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L5 lipoprotein

Chao-Hung Chen, Liang-Yin Ke, Hua-Chen Chan, An-Sheng Lee, Kun-Der Lin, Chih-Sheng Chu, Mei-Yueh Lee, Pi-Jung Hsiao, Chin Hsu, Chu-Huang Chen, Shyi-Jang Shin
Dyslipidemia has been proven to capably develop and aggravate chronic kidney disease. We also report that electronegative LDL (L5) is the most atherogenic LDL. On the other hand, retinoic acid (RA) and RA receptor (RAR) agonist are reported to be beneficial in some kidney diseases. "Stimulated by retinoic acid 6" (STRA6), one retinol-binding protein 4 receptor, was recently identified to regulate retinoid homeostasis. Here, we observed that L5 suppressed STRA6 cascades [STRA6, cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1), RARs, retinoid X receptor α, and retinol, RA], but L5 simultaneously induced apoptosis and fibrosis (TGFβ1, Smad2, collagen 1, hydroxyproline, and trichrome) in kidneys of L5-injected mice and L5-treated renal tubular cells...
August 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Chiz-Tzung Chang, Guei-Jane Wang, Chin-Chi Kuo, Ju-Yi Hsieh, An-Sean Lee, Chia-Ming Chang, Chun-Cheng Wang, Ming-Yi Shen, Chiu-Ching Huang, Tatsuya Sawamura, Chao-Yuh Yang, Nicole Stancel, Chu-Huang Chen
Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population, but its role in the development of CAD in uremia patients is unknown. L5 is the most electronegative subfraction of LDL isolated from human plasma. In this study, we examined the distribution of L5 (L5%) and its association with CAD risk in uremia patients.The LDL of 39 uremia patients on maintenance hemodialysis and 21 healthy controls was separated into 5 subfractions, L1-L5, with increasing electronegativity...
January 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ming-Yi Shen, Fang-Yu Chen, Jing-Fang Hsu, Ru-Huei Fu, Chia-Ming Chang, Chiz-Tzung Chang, Chung-Hsiang Liu, Jia-Rong Wu, An-Sheng Lee, Hua-Chen Chan, Joen-Rong Sheu, Shinn-Zong Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Tatsuya Sawamura, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Chung Y Hsu, Chu-Huang Chen
L5, the most electronegative and atherogenic subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces platelet activation. We hypothesized that plasma L5 levels are increased in acute ischemic stroke patients and examined whether lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), the receptor for L5 on endothelial cells and platelets, plays a critical role in stroke. Because amyloid β (Aβ) stimulates platelet aggregation, we studied whether L5 and Aβ function synergistically to induce prothrombotic pathways leading to stroke...
March 10, 2016: Blood
Kathrin Hueging, Romy Weller, Mandy Doepke, Gabrielle Vieyres, Daniel Todt, Benno Wölk, Florian W R Vondran, Robert Geffers, Chris Lauber, Lars Kaderali, François Penin, Thomas Pietschmann
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an exchangeable apolipoprotein, is necessary for production of infectious Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles. However, ApoE is not the only liver-expressed apolipoprotein and the role of other apolipoproteins for production of infectious HCV progeny is incompletely defined. Therefore, we quantified mRNA expression of human apolipoproteins in primary human hepatocytes. Subsequently, cDNAs encoding apolipoproteins were expressed in 293T/miR-122 cells to explore if they complement HCV virus production in cells that are non-permissive due to limiting endogenous levels of human apolipoproteins...
2015: PloS One
Wei-Yu Chen, Fang-Yu Chen, An-Sheng Lee, Kuan-Hsiang Ting, Chia-Ming Chang, Jing-Fang Hsu, Wei-Shine Lee, Joen-Rong Sheu, Chu-Huang Chen, Ming-Yi Shen
Highly electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) L5 induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis. We examined the effects of sesamol (1), a natural organic component of sesame oil, on plasma L5 levels and atherosclerosis development in a rodent model and on the L5-induced apoptosis of ECs. Syrian hamsters, which have an LDL profile similar to that of humans, were fed a normal chow diet (control), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD supplemented with the administration of 50 or 100 mg/kg of 1 via oral gavage (HFD+1) for 16 weeks (n = 8 per group)...
