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Peter Dayan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101493/an-invitation-to-join-the-consortium-on-thyroid-and-pregnancy
#1
Tim I M Korevaar, Peter N Taylor, Colin M Dayan, Robin Patrick Peeters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993819/parsing-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-approach-avoidance-conflict
#2
Eleanor Loh, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, David Berron, Peter Dayan, Emrah Duzel, Ray Dolan, Marc Guitart-Masip
The hippocampus plays a central role in the approach-avoidance conflict that is central to the genesis of anxiety. However, its exact functional contribution has yet to be identified. We designed a novel gambling task that generated approach-avoidance conflict while controlling for spatial processing. We fit subjects' behavior using a model that quantified the subjective values of choice options, and recorded neural signals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Distinct functional signals were observed in anterior hippocampus, with inferior hippocampus selectively recruited when subjects rejected a gamble, to a degree that covaried with individual differences in anxiety...
December 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941965/cd4-cd8-ratio-and-kt-ratio-predict-yellow-fever-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Karina T Miyaji, Peter W Hunt, Yong Huang, Marisol Simoes, Sheila B Lima, Marcos S Freire, Helio H Caiaffa-Filho, Marisa A Hong, Dayane Alves Costa, Juliana Zanatta C Dias, Natalia B Cerqueira, Anna Shoko Nishiya, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Ana M Sartori, Esper G Kallas
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation-characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity-may influence vaccine response in this population. METHODS: We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930904/computations-underlying-social-hierarchy-learning-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-updating-and-representing-self-relevant-information
#4
Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898635/mobile-health-technology-to-communicate-discharge-and-follow-up-information-to-adolescents-from-the-emergency-department
#5
Margaret Ray, Peter S Dayan, Vartan Pahalyants, Lauren S Chernick
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents are the largest users of mobile technology; yet, there are little data regarding their receptivity to the use of mobile health technology (mHealth) from the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine adolescents' preferences for receiving ED discharge and follow-up information via mHealth and factors associated with those preferences. METHODS: We administered an anonymous self-reporting survey to patients aged 14 to 19 years discharged from an urban pediatric ED...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890780/a-clinical-score-to-predict-appendicitis-in-older-male-children
#6
Anupam B Kharbanda, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur, Nanette C Dudley, Lalit Bajaj, Michelle D Stevenson, Charles G Macias, Manoj K Mittal, Jonathan E Bennett, Kelly Sinclair, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical score to predict appendicitis among older, male children who present to the emergency department (ED) with suspected appendicitis. METHODS: Patients with suspected appendicitis were prospectively recruited at 9 pediatric EDs. A total 2,625 patients enrolled; a subset of 961 males, age 8-18 were analyzed in this secondary analysis. Outcomes determined by pathology, operative reports and follow-up calls. Clinical and laboratory predictors with < 10% missing data and Kappa > 0...
November 24, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888148/a-pilot-study-of-a-multimodal-treatment-paradigm-to-accelerate-drug-evaluations-in-early-stage-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#7
Matthew J O'Shaughnessy, Sean M McBride, Hebert Alberto Vargas, Karim A Touijer, Michael J Morris, Daniel C Danila, Vincent P Laudone, Bernard H Bochner, Joel Sheinfeld, Erica S Dayan, Lawrence P Bellomo, Daniel D Sjoberg, Glenn Heller, Michael J Zelefsky, James A Eastham, Peter T Scardino, Howard I Scher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a multimodal strategy aimed at treating all sites of disease that provides a rapid readout of success or failure in men presenting with noncastrate metastatic prostate cancers that are incurable with single modality therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty selected men with oligometastatic M1a (extrapelvic nodal disease) or M1b (bone disease) at diagnosis were treated using a multimodal approach that included androgen deprivation, radical prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy (retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in the presence of clinically positive retroperitoneal nodes), and stereotactic body radiotherapy to osseous disease and/or the primary site...
November 22, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846219/pharmacological-fingerprints-of-contextual-uncertainty
#8
Louise Marshall, Christoph Mathys, Diane Ruge, Archy O de Berker, Peter Dayan, Klaas E Stephan, Sven Bestmann
Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829142/sensory-conflict-disrupts-activity-of-the-drosophila-circadian-network
#9
Ross E F Harper, Peter Dayan, Joerg T Albert, Ralf Stanewsky
Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829041/cognitive-bias-in-ambiguity-judgements-using-computational-models-to-dissect-the-effects-of-mild-mood-manipulation-in-humans
#10
Kiyohito Iigaya, Aurelie Jolivald, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Iain D Gilchrist, Peter Dayan, Elizabeth Paul, Michael Mendl
Positive and negative moods can be treated as prior expectations over future delivery of rewards and punishments. This provides an inferential foundation for the cognitive (judgement) bias task, now widely-used for assessing affective states in non-human animals. In the task, information about affect is extracted from the optimistic or pessimistic manner in which participants resolve ambiguities in sensory input. Here, we report a novel variant of the task aimed at dissecting the effects of affect manipulations on perceptual and value computations for decision-making under ambiguity in humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823876/optimal-volume-of-administration-of-intranasal-midazolam-in-children-a-randomized-clinical%C3%A2-trial
#11
Daniel S Tsze, Maria Ieni, Daniel B Fenster, John Babineau, Joshua Kriger, Bruce Levin, Peter S Dayan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The optimal intranasal volume of administration for achieving timely and effective sedation in children is unclear. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes relevant to procedural sedation associated with using escalating volumes of administration to administer intranasal midazolam. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, 3-arm, superiority clinical trial. Children aged 1 to 7 years and undergoing laceration repair requiring 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (5 mg/mL) were block-randomized to receive midazolam using 1 of 3 volumes of administration: 0...
