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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#1
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809125/post-chemotherapy-perforation-in-cats-with-discrete-intermediate-or-large-cell-gastrointestinal-lymphoma
#2
Zachary Crouse, Brenda Phillips, Andi Flory, Jennifer Mahoney, Keith Richter, Linda Kidd
Objectives Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation is a well-described complication of GI lymphoma in people, commonly occurring within days of initiation of chemotherapy. There are no studies documenting the prevalence of GI perforation in cats with intermediate- or large-cell GI lymphoma or whether it is associated with induction of chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence and timing of post-chemotherapy perforation in cats with discrete GI masses caused by intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800092/induced-aberrant-organisms-with-novel-ability-to-protect-intestinal-integrity-from-inflammation-in-an-animal-model
#3
Helieh S Oz
Robust and balanced gut microbiota are required to support health and growth. Overgrowth of gut microbial or pathogens can change ecosystem balance, and compromise gut integrity to initiate gastrointestinal (GI) complications. There is no safe and effective modality against coccidiosis. Antibiotic additives routinely fed to food animals to protect against infection, are entered into the food chain, contaminate food products and pass to the consumers. HYPOTHESIS: induced aberrant organisms possess distinct ultrastructure and are tolerated by immunodeficient-animals yet are non-pathogenic, but immunogenic in various strains of chicks to act as a preventive (vaccine) and eliminating the needs for antibiotic additives...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795618/distribution-of-dental-plaque-and-gingivitis-within-the-dental-arches
#4
Prem K Sreenivasan, Kakarla V V Prasad
Objective The natural accumulation of supragingival plaque on surfaces of human teeth is associated with gingival inflammation and the initiation of common oral diseases. This study evaluated the distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis scores within the dental arches after prophylaxis. Methods Adult subjects from the Dharwad, India area representing the general population who provided written informed consent were scheduled for screening. Healthy subjects over the age of 18 years, not currently requiring any medical or dental care, and presenting with a complement of at least 20 natural teeth were recruited for this parallel design study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770665/immunopathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-how-genetics-link-barrier-dysfunction-and-innate-immunity-to-inflammation
#5
Minesh Mehta, Shifat Ahmed, Gerald Dryden
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a distinct set of clinical symptoms resulting from chronic or relapsing immune activation and corresponding inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diverse genetic mutations, encoding important aspects of innate immunity and mucosal homeostasis, combine with environmental triggers to create inappropriate, sustained inflammatory responses. Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the interplay of the intestinal epithelium, mucosal immune system, and commensal bacteria as a foundation of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease...
August 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769105/transcriptome-profiling-of-mouse-colonic-eosinophils-reveals-a-key-role-for-eosinophils-in-the-induction-of-s100a8-and-s100a9-in-mucosal-healing
#6
Reichman Hadar, Moshkovits Itay, Itan Michal, Pasmanik-Chor Metsada, Vogl Thomas, Roth Johannes, Munitz Ariel
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that have been largely implicated in Th2-associated diseases. Recent data highlights a key role for eosinophils in mucosal innate immune responses especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is one of the largest eosinophil reservoirs in the body. Although eosinophils express and synthesize a plethora of proteins that can mediate their effector activities, the transcriptome signature of eosinophils in mucosal inflammation and subsequent repair has been considerably overlooked...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764744/a-case-study-of-desmozoon-lepeophtherii-infection-in-farmed-atlantic-salmon-associated-with-gill-disease-peritonitis-intestinal-infection-stunted-growth-and-increased-mortality
#7
Simon Chioma Weli, Ole Bendik Dale, Haakon Hansen, Mona Cecilie Gjessing, Liv Birte Rønneberg, Knut Falk
BACKGROUND: In September 2008, a disease outbreak characterized by acute, severe gill pathology and peritonitis, involving the gastrointestinal tract, was observed in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farm in north-western Norway. During subsequent sampling in November 2008 and January 2009, chronic proliferative gill inflammation and peritonitis was observed. Cumulative mortalities of 5.6-12.8% and severe growth retardation were observed. Routine diagnostic analysis revealed no diseases known to salmon at the time, but microsporidian infection of tissues was observed...
