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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920654/a-rare-cause-of-pulmonary-nodules
#1
Michael Tsuyoshi Chew, Eric Chak, Karen Matsukuma
Crohn's disease is a chronic, idiopathic autoimmune disorder that primarily targets the gastrointestinal (GI) system. It is characterized by transmural inflammation of the GI tract that can occur anywhere from the mouth to the anus. Not infrequently, the disease may also have extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) that can affect almost any organ system. It is estimated that EIMs affect up to 36% of patients with Crohn's disease, but the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary involvement are variable in the literature and may be as low as 0...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899862/the-relationship-between-lichen-planus-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness
#2
Koseoglu C, Erdogan M, Koseoglu G, Kurmus O, Ertem Ag, Efe Th, Kurmus Gi, Durmaz T, Keles T, Bozkurt E
BACKGROUND: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although the association between chronic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis has been reported in the literature, the relationship between LP and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between LP and CIMT. METHODS: One hundred eleven LP patients and 105 controls were enrolled in the study. Then, CIMT examination was performed with an ultrasonography device...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891756/motility-patterns-in-mouse-colon-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-induced-by-anticancer-chemotherapy
#3
REVIEW
N J Spencer
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a major chemotherapy treatment, has been used for decades to fight numerous types of cancers, including breast, colon, and head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients treated with 5-FU develop toxicities that include diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and vomiting. While the side effects of 5-FU are well known, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these unpleasant symptoms are poorly understood...
December 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866511/impaired-phagocytosis-of-apoptotic-cells-causes-accumulation-of-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-in-aged-mice
#4
Ok-Hee Kim, Hyojung Kim, Jinku Kang, Dongki Yang, Yu-Hoi Kang, Dae Ho Lee, Gi Jeong Cheon, Sang Chul Park, Byung-Chul Oh
Accumulation of tissue macrophages is a significant characteristic of disease-associated chronic inflammation, and facilitates the progression of disease pathology. However, the functional roles of these bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in aging are unclear. Here, we identified age-dependent macrophage accumulation in the bone marrow, showing that aging significantly increases the number of M1 macrophages and impairs polarization of BMDMs. We found that age-related dysregulation of BMDMs is associated with abnormal overexpression of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10...
November 18, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#5
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863601/clinical-efficacy-of-turmeric-use-in-gingivitis-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Karissa A Stoyell, Jennifer L Mappus, Mona A Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications...
November 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857808/nervous-system-involvement-in-clinical-peripheral-inflammation-a-description-of-three-pediatric-cases
#7
Giovanna Vitaliti, Omidreza Tabatabaie, Nassim Matin, Giovanni Roberto Giugno, Piero Pavone, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Latest research data have emphasized the interaction between the nervous and the immune systems. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) secondary to peripheral inflammation may play a key role in this relationship. This assumption is linked to recent findings according to which units that constitute the BBB are not only simply neurologic but have also been reconsidered as "neurovascular" elements, through which immune system molecules are vehiculated within the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857691/chemotherapy-induced-constipation-and-diarrhea-pathophysiology-current-and-emerging-treatments
#8
REVIEW
Rachel M McQuade, Vanesa Stojanovska, Raquel Abalo, Joel C Bornstein, Kulmira Nurgali
Gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of chemotherapy are a debilitating and often overlooked clinical hurdle in cancer management. Chemotherapy-induced constipation (CIC) and Diarrhea (CID) present a constant challenge in the efficient and tolerable treatment of cancer and are amongst the primary contributors to dose reductions, delays and cessation of treatment. Although prevalence of CIC is hard to estimate, it is believed to affect approximately 16% of cancer patients, whilst incidence of CID has been estimated to be as high as 80%...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846901/a-method-for-automated-pathogenic-content-estimation-with-application-to-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Xiaoyuan Zhou, Christine Nardini
BACKGROUND: Sequencing technologies applied to mammals' microbiomes have revolutionized our understanding of health and disease. Hence, to assess diseases' progression as well as therapies longterm effects, the impact of maladies and drugs on the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome has to be evaluated. Typical metagenomic analyses are run to associate to a condition (disease, therapy, diet) a pool of bacteria, whose eubiotic/dysbiotic potential is assessed either by α-diversity, a measure of the varieties populating the microbiome, or by Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio, associated to systemic inflammation, and finally by manual and direct inspection of bacteria's biological functions, when known...
