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Kinematics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433427/do-medial-pivot-kinematics-correlate-with-patient-reported-outcomes-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#1
Lucian C Warth, Marshall K Ishmael, Evan R Deckard, Mary Ziemba-Davis, R Michael Meneghini
BACKGROUND: Many total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implants are designed to facilitate a medial pivot kinematic pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraoperative medial pivot kinematic patterns are associated with improved patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive primary TKAs was performed. Sensor-embedded tibial trials determined kinematic patterns intraoperatively. The center of rotation (COR) was identified from 0° to 90° and from 0° to terminal flexion, and designated medial-pivot or non-medial pivot based on accepted criteria...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433348/the-influence-of-polyethylene-bearing-thickness-on-the-tibiofemoral-kinematics-of-a-bicruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty
#2
Geert Peersman, Josh Slane, Margo Dirckx, Arne Vandevyver, Philipp Dworschak, Thomas J Heyse, Lennart Scheys
BACKGROUND: The recently reintroduced bicruciate retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty (BCR TKA) is an effort to reproduce kinematics closer to the native knee. However, there is no data on appropriate balancing with this implant. Balancing is crucial and challenging as medial and lateral polyethylene (PE) inlays are modular, which allows for placement of different thicknesses in the medial and lateral compartments. This study aimed at providing a detailed kinematic view on balancing BCR TKA...
April 19, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432883/sagittal-plane-joint-kinetics-during-stair-ascent-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-intermittent-claudication
#3
Stephanie L King, Natalie Vanicek, Thomas D O'Brien
Stair negotiation poses a substantial physical demand on the musculoskeletal system and this challenging task can place individuals at risk of falls. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can cause intermittent claudication (IC) pain in the calf and results in altered gait mechanics during level walking. However, whether those with PAD-IC adopt alternate strategies to climb stairs is unknown. Twelve participants with PAD-IC (six bilateral and six unilateral) and 10 healthy controls were recruited and instructed to ascend a five-step staircase whilst 3D kinematic data of the lower-limbs were recorded synchronously with kinetic data from force plates embedded into the staircase on steps two and three...
March 28, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432739/effect-of-a-4-week-elastic-resistance-band-training-regimen-on-back-kinematics-in-horses-trotting-in-hand-and-on-the-lunge
#4
T Pfau, V Simons, N Rombach, N Stubbs, R Weller
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Training and rehabilitation techniques aiming at improving core muscle strength may result in increased dynamic stability of the equine vertebral column. A system of elastic resistance bands is suggested to provide proprioceptive feedback during motion to encourage recruitment of core abdominal and hindquarter musculature for improved dynamic stability. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of a specific resistance band system on back kinematics during trot in-hand and during lungeing at beginning and end of a 4-week exercise programme...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432689/viscosity-based-droplet-size-controlling-in-negative-pressure-driven-droplets-generator-for-large-scale-particle-synthesis
#5
Hanlin Li, Yijun Xue, Meng Xu, Wenfeng Zhao, Chenghua Zong, Xiaojun Liu, Qingquan Zhang
The poor control and regulation of droplets limit the applications of negative-pressure-driven-droplet-generator (NPDDG). Here, we present a simple method to control droplet size in NPDDG via varying the oil viscosity. Depending on the infinite inter-solubility of high viscous mineral oil and low viscous hexadecane, we obtain a series of oils with kinematic viscosities linearly varied from 4.2 mm(2) /s to 194.6 mm(2) /s. By using these oils as continuous phases, mono-disperse droplets are fabricated with controllable size in NPDDG...
April 22, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430146/a-new-method-for-single-epoch-ambiguity-resolution-with-indoor-pseudolite-positioning
#6
Xin Li, Peng Zhang, Jiming Guo, Jinling Wang, Weining Qiu
Ambiguity resolution (AR) is crucial for high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. Due to the existing characteristics of the pseudolite positioning system, such as the geometry structure of the stationary pseudolite which is consistently invariant, the indoor signal is easy to interrupt and the first order linear truncation error cannot be ignored, and a new AR method based on the idea of the ambiguity function method (AFM) is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is a single-epoch and nonlinear method that is especially well-suited for indoor pseudolite positioning...