August 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750809/assessing-allosteric-modulation-of-cb1-at-the-receptor-and-cellular-levels
#8
Caitlin E Scott, Debra A Kendall
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is abundant in the central nervous system and regulates neuronal transmission and other key physiological processes including those leading to pain, inflammation, memory, and feeding behavior. CB1 is activated by the endogenous ligands, arachidonoyl ethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, by various synthetic ligands (e.g., CP55940), and by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. These CB1 ligands are orthosteric and transduce downstream signals by binding CB1 and primarily inducing Gi coupling, but Gs and β-arrestin coupling are also possible...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744328/ultrasonographic-imaging-and-anti-inflammatory-therapy-of-muscle-and-tendon-injuries-using-polymer-nanoparticles
#9
Gi-Wook Kim, Changsun Kang, Young-Bin Oh, Myoung-Hwan Ko, Jeong-Hwan Seo, Dongwon Lee
Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H2O2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol-co-oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H2O2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H2O2-associated diseases...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740338/localization-and-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-subtype-5-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#10
REVIEW
Andrea Ferrigno, Clarissa Berardo, Laura G Di Pasqua, Veronica Siciliano, Plinio Richelmi, Mariapia Vairetti
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is a Group I mGlu subfamily of receptors coupled to the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. Like other mGluR subtypes, mGluR5s contain a phylogenetically conserved, extracellular orthosteric binding site and a more variable allosteric binding site, located on the heptahelical transmembrane domain. The mGluR5 receptor has proved to be a key pharmacological target in conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) but its presence outside the CNS underscores its potential role in pathologies affecting peripheral organs such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory digestive organs such as the tongue, liver and pancreas...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718816/complex-dna-damage-a-route-to-radiation-induced-genomic-instability-and-carcinogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Ifigeneia V Mavragani, Zacharenia Nikitaki, Maria P Souli, Asef Aziz, Somaira Nowsheen, Khaled Aziz, Emmy Rogakou, Alexandros G Georgakilas
Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718031/newcomers-in-paediatric-gi-pathology-childhood-enteropathies-including-very-early-onset-monogenic-ibd
#12
Arzu Ensari, Judith Kelsen, Pierre Russo
Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response...
July 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707966/targeted-molecular-ablation-of-cancer-stem-cells-for-curing-gastrointestinal-cancers
#13
Yong Seok Kim, Ho Jae Lee, Jong-Min Park, Young-Min Han, Napapan Kangwan, Ji Young Oh, Dong Yoon Lee, Ki Baik Hahm
Abundance of the ATPase-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and deranged self-renewal pathways characterize the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in gastrointestinal cancers (GI cancers), which play crucial roles in tumorigenesis, chemotherapy resistance, tumor recurrence, and cancer metastasis. Therefore, in order to ensure high cure rates, chemoquiescence, CSCs should be ablated. Recent advances in either understanding CSCs or biomarker identification enable scientists to develop techniques for ablating CSCs and clinicians to provide cancer cure, especially in GI cancers characterized by inflammation-driven carcinogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706745/acute-esophageal-necrosis-in-an-alcoholic-after-successful-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest
#14
Amish Shah, Viveksandeep Thoguluva Chandreskar, Ravi Doobay, Arundeep Kahlon, Ioana Amzuta
INTRODUCTION: We present a patient who presented to the ICU after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest who was subsequently diagnosed with AEN. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old female presented after cardiac arrest in which return of spontaneous circulation was achieved within 7 minutes after the initiation of CPR. She was intubated on the scene and found to have coffee ground emesis in her bathroom when found unresponsive. Due to the hemodynamically significant GI bleed, patient was started on IV proton pump inhibitor, octreotide, and levophed...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705991/oxygen-metabolism-and-innate-immune-responses-in-the-gut
#15
Sean Patrick Colgan, Eric L Campbell
Epithelial cells of the mucosa provide a first line of protection against the inappropriate flux of antigens from the outside world. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, this barrier is provided at a number of levels, including mucus production, epithelial junctional complexes and the production of antimicrobial molecules. In recent years, it is better appreciated that tissue oxygen metabolism is key to homeostasis in the mucosa. The intestine, for example, maintains a low baseline pO2 levels due to counter-current blood flow and the presence of large numbers of bacteria...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695451/the-endoscopic-findings-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Yoshiki Nomura, Kentaro Moriichi, Mikihiro Fujiya, Toshikatsu Okumura
Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with ulceration, and the main foci of the inflammation in CD patients are typically the terminal ileum and colon. However, in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, inflammatory lesions are also detected as well, with a relatively high frequency (30-75%). Recent advances in imaging modalities, including endoscopy, have aided in the diagnosis of CD. Various lesions, including aphtha, erosion, ulcers, bamboo-joint-like appearance and notch-like appearance, are detected in the upper GI of CD patients...