November 15, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845570/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-novel-analogs-of-natural-enkephalinase-inhibitors-in-a-mouse-model-of-experimental-colitis
#10
Elżbieta Kamysz, Maciej Sałaga, Małgorzata Sobocińska, Artur Giełdoń, Jakub Fichna
AIM: The pharmacotherapy of inflammatory bowel disease is difficult and currently available treatments bring mostly poor and unsatisfactory results. RESULTS: The purpose of this work was the synthesis of opiorphin, sialorphin, spinorphin and a series of their analogs and the in vitro characterization of their effect on degradation of enkephalin by neutral endopeptidase and aminopeptidase N. Consequently, we investigated in vivo the anti-inflammatory effect of the most active inhibitors selected in the in vitro studies (Pal-KKQRFSR & Pal-KKQHNPR)...
November 15, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834292/mesenteric-vascular-dysregulation-and-intestinal-inflammation-accompanies-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Emily M Besecker, Gina M Deiter, Nicole Pironi, Timothy K Cooper, Gregory Michael Holmes
Cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) drastically impairs autonomic nervous system function. Individuals with SCI at thoracic spinal-level 5 (T5) or higher often present cardiovascular disorders that include resting systemic arterial hypotension. Gastrointestinal (GI) tissues are critically dependent upon adequate blood flow and even brief periods of visceral hypoxia triggers GI dysmotility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that T3-SCI induces visceral hypoperfusion, diminished postprandial vascular reflexes and concomitant visceral inflammation...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832356/risk-factors-for-intestinal-metaplasia-in-a-southeastern-chinese-population-an-analysis-of-28-745-cases
#12
Jian-Xia Jiang, Qing Liu, Bing Zhao, Hai-Han Zhang, Huai-Ming Sang, Soyfoo-Muhammad Djaleel, Guo-Xin Zhang, Shun-Fu Xu
PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for intestinal metaplasia in a southeastern Chinese population. METHODS: Subjects who underwent upper GI endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2008 to 2013 were included into this study. Various demographic, geographic, clinical and pathological data were analyzed separately to identify risk factors for intestinal metaplasia. RESULTS: The incidence of intestinal metaplasia differed significantly in 17 municipal areas ranging from 16...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827907/pueraria-mirifica-exerts-estrogenic-effects-in-the-mammary-gland-and-uterus-and-promotes-mammary-carcinogenesis-in-donryu-rats
#13
Anna Kakehashi, Midori Yoshida, Yoshiyuki Tago, Naomi Ishii, Takahiro Okuno, Min Gi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands...
