keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Peter Dayan

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#1
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870286/attenuation-of-dopamine-modulated-prefrontal-value-signals-underlies-probabilistic-reward-learning-deficits-in-old-age
#2
Lieke de Boer, Jan Axelsson, Katrine Riklund, Lars Nyberg, Peter Dayan, Lars Bäckman, Marc Guitart-Masip
Probabilistic reward learning is characterised by individual differences that become acute in aging. This may be due to age-related dopamine (DA) decline affecting neural processing in striatum, prefrontal cortex, or both. We examined this by administering a probabilistic reward learning task to younger and older adults, and combining computational modelling of behaviour, fMRI and PET measurements of DA D1 availability. We found that anticipatory value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) were attenuated in older adults...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868260/tpoab-and-thyroid-function-are-not-associated-with-breast-cancer-outcome-evidence-from-a-large-scale-study-using-data-from-the-taxotere-as-adjuvant-chemotherapy-trial-tact-cruk01-001
#3
Ilaria Muller, Lucy S Kilburn, Peter N Taylor, Peter J Barrett-Lee, Judith M Bliss, Paul Ellis, Marian E Ludgate, Colin M Dayan
BACKGROUND: Small-scale studies correlated the presence of thyroid autoimmunity with both improved or worsened breast cancer outcome. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify this association in a large cohort using the phase III, randomized, controlled Taxotere as Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial (TACT, CRUK01/001). METHODS: TACT women >18 years old with node-positive or high-risk node-negative early breast cancer (pT1-3a, pN0-1, M0), with stored plasma (n = 1,974), taken 15...
July 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759936/the-impact-of-the-cosurgeon-model-on-bilateral-autologous-breast-reconstruction
#4
Shantanu N Razdan, Hina J Panchal, Geoffrey E Hespe, Joseph J Disa, Colleen M McCarthy, Robert J Allen, Joseph H Dayan, Andrea Pusic, Babak Mehrara, Peter G Cordeiro, Evan Matros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711345/working-at-the-intersection-of-context-culture-and-technology-provider-perspectives-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-emergency-department-using-electronic-health-record-clinical-decision-support
#5
Phillip Chung, Jean Scandlyn, Peter S Dayan, Rakesh D Mistry
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) have not been fully developed for the emergency department (ED), in part the result of the barriers characteristic of this setting. Electronic health record-based clinical decision support (EHR CDS) represents a promising strategy to implement ASPs in the ED. We aimed to determine the cultural beliefs and structural barriers and facilitators to implementation of antimicrobial stewardship in the pediatric ED using EHR CDS. METHODS: Interviews and focus groups were conducted with hospital and ED leadership, attending ED physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and residents at a single health system in Colorado...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678984/association-of-neural-and-emotional-impacts-of-reward-prediction-errors-with-major-depression
#6
Robb B Rutledge, Michael Moutoussis, Peter Smittenaar, Peter Zeidman, Tanja Taylor, Louise Hrynkiewicz, Jordan Lam, Nikolina Skandali, Jenifer Z Siegel, Olga T Ousdal, Gita Prabhu, Peter Dayan, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in representing reward prediction errors (RPEs), which are the difference between experienced and predicted reward. Reward prediction errors underlie learning of values in reinforcement learning models, are represented by phasic dopamine release, and are known to affect momentary mood. Objective: To combine functional neuroimaging, computational modeling, and smartphone-based large-scale data collection to test, in the absence of learning-related concerns, the hypothesis that depression attenuates the impact of RPEs...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562252/time-from-emergency-department-evaluation-to-operation-and-appendiceal-perforation
#7
Michelle D Stevenson, Peter S Dayan, Nanette C Dudley, Lalit Bajaj, Charles G Macias, Richard G Bachur, Kelly Sinclair, Jonathan Bennett, Manoj K Mittal, Macarius M Donneyong, Anupam B Kharbanda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with appendicitis, the risk of perforation increases with time from onset of symptoms. We sought to determine if time from emergency department (ED) physician evaluation until operative intervention is independently associated with appendiceal perforation (AP) in children. METHODS: We conducted a planned secondary analysis of children aged 3 to 18 years with appendicitis enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of patients with abdominal pain (<96 hours)...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549647/pavlovian-influences-on-learning-differ-between-rats-and-mice-in-a-counter-balanced-go-nogo-judgement-bias-task
#8
Samantha Jones, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Judgement bias tests of animal affect and hence welfare assume that the animal's responses to ambiguous stimuli, which may herald positive or negative outcomes, are under instrumental control and reflect 'optimism' or 'pessimism' about what will happen. However, Pavlovian control favours responses (e.g. approach or withdrawal) according to the valence associated with a stimulus, rather than the anticipated response outcomes. Typically, positive contexts promote action and approach whilst negative contexts promote inhibition or withdrawal...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472343/maturation-in-serum-thyroid-function-parameters-over-childhood-and-puberty-results-of-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Peter N Taylor, Adrian Sayers, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Gautam Das, Mohd S Draman, Arshiya Tabasum, Hussam Abusahmin, Mohammad Rahman, Kirsty Stevenson, Alix Groom, Kate Northstone, Wolf Woltersdorf, Andrew Taylor, Susan Ring, John H Lazarus, John W Gregory, Aled Rees, Nicholas Timpson, Colin M Dayan
Context: Serum thyroid hormone levels differ between children and adults, but have not been studied longitudinally through childhood. Objective: To assess changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels over childhood and their interrelationships. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based birth cohort. Participants: A total of 4442 children who had thyroid function measured at age 7, and 1263 children who had thyroid function measured at age 15...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459442/moral-transgressions-corrupt-neural-representations-of-value
#10
Molly J Crockett, Jenifer Z Siegel, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others...
