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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915302/prevalence-of-gingivitis-in-a-group-of-35-to-70-year-olds-residing-in-puerto-rico
#1
Augusto R Elías-Boneta, Angeliz Encarnación, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Beatriz C Berríos-Ouslán, Bayardo García-Godoy, Margarita Murillo, Jomar Diaz-Nicolas, Ferdinand Lugo, Milagros J Toro
OBJECTIVE: Gingivitis, an inflammation of the gingival tissues, typically progresses to periodontitis. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis in 35- to 70-year-olds residing in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and assess the differences in gingivitis distribution between age and gender groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with a sample of patients from a private practice and patients/employees of the Puerto Rico Medical Center...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905123/no-difference-between-manual-and-different-power-toothbrushes-with-and-without-specific-instructions-in-young-oral-healthy-adults-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Gerhard Schmalz, Katharina Kiehl, Jan Schmickler, Sven Rinke, Jana Schmidt, Felix Krause, Rainer Haak, Dirk Ziebolz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this randomized clinical study was to detect the effect of an instruction within a group using oscillating-rotating (OR), sonic-active (SA), or manual toothbrushes (MTB) in young, oral healthy adults. METHODS: One hundred fifty participants were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 25): with (OR-I, SA-I, MTB-I) and without instruction (OR-NI, SA-NI, MTB-NI). Participants in I subgroups received one standardized instruction of the toothbrush system...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903026/differential-expression-of-genes-in-fetal-brain-as-a-consequence-of-maternal-protein-deficiency-and-nematode-infection
#3
Manjurul Haque, Lisa M Starr, Kristine G Koski, Marilyn E Scott
Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2x2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5)...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888832/ageing-sensitized-by-ipla2%C3%AE-deficiency-induces-liver-fibrosis-and-intestinal-atrophy-involving-suppression-of-homeostatic-genes-and-alteration-of-intestinal-lipids-and-bile-acids
#4
Li Jiao, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Xingya Zhu, Wang Wei, Sabine Tuma-Kellner, Gerhard Liebisch, Wolfgang Stremmel, WaleeChamulitrat
Ageing is a major risk factor for various forms of liver and gastrointestinal (GI) disease and genetic background may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Group VIA phospholipase A2 or iPLA2β is a homeostatic PLA2 by playing a role in phospholipid metabolism and remodeling. Global iPLA2β(-/-) mice exhibit aged-dependent phenotypes with body weight loss and abnormalities in the bone and brain. We have previously reported the abnormalities in these mutant mice showing susceptibility for chemical-induced liver injury and colitis...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882823/the-antioxidant-glutathione-protects-against-enteric-neuron-death-in-situ-but-its-depletion-is-protective-during-colitis
#5
Isola Am Brown, Brian D Gulbransen
Enteric glia play an important neuroprotective role in the enteric nervous system (ENS) by producing neuroprotective compounds such as the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH). The specific cellular pathways that regulate glial production of GSH, and how these pathways are altered during, or contribute to, neuroinflammation in situ and in vivo are not fully understood. We investigated this issue using immunohistochemistry to localize GSH synthesis enzymes within the myenteric plexus and tested how the inhibition of GSH synthesis with the selective inhibitor L-Buthionine Sulfoximine (BSO) impacts neuronal survival and inflammation...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882563/adenosine-a1-receptor-potentiated-glycinergic-transmission-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-of-rats-after-peripheral-inflammation
#6
Hu-Hu Bai, Jiang-Ping Liu, Li Yang, Ji-Yuan Zhao, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
Adenosine is present at the extracellular space within spinal cord dorsal horn and engaged in the processing of nociceptive sensory signals. Systemic or spinal administration of exogenous adenosine produces a potent analgesia against pathological pain. Here we found that inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission was an important target for adenosine regulation. In spinal cord slices from intact rats, adenosine increased the inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs). In spinal slices from Complete Freund's Adjuvant-injected rats, adenosine potentiated glycinergic transmission to a more degree than in control rats...
