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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346827/efficacy-and-complications-of-submucosal-tunneling-endoscopic-resection-for-upper-gastrointestinal-submucosal-tumors-and-exploration-for-influencing-factors
#1
Shunzhe Song, Xu Wang, Shen Zhang, Yanxia Li, Xiaonan Zhang, Xufang Chu
BACKGROUND:  Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) has emerged as a feasible technique for resecting upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract submucosal tumors (SMTs) through natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. STER reduces the risk of postoperative perforation and abdominal infections and promotes rapid wound healing. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of STER for small (≤ 3.5 cm) upper GI SMTs and explore the potential factors influencing STER's efficacy and complication rate...
January 18, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345370/inhibition-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-attenuates-eosinophil-recruitment-and-food-allergen-induced-gastrointestinal-inflammation
#2
Idil Bastan, Xiao Na Ge, Mythili Dileepan, Yana G Greenberg, Alonso G Guedes, Sung Hee Hwang, Bruce D Hammock, Robert J Washabau, Savita P Rao, P Sriramarao
Prevalence of food allergies in the United States is on the rise. Eosinophils are recruited to the intestinal mucosa in substantial numbers in food allergen-driven gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to play a pro-inflammatory role during inflammation by metabolizing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to pro-inflammatory diols. We investigated the role of sEH in a murine model of food allergy and evaluated the potential therapeutic effect of a highly selective sEH inhibitor (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid [t-TUCB])...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326355/18f-fedac-as-a-targeting-agent-for-activated-macrophages-in-dba-1-mice-with-collagen-induced-arthritis-comparison-with-18f-fdg
#3
Seock-Jin Chung, Hai-Jeon Yoon, Gi Jeong Cheon, Hyewon Youn, Mi Jeong Kim, Lin Xie, Yun-Sang Lee, Jae Min Jeong, June-Key Chung, Keon Wook Kang, Ming-Rong Zhang
Activated macrophages have been known to play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 18F-FEDAC is a radiolabeled ligand for the translocator protein (TSPO), which is abundant in activated macrophages. We evaluated the feasibility of 18F-FEDAC in a murine RA model. Methods: RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were activated by lipopolysaccharide. TSPO expression levels in activated and inactivated macrophages were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321998/effectiveness-of-two-different-herbal-toothpaste-formulations-in-the-reduction-of-plaque-and-gingival-inflammation-in-patients-with-established-gingivitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Rajesh Hosadurga, Vinita Ashutosh Boloor, Sudharshan N Rao, N MeghRani
Background: Plant based toothpastes have received great attention in reducing gingival inflammation. Studies show contrasting results regarding the effectiveness of these toothpastes. In the present study, the effectiveness of two herbal tooth paste formulations in the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation was assessed. Nicotine content in the toothpastes was assessed using GCMS. Material and methods: 50 patients with established gingivitis were included in the study...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317816/lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-monocytes-macrophages-is-blocked-by-liposomal-delivery-of-gi-protein-inhibitor
#5
Monica Madalina Tucureanu, Daniela Rebleanu, Cristina Ana Constantinescu, Mariana Deleanu, Geanina Voicu, Elena Butoi, Manuela Calin, Ileana Manduteanu
Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely recognized as a potent activator of monocytes/macrophages, and its effects include an altered production of key mediators, such as inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The involvement of Gi protein in mediating LPS effects has been demonstrated in murine macrophages and various cell types of human origin. Purpose: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of a Gi-protein inhibitor encapsulated in liposomes in reducing the inflammatory effects induced by LPS in monocytes/macrophages...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314627/etiology-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-patients-on-dual-antiplatelet-therapy
#6
Arslan Shaukat, Salman Waheed, Ethan Alexander, Daniel Washko, Buddhadeb Dawn, Mojtaba Olyaee, Kamal Gupta
BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Traditionally thought to cause mostly upper GIB (UGIB), some recent reports suggest that incidence of lower GIB (LGIB) may be increasing. We conducted a study to assess the endoscopic findings and etiology of GIB in patients who presented with GIB on DAPT compared to those not on DAPT. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single center, case control study...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#7
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290980/up-regulation-of-5-lipoxygenase-by-inhibition-of-cathepsin-g-enhances-trail-induced-apoptosis-through-down-regulation-of-survivin
#8
Seon Min Woo, Kyoung-Jin Min, Seung Un Seo, Shin Kim, Jong-Wook Park, Dae Kyu Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Cathepsin G is a serine protease secreted from activated neutrophils, it has important roles in inflammation and immune response. Moreover, cathepsin G promotes tumor cell-cell adhesion and migration in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of cathepsin G could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. An inhibitor of cathepsin G [Cathepsin G inhibitor I (Cat GI); CAS 429676-93-7] markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), lung cancer (A549) and cervical cancer (Hela) cells...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279348/international-union-of-basic-and-clinical-pharmacology-ciii-chemerin-receptors-cmklr1-chemerin1-and-gpr1-chemerin2-nomenclature-pharmacology-and-function
#9
Amanda J Kennedy, Anthony P Davenport
Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein and adipokine, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene CMKLR1 (also known as ChemR23), and as a consequence the receptor protein was renamed the chemerin receptor in 2013. Since then, chemerin has been identified as the endogenous ligand for a second G protein-coupled receptor, encoded by the gene GPR1 Therefore, the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name of the receptor protein for chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) is chemerin receptor 1, and G protein-coupled receptor 1 is chemerin receptor 2 to follow the convention of naming the receptor protein after the endogenous ligand...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278509/gut-microbiota-and-obesity-implications-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Obesity is a major public health issue as it is causally associated with several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. In the United States and other countries worldwide, the obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the status of health of millions as well as healthcare costs. Aside from poor diet, hygiene, and genetics, there are many other factors thought to play an important role in the emergence of obesity. Nowadays, accumulating evidence is elucidating the relation of dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria with obesity and metabolic disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277623/molecular-mechanistic-pathway-of-colorectal-carcinogenesis-associated-with-intestinal-microbiota
#11
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
The colon rectal portion of gastrointestinal tract (GI) is full of microorganisms with different complex community that plays important role in maintaining homeostasis. But now-a-days different literature indicated that microbiota cause development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with a disease and ultimately aggravates to death. The mechanism inside the colo-rectal portion of GI tract is not fully well-known and bacterial contribution inside it is also fully unclear. Therefore, there is certain evidence trying a target about the unclear mechanism between intestinal microbiota and CRC...