April 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429161/on-the-in-vivo-function-of-the-mitral-heart-valve-leaflet-insights-into-tissue-interstitial-cell-biomechanical-coupling
#7
Chung-Hao Lee, Will Zhang, Kristen Feaver, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Michael S Sacks
There continues to be a critical need for developing data-informed computational modeling techniques that enable systematic evaluations of mitral valve (MV) function. This is important for a better understanding of MV organ-level biomechanical performance, in vivo functional tissue stresses, and the biosynthetic responses of MV interstitial cells (MVICs) in the normal, pathophysiological, and surgically repaired states. In the present study, we utilized extant ovine MV population-averaged 3D fiducial marker data to quantify the MV anterior leaflet (MVAL) deformations in various kinematic states...
April 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428912/biomechanical-evaluation-of-carpal-kinematics-during-simulated-wrist-motion
#8
Helen Stoesser, Clare E Padmore, Masao Nishiwaki, Braden Gammon, G Daniel G Langohr, James A Johnson
Background Flexion and extension of the wrist is achieved primarily at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints. Carpal kinematics have been investigated, although there remains no consensus regarding the relative contribution of each bone to wrist motion. Purpose To determine the kinematics of the scaphoid, lunate, and capitate during unconstrained simulated wrist flexion/extension and to examine the effect of motion direction on the contribution of each bone. Materials and Methods Seven cadaveric upper extremities were tested in a passive wrist simulator with 10N tone loads applied to the wrist flexors/extensors...
May 2017: Journal of Wrist Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428909/a-biomechanical-perspective-on-distal-radioulnar-joint-instability
#9
Shohei Omokawa, Akio Iida, Kenji Kawamura, Yasuaki Nakanishi, Takamasa Shimizu, Tsutomu Kira, Tadanobu Onishi, Naoki Hayami, Yasuhito Tanaka
Background The purpose of this article was to review the anatomy, kinematics of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ), and to discuss definition, classification, and diagnosis of DRUJ instability. Methods A biomechanical perspective on physical examination of DRUJ ballottement test was documented. Physiological dynamic DRUJ translation and differences of the translation following sequential ligament sectioning and changes in different forearm and wrist positions were demonstrated. The clinical significance of each ligament's contribution to joint stability in specific wrist positions was addressed...
May 2017: Journal of Wrist Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428010/a-strategy-of-faster-movements-used-by-elderly-humans-to-lift-objects-of-increasing-weight-in-ecological-context
#10
Thomas Hoellinger, Joseph McIntyre, Lena Jami, Sylvain Hanneton, Guy Cheron, Agnes Roby-Brami
It is not known whether, during the course of ageing, changes occur in the motor strategies used by the CNS for lifting objects of different weights. Here, we analysed the kinematics of object-lifting in two different healthy groups (young and elderly people) plus one well known deafferented patient (GL). The task was to reach and lift onto a shelf an opaque cylindrical object with changing weight. The movements of the hand and object were recorded with electromagnetic sensors. In an ecological context (i.e...
April 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427385/differences-between-native-and-prosthetic-knees-in-terms-of-cross-sectional-morphology-of-the-femoral-trochlea-a-study-based-on-three-dimensional-models-and-virtual-total-knee-arthroplasty
#11
Zhe Du, Shichang Chen, Mengning Yan, Bing Yue, You Wang
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional morphology of the prosthetic knee is crucial to understanding patellar motion and quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. However, few comparative evaluations of the cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea have been performed in the native knee and currently available femoral implants, and the relationship between the trochlear anatomy of prosthetic components and post-operative patellofemoral complications remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea between native knees and prosthetic femoral components...