September 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864415/long-pentraxin-ptx3-mediates-acute-inflammatory-responses-against-pneumococcal-infection
#7
Suh Hyun Koh, Seul Gi Shin, Maria Jose Andrade, Ryun-Hee Go, Seonghee Park, Chang-Hoon Woo, Jae Hyang Lim
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen responsible for more than 2 million deaths annually worldwide. The airway epithelium acts as the first-line of defense against pneumococcal infections by regulating acute inflammation against invading pneumococcus. Despite the intact adaptive immunity, failure in early defense due to loss of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and/or acute phase proteins (APPs) results in detrimental damage and death. C-reactive protein (CRP), the first found APP, is a member of the pentraxin family of proteins and an important soluble PRR for pneumococcus...
August 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855716/a-genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-nmnat2-and-hcp5-as-susceptibility-loci-for-kawasaki-disease
#8
Jae-Jung Kim, Sin Weon Yun, Jeong Jin Yu, Kyung Lim Yoon, Kyung-Yil Lee, Hong-Ryang Kil, Gi Beom Kim, Myung-Ki Han, Min Seob Song, Hyoung Doo Lee, Kee Soo Ha, Sejung Sohn, Todd A Johnson, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Kaoru Ito, Yoshihiro Onouchi, Young Mi Hong, Gi Young Jang, Jong-Keuk Lee
Kawasaki disease (KD), a systemic vasculitis of infants and children, manifests as fever and mucocutaneous inflammation. Although its etiology is largely unknown, the epidemiological data suggest that genetic factors are important in KD susceptibility. To identify genetic variants influencing KD susceptibility, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication study using a total of 915 children with KD and 4553 controls in the Korean population. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three loci were associated significantly with KD susceptibility (P<1...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828164/oral-manifestations-as-the-first-presenting-sign-of-crohn-s-disease-in-a-pediatric-patient
#9
Ashley Eckel, Dale Lee, Gail Deutsch, Anthony Maxin, Dolphine Oda
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although the GI tract is the primary site of involvement, many patients, particularly in pediatric cases, first present with non-intestinal manifestations, including oral lesions. Oral manifestations of CD in children occur in around 50-80% of cases, and about 30% of CD cases in children occur first in the mouth. Recognizing such oral lesions in the pediatric population, and requesting a biopsy, may expedite the diagnosis of CD...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825869/cancer-cachexia-cause-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
Todd W Mattox
Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with weight loss related to other symptoms not clearly associated with identifiable GI dysfunction such as anorexia and early satiety. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#11
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809125/post-chemotherapy-perforation-in-cats-with-discrete-intermediate-or-large-cell-gastrointestinal-lymphoma
#12
Zachary Crouse, Brenda Phillips, Andi Flory, Jennifer Mahoney, Keith Richter, Linda Kidd
Objectives Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation is a well-described complication of GI lymphoma in people, commonly occurring within days of initiation of chemotherapy. There are no studies documenting the prevalence of GI perforation in cats with intermediate- or large-cell GI lymphoma or whether it is associated with induction of chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence and timing of post-chemotherapy perforation in cats with discrete GI masses caused by intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800092/induced-aberrant-organisms-with-novel-ability-to-protect-intestinal-integrity-from-inflammation-in-an-animal-model
#13
Helieh S Oz
Robust and balanced gut microbiota are required to support health and growth. Overgrowth of gut microbial or pathogens can change ecosystem balance, and compromise gut integrity to initiate gastrointestinal (GI) complications. There is no safe and effective modality against coccidiosis. Antibiotic additives routinely fed to food animals to protect against infection, are entered into the food chain, contaminate food products and pass to the consumers. HYPOTHESIS: induced aberrant organisms possess distinct ultrastructure and are tolerated by immunodeficient-animals yet are non-pathogenic, but immunogenic in various strains of chicks to act as a preventive (vaccine) and eliminating the needs for antibiotic additives...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795618/distribution-of-dental-plaque-and-gingivitis-within-the-dental-arches
#14
Prem K Sreenivasan, Kakarla V V Prasad
Objective The natural accumulation of supragingival plaque on surfaces of human teeth is associated with gingival inflammation and the initiation of common oral diseases. This study evaluated the distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis scores within the dental arches after prophylaxis. Methods Adult subjects from the Dharwad, India area representing the general population who provided written informed consent were scheduled for screening. Healthy subjects over the age of 18 years, not currently requiring any medical or dental care, and presenting with a complement of at least 20 natural teeth were recruited for this parallel design study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770665/immunopathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-how-genetics-link-barrier-dysfunction-and-innate-immunity-to-inflammation
#15
Minesh Mehta, Shifat Ahmed, Gerald Dryden
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a distinct set of clinical symptoms resulting from chronic or relapsing immune activation and corresponding inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diverse genetic mutations, encoding important aspects of innate immunity and mucosal homeostasis, combine with environmental triggers to create inappropriate, sustained inflammatory responses. Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the interplay of the intestinal epithelium, mucosal immune system, and commensal bacteria as a foundation of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease...