August 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689639/regulation-of-inflammation-by-members-of-the-formyl-peptide-receptor-family
#17
REVIEW
Keqiang Chen, Zhiyao Bao, Wanghua Gong, Peng Tang, Teizo Yoshimura, Ji Ming Wang
Inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. The hallmark of inflammation is leukocyte infiltration at disease sites in response to pathogen- or damage-associated chemotactic molecular patterns (PAMPs and MAMPs), which are recognized by a superfamily of seven transmembrane, Gi-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cell surface. Chemotactic GPCRs are composed of two major subfamilies: the classical GPCRs and chemokine GPCRs. Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) belong to the classical chemotactic GPCR subfamily with unique properties that are increasingly appreciated for their expression on diverse host cell types and the capacity to interact with a plethora of chemotactic PAMPs and MAMPs...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687795/the-anti-hiv-candidate-abx464-dampens-intestinal-inflammation-by-triggering-il-22-production-in-activated-macrophages
#18
Karim Chebli, Laura Papon, Conception Paul, Aude Garcel, Noëlie Campos, Didier Scherrer, Hartmut J Ehrlich, Michael Hahne, Jamal Tazi
The progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with mucosal damage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This damage enables bacterial translocation from the gut and leads to subsequent inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-exposure) is an established animal model for experimental colitis that was recently shown to recapitulate the link between GI-tract damage and pathogenic features of SIV infection. The current study tested the protective properties of ABX464, a first-in-class anti-HIV drug candidate currently in phase II clinical trials...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666095/efficacy-of-early-enteral-immunonutrition-on-immune-function-and-clinical-outcome-for-postoperative-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancer
#19
Zhenzhen Luo, Junxia Wang, Zhen Zhang, Hong Li, Lan Huang, Yamin Qiao, Dan Wang, Jingjing Huang, Luwei Guo, Jinbo Liu, Yanhua Liu, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Nutrition support is crucial for patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer after the operation. However, the controversy over the application of parenteral nutrition (PN) and early enteral immunonutrition (EEIN) has no determinate conclusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the effects of PN and EEIN on the postoperative nutrition condition, immune status, inflammation level, long-term survival, and quality of life of the patients with GI cancer...
June 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656964/il-33-promotes-gastrointestianl-allergy-in-a-tslp-independent-manner
#20
H Han, F Roan, L K Johnston, D E Smith, P J Bryce, S F Ziegler
Atopic dermatitis (AD) often precedes asthma and food allergy, indicating that epicutaneous sensitization to allergens may be important in the induction of allergic responses at other barrier surfaces. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin (IL)-33 are two cytokines that may drive type 2 responses in the skin; both are potential targets in the treatment of allergic diseases. We tested the functional role of IL-33 and the interplay between IL-33 and TSLP in mouse models of atopic march and gastrointestinal (GI) allergy...
June 28, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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