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Peter Dayan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107409/validity-and-reliability-of-the-verbal-numerical-rating-scale-for-children-aged-4-to-17-years-with%C3%A2-acute-pain
#1
Daniel S Tsze, Carl L von Baeyer, Vartan Pahalyants, Peter S Dayan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The Verbal Numerical Rating Scale is the most commonly used self-report measure of pain intensity. It is unclear how the validity and reliability of the scale scores vary across children's ages. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the scale for children presenting to the emergency department across a comprehensive spectrum of age. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 4 to 17 years. Children self-reported their pain intensity, using the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale and Faces Pain Scale-Revised at 2 serial assessments...
October 26, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105207/early-recurrence-of-first-unprovoked-seizures-in-children
#2
Leah R Goldberg, Catherine G Kernie, Kathleen Lillis, Jonathan Bennett, Gregory Conners, Charles G Macias, James Callahan, Cigdem Akman, W Allen Hauser, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: The risk of early seizure recurrences after first unprovoked seizures in children is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the rate of seizure recurrence within 14 days of first, unprovoked seizures in children and identify associated risk factors. Secondarily, we aimed to determine the risk of recurrence at 48 hours and 4 months. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort study of children 29 days-18 years with first, unprovoked seizures...
November 4, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056437/texting-to-increase-contraceptive-initiation-among-adolescents-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Lauren S Chernick, Melissa S Stockwell, Mengfei Wu, Paula M Castaño, Rebecca Schnall, Carolyn L Westhoff, John Santelli, Peter S Dayan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging intervention to increase contraception among adolescent emergency department patients. METHODS: A pilot randomized controlled trial of sexually active females aged 14-19 receiving 3 months of theory-based, unidirectional educational and motivational texts providing reproductive health information versus standardized discharge instructions. Blinded assessors measured contraception initiation via telephone follow-up and health record review at 3 months...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018195/prior-preferences-beneficially-influence-social-and-non-social-learning
#4
Tor Tarantola, Dharshan Kumaran, Peter Dayan, Benedetto De Martino
Our personal preferences affect a broad array of social behaviors. This includes the way we learn the preferences of others, an ability that often relies on limited or ambiguous information. Here we report an egocentric influence on this type of social learning that is reflected in both performance and response times. Using computational models that combine inter-trial learning and intra-trial choice, we find transient effects of participants' preferences on the learning process, through the influence of priors, and persistent effects on the choice process...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949824/learning-contextual-reward-expectations-for-value-adaptation
#5
Francesco Rigoli, Benjamin Chew, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Substantial evidence indicates that subjective value is adapted to the statistics of reward expected within a given temporal context. However, how these contextual expectations are learnt is poorly understood. To examine such learning, we exploited a recent observation that participants performing a gambling task adjust their preferences as a function of context. We show that, in the absence of contextual cues providing reward information, an average reward expectation was learned from recent past experience...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924006/the-neural-basis-of-aversive-pavlovian-guidance-during-planning
#6
Níall Lally, Quentin J M Huys, Neir Eshel, Paul Faulkner, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multistep decisions. Therefore, humans frequently use heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#7
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870286/attenuation-of-dopamine-modulated-prefrontal-value-signals-underlies-probabilistic-reward-learning-deficits-in-old-age
#8
Lieke de Boer, Jan Axelsson, Katrine Riklund, Lars Nyberg, Peter Dayan, Lars Bäckman, Marc Guitart-Masip
Probabilistic reward learning is characterised by individual differences that become acute in aging. This may be due to age-related dopamine (DA) decline affecting neural processing in striatum, prefrontal cortex, or both. We examined this by administering a probabilistic reward learning task to younger and older adults, and combining computational modelling of behaviour, fMRI and PET measurements of DA D1 availability. We found that anticipatory value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) were attenuated in older adults...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868260/tpoab-and-thyroid-function-are-not-associated-with-breast-cancer-outcome-evidence-from-a-large-scale-study-using-data-from-the-taxotere-as-adjuvant-chemotherapy-trial-tact-cruk01-001
#9
Ilaria Muller, Lucy S Kilburn, Peter N Taylor, Peter J Barrett-Lee, Judith M Bliss, Paul Ellis, Marian E Ludgate, Colin M Dayan
BACKGROUND: Small-scale studies correlated the presence of thyroid autoimmunity with both improved or worsened breast cancer outcome. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify this association in a large cohort using the phase III, randomized, controlled Taxotere as Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial (TACT, CRUK01/001). METHODS: TACT women >18 years old with node-positive or high-risk node-negative early breast cancer (pT1-3a, pN0-1, M0), with stored plasma (n = 1,974), taken 15...