August 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769105/transcriptome-profiling-of-mouse-colonic-eosinophils-reveals-a-key-role-for-eosinophils-in-the-induction-of-s100a8-and-s100a9-in-mucosal-healing
#16
Reichman Hadar, Moshkovits Itay, Itan Michal, Pasmanik-Chor Metsada, Vogl Thomas, Roth Johannes, Munitz Ariel
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that have been largely implicated in Th2-associated diseases. Recent data highlights a key role for eosinophils in mucosal innate immune responses especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is one of the largest eosinophil reservoirs in the body. Although eosinophils express and synthesize a plethora of proteins that can mediate their effector activities, the transcriptome signature of eosinophils in mucosal inflammation and subsequent repair has been considerably overlooked...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764744/a-case-study-of-desmozoon-lepeophtherii-infection-in-farmed-atlantic-salmon-associated-with-gill-disease-peritonitis-intestinal-infection-stunted-growth-and-increased-mortality
#17
Simon Chioma Weli, Ole Bendik Dale, Haakon Hansen, Mona Cecilie Gjessing, Liv Birte Rønneberg, Knut Falk
BACKGROUND: In September 2008, a disease outbreak characterized by acute, severe gill pathology and peritonitis, involving the gastrointestinal tract, was observed in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farm in north-western Norway. During subsequent sampling in November 2008 and January 2009, chronic proliferative gill inflammation and peritonitis was observed. Cumulative mortalities of 5.6-12.8% and severe growth retardation were observed. Routine diagnostic analysis revealed no diseases known to salmon at the time, but microsporidian infection of tissues was observed...
August 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750809/assessing-allosteric-modulation-of-cb1-at-the-receptor-and-cellular-levels
#18
Caitlin E Scott, Debra A Kendall
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is abundant in the central nervous system and regulates neuronal transmission and other key physiological processes including those leading to pain, inflammation, memory, and feeding behavior. CB1 is activated by the endogenous ligands, arachidonoyl ethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, by various synthetic ligands (e.g., CP55940), and by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. These CB1 ligands are orthosteric and transduce downstream signals by binding CB1 and primarily inducing Gi coupling, but Gs and β-arrestin coupling are also possible...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744328/ultrasonographic-imaging-and-anti-inflammatory-therapy-of-muscle-and-tendon-injuries-using-polymer-nanoparticles
#19
Gi-Wook Kim, Changsun Kang, Young-Bin Oh, Myoung-Hwan Ko, Jeong-Hwan Seo, Dongwon Lee
Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H2O2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol-co-oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H2O2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H2O2-associated diseases...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740338/localization-and-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-subtype-5-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
REVIEW
Andrea Ferrigno, Clarissa Berardo, Laura G Di Pasqua, Veronica Siciliano, Plinio Richelmi, Mariapia Vairetti
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is a Group I mGlu subfamily of receptors coupled to the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. Like other mGluR subtypes, mGluR5s contain a phylogenetically conserved, extracellular orthosteric binding site and a more variable allosteric binding site, located on the heptahelical transmembrane domain. The mGluR5 receptor has proved to be a key pharmacological target in conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) but its presence outside the CNS underscores its potential role in pathologies affecting peripheral organs such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory digestive organs such as the tongue, liver and pancreas...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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