June 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403139/increased-decision-thresholds-enhance-information-gathering-performance-in-juvenile-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#11
Tobias U Hauser, Michael Moutoussis, Reto Iannaccone, Silvia Brem, Susanne Walitza, Renate Drechsler, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be described as cautious and hesitant, manifesting an excessive indecisiveness that hinders efficient decision making. However, excess caution in decision making may also lead to better performance in specific situations where the cost of extended deliberation is small. We compared 16 juvenile OCD patients with 16 matched healthy controls whilst they performed a sequential information gathering task under different external cost conditions. We found that patients with OCD outperformed healthy controls, winning significantly more points...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360419/algorithms-for-survival-a-comparative-perspective-on-emotions
#12
REVIEW
Dominik R Bach, Peter Dayan
The nature and neural implementation of emotions is the subject of vigorous debate. Here, we use Bayesian decision theory to address key complexities in this field and conceptualize emotions in terms of their relationship to survival-relevant behavioural choices. Decision theory indicates which behaviours are optimal in a given situation; however, the calculations required are radically intractable. We therefore conjecture that the brain uses a range of pre-programmed algorithms that provide approximate solutions...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343697/modeling-avoidance-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-using-reinforcement-learning
#13
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jessica Aylward, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. METHODS: Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms...
February 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341799/use-of-traumatic-brain-injury-prediction-rules-with-clinical-decision-support
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Peter S Dayan, Dustin W Ballard, Eric Tham, Jeff M Hoffman, Marguerite Swietlik, Sara J Deakyne, Evaline A Alessandrini, Leah Tzimenatos, Lalit Bajaj, David R Vinson, Dustin G Mark, Steve R Offerman, Uli K Chettipally, Marilyn D Paterno, Molly H Schaeffer, Jun Wang, T Charles Casper, Howard S Goldberg, Robert W Grundmeier, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: We determined whether implementing the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) traumatic brain injury (TBI) prediction rules and providing risks of clinically important TBIs (ciTBIs) with computerized clinical decision support (CDS) reduces computed tomography (CT) use for children with minor head trauma. METHODS: Nonrandomized trial with concurrent controls at 5 pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) and 8 general EDs (GEDs) between November 2011 and June 2014...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240922/formalizing-neurath-s-ship-approximate-algorithms-for-online-causal-learning
#15
Neil R Bramley, Peter Dayan, Thomas L Griffiths, David A Lagnado
Higher-level cognition depends on the ability to learn models of the world. We can characterize this at the computational level as a structure-learning problem with the goal of best identifying the prevailing causal relationships among a set of relata. However, the computational cost of performing exact Bayesian inference over causal models grows rapidly as the number of relata increases. This implies that the cognitive processes underlying causal learning must be substantially approximate. A powerful class of approximations that focuses on the sequential absorption of successive inputs is captured by the Neurath's ship metaphor in philosophy of science, where theory change is cast as a stochastic and gradual process shaped as much by people's limited willingness to abandon their current theory when considering alternatives as by the ground truth they hope to approach...
April 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216315/landmarks-in-existing-tissue-at-wounds-are-utilized-to-generate-pattern-in-regenerating-tissue
#16
Isaac M Oderberg, Dayan J Li, M Lucila Scimone, Michael A Gaviño, Peter W Reddien
Regeneration in many organisms involves the formation of a blastema, which differentiates and organizes into the appropriate missing tissues. How blastema pattern is generated and integrated with pre-existing tissues is a central question in the field of regeneration. Planarians are free-living flatworms capable of rapidly regenerating from small body fragments [1]. A cell cluster at the anterior tip of planarian head blastemas (the anterior pole) is required for anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) blastema patterning [2-4]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173888/current-state-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-children-s-hospital-emergency-departments
#17
Rakesh D Mistry, Jason G Newland, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Larissa May, Sarah M Perman, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described. OBJECTIVE To determine current ED involvement in children's hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 37 children's hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution...
April 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170143/prevalence-of-brain-injuries-and-recurrence-of-seizures-in-children-with-posttraumatic-seizures
#18
Mohamed K Badawy, Peter S Dayan, Michael G Tunik, Frances M Nadel, Kathleen A Lillis, Michelle Miskin, Dominic A Borgialli, Michael C Bachman, Shireen M Atabaki, John D Hoyle, James F Holmes, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) is often used in the emergency department (ED) evaluation of children with posttraumatic seizures (PTS); however, the frequency of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and short-term seizure recurrence is lacking. Our main objective was to evaluate the frequency of TBIs on CT and short-term seizure recurrence in children with PTS. We also aimed to determine the associations between the likelihood of TBI on CT with the timing of onset of PTS after the traumatic event and duration of PTS...
May 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101493/an-invitation-to-join-the-consortium-on-thyroid-and-pregnancy
#19
Tim I M Korevaar, Peter N Taylor, Colin M Dayan, Robin Patrick Peeters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993819/parsing-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-approach-avoidance-conflict
#20
Eleanor Loh, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, David Berron, Peter Dayan, Emrah Duzel, Ray Dolan, Marc Guitart-Masip
The hippocampus plays a central role in the approach-avoidance conflict that is central to the genesis of anxiety. However, its exact functional contribution has yet to be identified. We designed a novel gambling task that generated approach-avoidance conflict while controlling for spatial processing. We fit subjects' behavior using a model that quantified the subjective values of choice options, and recorded neural signals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Distinct functional signals were observed in anterior hippocampus, with inferior hippocampus selectively recruited when subjects rejected a gamble, to a degree that covaried with individual differences in anxiety...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
keyword
keyword
90339
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"