November 4, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791110/adaptive-integration-of-habits-into-depth-limited-planning-defines-a-habitual-goal-directed-spectrum
#12
Mehdi Keramati, Peter Smittenaar, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
Behavioral and neural evidence reveal a prospective goal-directed decision process that relies on mental simulation of the environment, and a retrospective habitual process that caches returns previously garnered from available choices. Artificial systems combine the two by simulating the environment up to some depth and then exploiting habitual values as proxies for consequences that may arise in the further future. Using a three-step task, we provide evidence that human subjects use such a normative plan-until-habit strategy, implying a spectrum of approaches that interpolates between habitual and goal-directed responding...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741077/acute-outcomes-of-isolated-pneumocephali-in-children-after-minor-blunt-head-trauma
#13
Ashley Blanchard, Keven I Cabrera, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of and adverse outcomes caused by pneumocephali in children with minor blunt head trauma who had no other intracranial injuries (ie, isolated pneumocephali). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a public use dataset from a multicenter prospective study of pediatric minor head trauma. We included children younger than 18 years with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and non-trivial mechanisms of injury who had cranial computed tomographies obtained...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687855/adolescent-female-text-messaging-preferences-to-prevent-pregnancy-after-an-emergency-department-visit-a-qualitative-analysis
#14
Lauren Stephanie Chernick, Rebecca Schnall, Melissa S Stockwell, Paula M Castaño, Tracy Higgins, Carolyn Westhoff, John Santelli, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND: Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661637/an-invitation-to-join-the-consortium-on-thyroid-and-pregnancy
#15
Tim I M Korevaar, Peter N Taylor, Colin M Dayan, Robin P Peeters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638901/peripheral-serotonin-1b-receptor-transcription-predicts-the-effect-of-acute-tryptophan-depletion-on-risky-decision-making
#16
Paul Faulkner, Federico Mancinelli, Patricia L Lockwood, Mar Matarin, Raymond J Dolan, Nick W Wood, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on human decision-making suggest that serotonin modulates the processing of rewards and punishments. However, few studies have assessed which of the many types of serotonin receptors are responsible. METHODS: Using a within-subject, double-blind, sham-controlled design in 26 subjects, we examined whether individual differences in serotonin system gene transcription, measured in peripheral blood, predicted the effect of acute tryptophan depletion on decision-making...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624437/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-modulates-sensitivity-to-decision-outcome-value-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Ben Seymour, Michael Barbe, Peter Dayan, Tamara Shiner, Ray Dolan, Gereon R Fink
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration...
September 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572841/selection-of-antigenically-advanced-variants-of-seasonal-influenza-viruses
#18
Chengjun Li, Masato Hatta, David F Burke, Jihui Ping, Ying Zhang, Makoto Ozawa, Andrew S Taft, Subash C Das, Anthony P Hanson, Jiasheng Song, Masaki Imai, Peter R Wilker, Tokiko Watanabe, Shinji Watanabe, Mutsumi Ito, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Colin A Russell, Sarah L James, Eugene Skepner, Eileen A Maher, Gabriele Neumann, Alexander I Klimov, Anne Kelso, John McCauley, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu, Takato Odagiri, Masato Tashiro, Xiyan Xu, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline M Katz, Nancy J Cox, Derek J Smith, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing random mutations in the globular head of the haemagglutinin protein (which includes the antigenic sites) by incubating them with human and/or ferret convalescent sera to human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. We also selected antigenic escape variants from human viruses treated with convalescent sera and from mice that had been previously immunized against human influenza viruses...
May 23, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552618/association-of-rna-biosignatures-with-bacterial-infections-in-febrile-infants-aged-60-days-or-younger
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Prashant Mahajan, Nathan Kuppermann, Asuncion Mejias, Nicolas Suarez, Damien Chaussabel, T Charles Casper, Bennett Smith, Elizabeth R Alpern, Jennifer Anders, Shireen M Atabaki, Jonathan E Bennett, Stephen Blumberg, Bema Bonsu, Dominic Borgialli, Anne Brayer, Lorin Browne, Daniel M Cohen, Ellen F Crain, Andrea T Cruz, Peter S Dayan, Rajender Gattu, Richard Greenberg, John D Hoyle, David M Jaffe, Deborah A Levine, Kathleen Lillis, James G Linakis, Jared Muenzer, Lise E Nigrovic, Elizabeth C Powell, Alexander J Rogers, Genie Roosevelt, Richard M Ruddy, Mary Saunders, Michael G Tunik, Leah Tzimenatos, Melissa Vitale, J Michael Dean, Octavio Ramilo
IMPORTANCE: Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns ("RNA biosignatures") in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures...
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471139/clinical-presentations-and-outcomes-of-children-with-basilar-skull-fractures-after-blunt-head-trauma
#20
Michael G Tunik, Elizabeth C Powell, Prashant Mahajan, Jeff E Schunk, Elizabeth Jacobs, Michelle Miskin, Sally Jo Zuspan, Sandra Wootton-Gorges, Shireen M Atabaki, John D Hoyle, James F Holmes, Peter S Dayan, Nathan Kuppermann
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe presentations and outcomes of children with basilar skull fractures in the emergency department (ED) after blunt head trauma. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of an observational cohort of children with blunt head trauma. Basilar skull fracture was defined as physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture without basilar skull fracture on computed tomography (CT), or basilar skull fracture on CT regardless of physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture...
October 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
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