-viable Legionella spp...
August 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859016/the-first-case-of-infantile-legionella-pneumonia-after-bathing-in-reheated-and-reused-water
#11
Kouki Tomari, Saeko Morino, Yuho Horikoshi
A 1-month-old girl developed respiratory failure due to bilateral interstitial pneumonia after bathing in reheated and reused water. A molecular test for sputum and an environmental culture detected L. pneumophila serotype 1. This is the first report of infantile legionellosis contracted from a bath tub at home.
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782709/minimum-inhibitory-concentration-mic-distribution-among-wild-type-strains-of-legionella-pneumophila-identifies-a-subpopulation-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-macrolides-owing-to-efflux-pump-genes
#12
Marine Vandewalle-Capo, Clémence Massip, Ghislaine Descours, Joséphine Charavit, Joelle Chastang, Pierre Alain Billy, Sandrine Boisset, Gerard Lina, Christophe Gilbert, Max Maurin, Sophie Jarraud, Christophe Ginevra
Legionnaires' disease is a severe pneumonia mainly caused by Legionella pneumophila that is treated by antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to describe the susceptibility of clinical strains of L. pneumophila to eight antibiotics used for treatment of legionellosis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 109 well-characterised clinical strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were determined by the broth microdilution method without charcoal and were compared with antibiotic-resistant strains selected in vitro...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695408/a-gyrb-oligonucleotide-microarray-for-the-specific-detection-of-pathogenic-legionella-and-three-legionella-pneumophila-subsp
#13
Daoyi Xi, Yan Dou, Wei Ren, Shuang Yang, Lu Feng, Boyang Cao, Lei Wang
Among the 50 species and 70 serogroups of Legionella identified, Legionella pneumophila, comprising three subsp. (subsp. pneumophila, subsp. fraseri, and subsp. pasculleii), is recognized as the major cause of epidemic legionellosis. Rapid and reliable assays to identify pathogenic Legionella spp., and the three L. pneumophila subsp. in particular, are in great demand. In this study, we analyzed the gyrB genes of eleven Legionella spp. and subsp., comprising L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. feeleii, L...
July 10, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674045/digital-pcr-for-detection-and-quantification-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-legionella-pneumophila
#14
Aurélie Hennebique, Marie Bidart, Sophie Jarraud, Laëtitia Beraud, Carole Schwebel, Max Maurin, Sandrine Boisset
The emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant mutants of Legionella pneumophila in infected humans was previously reported using a next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) approach. This finding could explain part of the therapeutic failures observed in legionellosis patients treated with these antibiotics. The aim of this study was to develop digital PCR (dPCR) assays allowing rapid and accurate detection and quantification of these resistant mutants in respiratory samples, especially when the proportion of mutants in a wild-type background is low...
September 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664708/legionella-risk-assessment-in-cruise-ships-and-ferries
#15
Pasqualina Laganà, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
<b>Introduction.</b> The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well maintained...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640202/evaluation-of-legionella-air-contamination-in-healthcare-facilities-by-different-sampling-methods-an-italian-multicenter-study
#16
Maria Teresa Montagna, Osvalda De Giglio, Maria Luisa Cristina, Christian Napoli, Claudia Pacifico, Antonella Agodi, Tatjana Baldovin, Beatrice Casini, Maria Anna Coniglio, Marcello Mario D'Errico, Santi Antonino Delia, Maria Grazia Deriu, Marco Guida, Pasqualina Laganà, Giorgio Liguori, Matteo Moro, Ida Mura, Francesca Pennino, Gaetano Privitera, Vincenzo Romano Spica, Silvia Sembeni, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Stefano Tardivo, Ida Torre, Federica Valeriani, Roberto Albertini, Cesira Pasquarella
Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis(®)μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis(®)μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625225/legionella-longbeachae-detected-in-an-industrial-cooling-tower-linked-to-a-legionellosis-outbreak-new-zealand-2015-possible-waterborne-transmission
#17
C N Thornley, D J Harte, R P Weir, L J Allen, K J Knightbridge, P R T Wood
A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires' disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#18
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602386/respiratory-infections-associated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-agents
#19
REVIEW
E Blanchard, M-E Truchetet, I Machelart, J Séneschal, C Raherison-Semjen
Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. This excessive infection risk seems real, particularly in the first six months following treatment initiation, and higher for patients receiving anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies than for those receiving soluble TNFα receptor...
October 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598344/occurrence-of-legionella-in-showers-at-recreational-facilities
#20
Patrizia De Filippis, Cinzia Mozzetti, Massimo Amicosante, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Alessandra Messina, Donatella Varrenti, Roberto Giammattei, Floriana Di Giorgio, Stefania Corradi, Alberto D'Auria, Roberta Fraietta, Rosanna Gabrieli
Critical environments, including water systems in recreational settings, represent an important source of Legionella pneumophila infection in humans. In order to assess the potential risk for legionellosis, we analyzed Legionella contamination of water distribution systems in 36 recreational facilities equipped with swimming pools. One hundred and sixty water samples were analyzed from shower heads or taps located in locker rooms or in bathrooms. By culture method and polymerase chain reaction, 41/160 samples were positive for Legionella from 12/36 recreational centers...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
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