April 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427305/neuromechanical-adaptations-during-a-robotic-powered-exoskeleton-assisted-walking-session
#12
Arvind Ramanujam, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Erica Garbarini, Pierre Asselin, Rakesh Pilkar, Gail F Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. DESIGN: Single-session. SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426717/adjusting-cryodiluent-composition-for-improved-post-thaw-quality-of-rabbit-spermatozoa
#13
Sally E Hall, Cameron Negus, Danielle Johinke, Roslyn Bathgate
Improved fertility following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa would offer rabbit producers faster genetic improvement. Previous work investigating cryoprotectants for rabbit spermatozoa have reported inconsistent results. Semen was collected from three rabbit bucks by artificial vagina and frozen using a standard procedure with varied cryodiluent components. Post-thaw analysis encompassed motility, sperm kinematic parameters and acrosome and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 2 and 4 h after thawing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426515/can-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improve-muscle-power-in-individuals-with-advanced-resistance-training-experience
#14
Eduardo Lattari, Carlos Campos, Murilo Khede Lamego, Sandro Legey Passos de Souza, Geraldo M Neto, Nuno B Rocha, Aldair José de Oliveira, Sandro Carpenter, Sérgio Machado
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on countermovement jump performance (CMJ) in men with advanced strength training experience. Ten healthy male subjects, with advanced strength training and squatting exercise experience, were included. Participants took part in an initial visit to the laboratory to complete anthropometric measurements and CMJ kinematic test-retest reliability. Participants then completed three experimental conditions, 48-72 hours apart, in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the motor cortex bilaterally)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425251/evaluation-of-plantar-pressure-distributions-in-patients-with-anteriorcruciate-ligament-deficiency-preoperative-and-postoperative-changes
#15
Engin Çetin, Mehmet Ali Deveci, Murat Songür, Hamza Özer, Sacit Turanli
BACKGROUND/AIM: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency results in several kinematic changes in the lower extremities. The aim of this study is to define the plantar pressure parameters in ACL-deficient patients and to show the effect of ACL reconstruction on dynamic plantar pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with unilateral ACL rupture and 40 healthy controls were included in this study. Dynamic plantar pressures of both groups were recorded by the EMED SF-2 system during level walking...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424312/archer-fish-jumping-prey-capture-kinematics-and-hydrodynamics
#16
Anna M Shih, Leah Mendelson, Alexandra H Techet
Smallscale archer fish, Toxotes microlepis, are best known for spitting jets of water to capture prey, but also hunt by jumping out of the water to heights of up to 2.5 body lengths. In this study, high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used to characterize the kinematics and hydrodynamics of this jumping behavior. Jumping used a set of kinematics distinct from those of in-water feeding strikes and was segmented into three phases: (1) hovering to sight prey at the surface, (2) rapid upward thrust production and (3) gliding to the prey once out of the water...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#17
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422954/identification-of-the-contribution-of-contact-and-aerial-biomechanical-parameters-in-acrobatic-performance
#18
Diane Haering, Aurore Huchez, Franck Barbier, Patrice Holvoët, Mickaël Begon
INTRODUCTION: Teaching acrobatic skills with a minimal amount of repetition is a major challenge for coaches. Biomechanical, statistical or computer simulation tools can help them identify the most determinant factors of performance. Release parameters, change in moment of inertia and segmental momentum transfers were identified in the prediction of acrobatics success. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of these parameters in performance throughout expertise or optimisation based improvements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422689/a-novel-recurrent-neural-network-for-manipulator-control-with-improved-noise-tolerance
#19
Shuai Li, Huanqing Wang, Muhammad Usman Rafique
In this paper, we propose a novel recurrent neural network to resolve the redundancy of manipulators for efficient kinematic control in the presence of noises in a polynomial type. Leveraging the high-order derivative properties of polynomial noises, a deliberately devised neural network is proposed to eliminate the impact of noises and recover the accurate tracking of desired trajectories in workspace. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed neural law stabilizes the system dynamics and the position tracking error converges to zero in the presence of noises...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422682/mri-based-medial-axis-extraction-and-boundary-segmentation-of-cranial-nerves-through-discrete-deformable-3d-contour-and-surface-models
#20
Sharmin Sultana, Jason Blatt, Benjamin Gilles, Tanweer Rashid, Michel Audette
This paper presents a segmentation technique to identify the medial axis and the boundary of cranial nerves. We utilize a 3D deformable 1-simplex discrete contour model to ex-tract the medial axis of each cranial nerve. This contour model represents a collection of 2-connected vertices linked by edges, where vertex position is determined by a Newtonian expression for vertex kinematics featuring internal and external forces, the latter of which include attractive forces towards the nerve medial axis. We exploit multiscale vesselness filtering and minimal path techniques in the medial axis extraction method, which also com-putes a radius estimate along the path...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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