December 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259025/noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-the-essential-kinase-nik-modulate-crucial-features-associated-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-pathogenesis
#12
Kristin Eden, Daniel E Rothschild, Dylan K McDaniel, Bettina Heid, Irving C Allen
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disease of the esophagus driven by T cell and eosinophil responses to dietary allergens, resulting in chronic mucosal inflammation. Few spontaneous animal models of esophageal eosinophilia exist, with most studies relying on artificial sensitization procedures. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK; MAP3K14) is a key signaling molecule of the noncanonical NF-κB (NFKB1) pathway, an alternative signaling cascade producing chemokines involved in lymphoid stroma development and leukocyte trafficking...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249963/exploring-the-association-between-alzheimer-s-disease-oral-health-microbial-endocrinology-and-nutrition
#13
REVIEW
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249312/decreased-plasma-amino-acid-concentrations-in-cats-with-chronic-gastrointestinal-diseases-and-their-possible-contribution-in-the-inflammatory-response
#14
Kosei Sakai, Shingo Maeda, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
In humans, plasma amino acids (AAs) levels are used as dynamic nutritional markers. Moreover, some AAs are associated with chronic inflammation. In this study, we analyzed plasma AA profiles in cats with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Eight healthy controls (HCs) and 12 client-owned cats with chronic GI diseases including chronic enteritis (n=8) and neoplasms (n=4) were recruited. Plasma albumin, total protein, and 22 AAs (11 essential and 11 non-essential AAs) levels were estimated. There was no significant difference in plasma albumin and total protein concentrations between the cats with chronic GI diseases and HCs...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240880/assessment-of-histological-remission-in-ulcerative-colitis-discrepancies-between-daily-practice-and-expert-opinion
#15
Tessa E H Römkens, Pim Kranenburg, Arjan van Tilburg, Carolien Bronkhorst, Iris D Nagtegaal, Joost P H Drenth, Frank Hoentjen
Background and aims: Histological remission (HR) is a potential treatment target in ulcerative colitis (UC). Limited 'real world ' data is available on reliability of histological scoring when assessing minimal histological inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of UC histological scores in colonic biopsies showing mucosal healing (MH) and limited histological inflammation, and to compare the 'daily practice' histological assessment with expert reviews by gastrointestinal (GI)-pathologists...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213271/visceral-inflammation-and-immune-activation-stress-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Peter Holzer, Aitak Farzi, Ahmed M Hassan, Geraldine Zenz, Angela Jačan, Florian Reichmann
Stress refers to a dynamic process in which the homeostasis of an organism is challenged, the outcome depending on the type, severity, and duration of stressors involved, the stress responses triggered, and the stress resilience of the organism. Importantly, the relationship between stress and the immune system is bidirectional, as not only stressors have an impact on immune function, but alterations in immune function themselves can elicit stress responses. Such bidirectional interactions have been prominently identified to occur in the gastrointestinal tract in which there is a close cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the local immune system, governed by the permeability of the intestinal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207904/graft-versus-host-disease-with-early-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-gastrointestinal-tract-biopsies
#17
Belinda L Sun, Richa Jain, Charmi Patel, Achyut K Bhattacharyya
Gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection often simulate each other. However, distinction between GVHD and CMV infection is critical in the management of immunosuppression for transplant recipients. This study retrospectively reviewed 16 patients diagnosed with GVHD from 2010 to 2016 and found 4 cases (25%) coinfected with CMV. Two cases were initially diagnosed as GVHD only but found to have CMV infection by serological testing within 3 days after immunosuppression treatment for GVHD...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207826/the-association-between-periodontal-status-serum-lipid-levels-lipoprotein-associated-phosholipase-a2-lp-pla2-in-chronic-periodontitis-subjects-and-healthy-controls
#18
Bittu Saira Koshy, Jaideep Mahendra
Introduction: Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been explored as a potential biomarker for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The human Lp-PLA2 is a serine-dependent, Ca2+- independent enzyme. It gives way to oxidised free fatty acids and lysophosphatidyl choline by hydrolysing oxidised phospholipids, that leads to smooth muscle cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell chemotaxis and endothelial cell dysfunction in CVD. Owing to its role in inflammation, it may influence the development and progression of periodontitis as well...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198923/enteromorpha-and-polysaccharides-from-enteromorpha-ameliorate-loperamide-induced-constipation-in-mice
#19
Xinxiu Ren, Lei Liu, Yaser Gamallat, Bingqiang Zhang, Yi Xin
Slow-transit constipation(STC)is a disease characterized by functional gastrointestinal disorder. Common laxatives used in clinical practice against constipation such as Senna have side effects. Enteromorpha(EP)is a common marine alga, and the polysaccharide extracted from EP has been reported possessing anti-cancer and anti-inflammation effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EP and Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha (PEP) on loperamide induced constipated mice model and illustrating mechanism of action...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194046/updates-on-the-biology-of-serotonin-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#20
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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