November 4, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812624/prevalence-severity-and-risk-indicators-of-gingival-inflammation-in-a-multi-center-study-on-south-american-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Paola Carvajal, Mariel Gómez, Sabrina Gomes, Ricardo Costa, Andres Toledo, Fernando Solanes, Hugo Romanelli, Rui Oppermann, Cassiano Rösing, Jorge Gamonal
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation and associated risk indicators in South American adults. Material and Methods: Multi-stage samples totaling 1,650 adults from Porto Alegre (Brazil), Tucumán (Argentina), and Santiago (Chile) were assessed. The sampling procedure consisted of a 4-stage process. Examinations were performed in mobile dental units by calibrated examiners. A multivariable logistic regression model was utilized for associating variables as indicators of gingival inflammation (GI) (Gingival Index ≥0...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809966/abomasal-mucosal-immune-responses-of-cattle-with-limited-or-continuous-exposure-to-pasture-borne-gastrointestinal-nematode-parasite-infection
#15
Wenbin Tuo, Lei Li, Yingjun Lv, Jose Carrillo, Dedra Brown, William C Davis, Jiuzhou Song, Dante Zarlenga, Zhengguo Xiao
It has been well documented that cattle raised on pasture are slow in weight gain when compared to those fed with grain. Inflammation in the digestive system commonly caused by pasture-transmitted gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites that could negatively impact feed conversion has never been compared in cattle raised with no pasture exposure (NPE, uninfected), limited pasture exposure (LPE, exposure until weaning), or continuous pasture exposure (CPE, life time exposure). In the present study, the abomasal mucosal immune responses and inflammation of LPE and CPE cattle were investigated...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807715/impact-of-non-surgical-periodontal-therapy-on-saliva-and-serum-levels-of-markers-of-oxidative-stress
#16
Canan Önder, Şivge Kurgan, S Merve Altıngöz, Nilsun Bağış, Metin Uyanık, Muhittin A Serdar, Alpdoğan Kantarcı, Meral Günhan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on markers of oxidative stress in saliva and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 25 patients, who were diagnosed with generalized chronic periodontitis (11 females and 14 males), and 26 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals (15 females and 11 males) were included. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), attachment loss (AL), gingival recession (GR), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and 6 weeks later...
November 2, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807255/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-protects-against-hepatic-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-apoptotic-cell-death
#17
Eunyoung Tak, Gil-Chun Park, Seok-Hwan Kim, Dae Young Jun, Jooyoung Lee, Shin Hwang, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol source in green tea, against hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in mice. METHODS: The partial hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury model was created by employing the hanging-weight method in C57BL/6 male mice. EGCG (50 mg/kg) was administered via an intraperitoneal injection 45 min before performing the reperfusion. A number of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and liver injury were measured after the ischaemia-reperfusion injury had been induced...
November 1, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797969/role-of-the-microenvironment-in-liver-metastasis-from-pre-to-prometastatic-niches
#18
REVIEW
Pnina Brodt
Liver metastases remain a major barrier to successful management of malignant disease, particularly for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract but also for other malignancies, such as breast carcinoma and melanoma. The ability of metastatic cells to survive and proliferate in the liver is determined by the outcome of complex, reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and different local resident subpopulations, including the sinusoidal endothelium, stellate, Kupffer, and inflammatory cells that are mediated through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and the release of soluble factors...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793353/cost-effectiveness-of-low-dose-submicron-diclofenac-compared-with-generic-diclofenac
#19
Deirdre Mladsi, Naoko Ronquest, Dawn Odom, LaStella Miles, Kenneth Saag
PURPOSE: NSAIDs are commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Despite the effectiveness of NSAIDs, concerns exist regarding their tolerability. Worldwide health authorities, including the European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and the US Food and Drug Administration, have advised that NSAIDs be prescribed at the lowest effective dosage and for the shortest duration. Effective lowering of NSAID dosage without compromising pain relief has been demonstrated in randomized, controlled trials of the recently approved NSAID lower-dose submicron diclofenac...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792771/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-the-erk-pathway-drive-chemerin-expression-in-response-to-hypoxia-in-cultured-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#20
Su-Kiat Chua, Kou-Gi Shyu, Yuh-Feng Lin, Huey-Ming Lo, Bao-Wei Wang, Hang Chang, Li-Ming Lien
BACKGROUND: Chemerin, a novel adipokine, plays a role in the inflammation status of vascular endothelial cells. Hypoxia causes endothelial-cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. This study was aimed at evaluating the protein and mRNA expression of chemerin after exposure of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) to hypoxia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cultured HCAECs underwent hypoxia for different time points. Chemerin protein levels increased after 4 h of hypoxia at 2...
2016: PloS One
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