February 27, 2015: Journal of Natural Products
Jing-Fang Hsu, Tzu-Chieh Chou, Jonathan Lu, Shu-Hua Chen, Fang-Yu Chen, Ching-Chu Chen, Jeffrey L Chen, MacArthur Elayda, Christie M Ballantyne, Steven Shayani, Chu-Huang Chen
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD...
2014: PloS One
An-Sheng Lee, Wei-Yu Chen, Hua-Chen Chan, Jing-Fang Hsu, Ming-Yi Shen, Chia-Ming Chang, Henry Bair, Ming-Jai Su, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Chu-Huang Chen
BACKGROUND: Increased levels of the most electronegative type of LDL, L5, have been observed in the plasma of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and can induce endothelial dysfunction. Because men have a higher predisposition to developing coronary artery disease than do premenopausal women, we hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is increased in men and promotes endothelial damage. METHODS: L5 levels were compared between middle-aged men and age-matched, premenopausal women with or without MetS...
2014: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Fars K Alanazi, Nazrul Haq, Awwad A Radwan, Ibrahim A Alsarra, Faiyaz Shakeel
It has been reported that cholesterol-rich nanoemulsions (LDE) can bind to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors which can concentrate anticancer drugs in the tissues via LDL receptor overexpression and reduced the adverse effects of the treatment. Therefore, in this study, LDE nanoemulsions of cholesteryl-maleoyl-5-fluorouracil (5-FU conjugate) were developed and evaluated in vitro. LDE nanoemulsions were prepared by high-energy emulsification technique. Developed formulations were characterized in terms of droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, viscosity and refractive index...
May 2015: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Timothy C Nichols
In this issue of Blood, Chan et al have described mechanisms by which L5, the most electronegative of 5 recognized fractions of low density lipoprotein (LDL), activates both platelets and endothelium in a manner that supports thrombosis and could possibly produce ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI).
November 21, 2013: Blood
Liang-Yin Ke, David A Engler, Jonathan Lu, Risë K Matsunami, Hua-Chen Chan, Guei-Jane Wang, Chao-Yuh Yang, Jan-Gowth Chang, Chu-Huang Chen
Anion-exchange chromatography resolves human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into 5 subfractions, with increasing negative surface charge in the direction of L1 to L5. Unlike the harmless L1 to L4, the exclusively atherogenic L5 is rejected by the normal LDL receptor (LDLR) but endocytosed into vascular endothelial cells through the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). Analysis with SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the protein framework of L1 was composed mainly of apolipoprotein (apo) B100, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6...
2011: Pure and Applied Chemistry. Chimie Pure et Appliquée
Hua-Chen Chan, Liang-Yin Ke, Chih-Sheng Chu, An-Sheng Lee, Ming-Yi Shen, Miguel A Cruz, Jing-Fang Hsu, Kai-Hung Cheng, Hsiu-Chuan Bonnie Chan, Jonathan Lu, Wen-Ter Lai, Tatsuya Sawamura, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Jeng-Hsien Yen, Chu-Huang Chen
Platelet activation and aggregation underlie acute thrombosis that leads to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). L5-highly electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-is significantly elevated in patients with STEMI. Thus, we examined the role of L5 in thrombogenesis. Plasma LDL from patients with STEMI (n = 30) was chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions (L1-L5) with increasing electronegativity. In vitro, L5 enhanced adenosine diphosphate-stimulated platelet aggregation twofold more than did L1 and induced platelet-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion...
November 21, 2013: Blood
Chih-Sheng Chu, Yu-Chen Wang, Long-Sheng Lu, Brian Walton, H Ramazan Yilmaz, Roger Y Huang, Tatsuya Sawamura, Richard A F Dixon, Wen-Ter Lai, Chu-Huang Chen, Jonathan Lu
OBJECTIVES: Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma LDL samples isolated from asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] levels, 154...