July 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759936/the-impact-of-the-cosurgeon-model-on-bilateral-autologous-breast-reconstruction
#10
Shantanu N Razdan, Hina J Panchal, Geoffrey E Hespe, Joseph J Disa, Colleen M McCarthy, Robert J Allen, Joseph H Dayan, Andrea Pusic, Babak Mehrara, Peter G Cordeiro, Evan Matros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711345/working-at-the-intersection-of-context-culture-and-technology-provider-perspectives-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-emergency-department-using-electronic-health-record-clinical-decision-support
#11
Phillip Chung, Jean Scandlyn, Peter S Dayan, Rakesh D Mistry
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) have not been fully developed for the emergency department (ED), in part the result of the barriers characteristic of this setting. Electronic health record-based clinical decision support (EHR CDS) represents a promising strategy to implement ASPs in the ED. We aimed to determine the cultural beliefs and structural barriers and facilitators to implementation of antimicrobial stewardship in the pediatric ED using EHR CDS. METHODS: Interviews and focus groups were conducted with hospital and ED leadership, attending ED physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and residents at a single health system in Colorado...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678984/association-of-neural-and-emotional-impacts-of-reward-prediction-errors-with-major-depression
#12
Robb B Rutledge, Michael Moutoussis, Peter Smittenaar, Peter Zeidman, Tanja Taylor, Louise Hrynkiewicz, Jordan Lam, Nikolina Skandali, Jenifer Z Siegel, Olga T Ousdal, Gita Prabhu, Peter Dayan, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in representing reward prediction errors (RPEs), which are the difference between experienced and predicted reward. Reward prediction errors underlie learning of values in reinforcement learning models, are represented by phasic dopamine release, and are known to affect momentary mood. Objective: To combine functional neuroimaging, computational modeling, and smartphone-based large-scale data collection to test, in the absence of learning-related concerns, the hypothesis that depression attenuates the impact of RPEs...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562252/time-from-emergency-department-evaluation-to-operation-and-appendiceal-perforation
#13
Michelle D Stevenson, Peter S Dayan, Nanette C Dudley, Lalit Bajaj, Charles G Macias, Richard G Bachur, Kelly Sinclair, Jonathan Bennett, Manoj K Mittal, Macarius M Donneyong, Anupam B Kharbanda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with appendicitis, the risk of perforation increases with time from onset of symptoms. We sought to determine if time from emergency department (ED) physician evaluation until operative intervention is independently associated with appendiceal perforation (AP) in children. METHODS: We conducted a planned secondary analysis of children aged 3 to 18 years with appendicitis enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of patients with abdominal pain (<96 hours)...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549647/pavlovian-influences-on-learning-differ-between-rats-and-mice-in-a-counter-balanced-go-nogo-judgement-bias-task
#14
Samantha Jones, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Judgement bias tests of animal affect and hence welfare assume that the animal's responses to ambiguous stimuli, which may herald positive or negative outcomes, are under instrumental control and reflect 'optimism' or 'pessimism' about what will happen. However, Pavlovian control favours responses (e.g. approach or withdrawal) according to the valence associated with a stimulus, rather than the anticipated response outcomes. Typically, positive contexts promote action and approach whilst negative contexts promote inhibition or withdrawal...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472343/maturation-in-serum-thyroid-function-parameters-over-childhood-and-puberty-results-of-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Peter N Taylor, Adrian Sayers, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Gautam Das, Mohd S Draman, Arshiya Tabasum, Hussam Abusahmin, Mohammad Rahman, Kirsty Stevenson, Alix Groom, Kate Northstone, Wolf Woltersdorf, Andrew Taylor, Susan Ring, John H Lazarus, John W Gregory, Aled Rees, Nicholas Timpson, Colin M Dayan
Context: Serum thyroid hormone levels differ between children and adults, but have not been studied longitudinally through childhood. Objective: To assess changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels over childhood and their interrelationships. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based birth cohort. Participants: A total of 4442 children who had thyroid function measured at age 7, and 1263 children who had thyroid function measured at age 15...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459442/moral-transgressions-corrupt-neural-representations-of-value
#16
Molly J Crockett, Jenifer Z Siegel, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others...
June 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403139/increased-decision-thresholds-enhance-information-gathering-performance-in-juvenile-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#17
Tobias U Hauser, Michael Moutoussis, Reto Iannaccone, Silvia Brem, Susanne Walitza, Renate Drechsler, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be described as cautious and hesitant, manifesting an excessive indecisiveness that hinders efficient decision making. However, excess caution in decision making may also lead to better performance in specific situations where the cost of extended deliberation is small. We compared 16 juvenile OCD patients with 16 matched healthy controls whilst they performed a sequential information gathering task under different external cost conditions. We found that patients with OCD outperformed healthy controls, winning significantly more points...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360419/algorithms-for-survival-a-comparative-perspective-on-emotions
#18
REVIEW
Dominik R Bach, Peter Dayan
The nature and neural implementation of emotions is the subject of vigorous debate. Here, we use Bayesian decision theory to address key complexities in this field and conceptualize emotions in terms of their relationship to survival-relevant behavioural choices. Decision theory indicates which behaviours are optimal in a given situation; however, the calculations required are radically intractable. We therefore conjecture that the brain uses a range of pre-programmed algorithms that provide approximate solutions...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343697/modeling-avoidance-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-using-reinforcement-learning
#19
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jessica Aylward, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. METHODS: Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms...
October 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341799/use-of-traumatic-brain-injury-prediction-rules-with-clinical-decision-support
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Peter S Dayan, Dustin W Ballard, Eric Tham, Jeff M Hoffman, Marguerite Swietlik, Sara J Deakyne, Evaline A Alessandrini, Leah Tzimenatos, Lalit Bajaj, David R Vinson, Dustin G Mark, Steve R Offerman, Uli K Chettipally, Marilyn D Paterno, Molly H Schaeffer, Jun Wang, T Charles Casper, Howard S Goldberg, Robert W Grundmeier, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: We determined whether implementing the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) traumatic brain injury (TBI) prediction rules and providing risks of clinically important TBIs (ciTBIs) with computerized clinical decision support (CDS) reduces computed tomography (CT) use for children with minor head trauma. METHODS: Nonrandomized trial with concurrent controls at 5 pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) and 8 general EDs (GEDs) between November 2011 and June 2014...
April 2017: Pediatrics
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