2013: PloS One
Po-Yuan Chang, Yi-Jie Chen, Fu-Hsiung Chang, Jonathan Lu, Wen-Huei Huang, Tzu-Ching Yang, Yuan-Teh Lee, Shwu-Fen Chang, Shao-Chun Lu, Chu-Huang Chen
AIMS: L5 is the most negatively charged subfraction of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is the only subfraction of LDL capable of inducing apoptosis in cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by inhibiting fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) transcription. We examined whether plasma L5 levels are elevated in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and whether aspirin provides epigenetic protection of human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) exposed to L5. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma L5 levels were compared between patients with STEMI (n = 10) and control subjects with chest pain syndrome but a normal coronary arteriogram (n = 5)...
July 1, 2013: Cardiovascular Research
Hye-Ok Lee, Jung-Eun Yim, Jeong-Sook Lee, Young-Seol Kim, Ryowon Choue
Quantities as well as distributions of adipose tissue (AT) are significantly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and can be altered with caloric restriction. This study investigated which cross-sectional slice location of AT is most strongly correlated with changes in CVD risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women. Thirty-three obese pre-menopausal Korean women (32.4 ± 8.5 yrs, BMI 27.1 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) participated in a 12 weeks caloric restriction program. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured using computed tomography (CT) scans at the sites of L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5...
February 2013: Nutrition Research and Practice
Ching-Yi Chen, Hsiu-Ching Hsu, An-Sheng Lee, Daming Tang, Lu-Ping Chow, Chao-Yuh Yang, Han Chen, Yuan-Teh Lee, Chu-Huang Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: L5, the most negatively charged species of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), has been implicated in atherogenesis by inducing apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) and inhibiting the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells. In this study, we compared the effects of LDL charge on cellular stress pathways leading to atherogenesis. METHODS: We isolated L5 and L1 (the least negatively charged LDL) from the plasma of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and used JC-1 staining to examine the effects of L5 and L1 on the mitochondrial membrane potential (DCm) in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs)...
2012: Journal of Vascular Research
An-Sheng Lee, Guei-Jane Wang, Hua-Chen Chan, Fang-Yu Chen, Chia-Ming Chang, Chao-Yuh Yang, Yuan-Teh Lee, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Chu-Huang Chen
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis has a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. L5, the most negatively charged subfraction of human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces several atherogenic responses in endothelial cells (ECs), including apoptosis. We hypothesized that L5 also contributes to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and studied whether it does so indirectly by inducing the secretion of factors from ECs. We examined apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes treated with culture-conditioned medium (CCM) of rat ECs that were exposed to L5 or L1 (the least negatively charged LDL subfraction)...
September 2012: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Jun Zhou, Shiju Chen, Hua Guo, Lu Xia, Huifang Liu, Yuxi Qin, Chengqi He
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomised (OVX) rats; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the effects of EA on OVX rats and the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. METHODS: Three-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three different groups (n=10 each): sham operated control (sham operated), ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomy with EA treatment (OVX+EA)...
March 2012: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Julia W Pridgeon, Phillip H Klesius
Twenty-eight expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) vaccinated vs non-vaccinated subtractive library at 12-h post injection of a formalin killed Streptococcus iniae ARS-98-60 vaccine. The 28 ESTs were classified in terms of their putative functions. Half of the ESTs identified were unknown proteins. Of the remaining half ESTs, 17% have putative functions in protein biosynthesis and 11% have putative functions in immunity, energy production, and signal transduction, respectively...
August 15, 2011: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Michel R Hoenig, Gary Cowin, Raymond Buckley, Christine McHenery, Allan Coulthard
BACKGROUND: Visceral Fat Area (VFA) is an independent predictor of coronary disease. While low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is used to determine risk and guide therapy, its accuracy fails in obese patients who may have low LDL-C despite high VFA. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relationship between VFA, LDL-C and to describe shifting cholesterol metabolism with increasing VFA. METHODS: 42 High-risk vascular patients not on lipid-lowering therapy provided a fasting lipid profile and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) at the L4-L5 disc...
2011: Lipids in Health and Disease
Michel R Hoenig
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is associated with the metabolic syndrome independently of visceral fat area (VFA) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Forty-three high-risk vascular patients were evaluated for metabolic syndrome criteria and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify SAD and VFA at the L4-L5 disc. COMPARISONS: 1. Baseline differences in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome 2. Forward binary logistic regression analysis of predictors of the metabolic syndrome with SAD, VFA and WC as independents 3...
2010: Vascular Health and Risk Management
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