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GI inflammation

Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
L Chen, B Yu, D Luo, M Lin
BACKGROUND: The mechanism underlying gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) has not been fully elucidated, and enteric nervous system (ENS) has an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ENS in the colonic hypomotility induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) infusion which mimics CP. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to CP which was induced by pancreatic infusion of 2% TNBS, or sham group with treatment of equal saline...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Georgios A Kotsakis, Qinshu Lian, Andreas L Ioannou, Bryan S Michalowicz, Mike John, Haitao Chu
BACKGROUND: A wide selection of Interdental Oral Hygiene (IOH) aids is available to consumers. Recommendations for selection are, however, limited by the lack of direct comparisons in available studies. We aimed to assess the comparative efficacy of IOH aids using Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis (BNMA). METHODS: Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials assessing IOH aids, based on a focused question. Gingival inflammation (Gingival Index (GI), Bleeding-on-probing (BOP)) was the primary outcome and plaque and probing depth were secondary outcomes A random-effects arm-based BNMA model was run for each outcome; posterior medians and 95% credible-intervals (CIs) summarized marginal distributions of parameters...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
John L Wallace
Eicosanoids play important roles in modulating inflammation throughout the body. The gastrointestinal tract, in part because of its intimate relationship with the gut microbiota, is in a constant state of low-grade inflammation. Eicosanoids like prostaglandins, lipoxins and leukotrienes play essential roles in maintenance of mucosal integrity. On the other hand, in some circumstances these mediators can become major drivers of inflammatory processes when the lining of the GI tract is breached. Drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, by altering the production of various eicosanoids, can dramatically impact the ability of the GI tract to respond appropriately to injury...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mahanand Chatoo, Yi Li, Zhiqiang Ma, John Coote, Jizeng Du, Xuequn Chen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Changting Meng, Chunmei Bai, Thomas D Brown, Leroy Hood, Qiang Tian
Human gut microbiota play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. In the past decade, the interactions between microorganisms and tumors have attracted much attention in the efforts understanding various features of the complex microbial communities, as well as the possible mechanisms through which the microbiota are involved in cancer prevention, carcinogenesis, and anti-cancer therapy. A large number of studies have indicated that microbial dysbiosis contributes to cancer susceptibility via multiple pathways...
February 20, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Rogatien Charlet, Youri Pruvost, Gael Tumba, Fabian Istel, Daniel Poulain, Karl Kuchler, Boualem Sendid, Samir Jawhara
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota acts a natural barrier to the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Candida glabrata is an opportunistic yeast pathogen that has adapted to colonize all segments of the human GI tract. We observed an increase in Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides vulgatus populations, and a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Bifidobacterium animalis in mice with DSS-induced colitis. This reduction was more pronounced for L. johnsonii during C...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alejandra Camacho-Soto, Anat Gross, Susan Searles Nielsen, Neelendu Dey, Brad A Racette
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction precedes the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) by several years. PD patients have abnormal aggregation of intestinal α-synuclein, the accumulation of which may be promoted by inflammation. The relationship between intestinal α-synuclein aggregates and central nervous system neuropathology is unknown. Recently, we observed a possible inverse association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and PD as part of a predictive model of PD...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Uri Kopylov, Michael Starr, Craig Watts, Serge Dionne, Marc Girardin, Ernest G Seidman
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally reported to be associated with spondylarthropathies (SpA) in 5%-15% of cases. Systematic colonoscopic assessment by protocol demonstrated mucosal inflammation characteristic of Crohn disease (CD) in up to one-third of patients with SpA. Video capsule endoscopy (CE) is a superior diagnostic tool to detect small bowel mucosal disease. Our study compared the accuracy of CE to standard colonoscopy for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions in patients with SpA, and to describe predictors of small bowel inflammation (SBI) in this cohort...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Sarah J MacEachern, Catherine M Keenan, Evangelia Papakonstantinou, Keith A Sharkey, Bhavik Anil Patel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by pain, bleeding, cramping and altered gastrointestinal (GI) function. Changes in mucosal serotonin (5-HT) signalling occur in animal models of colitis and in humans suffering from IBD. Melatonin is co-released with 5-HT from the mucosa and has a wide variety of actions in the GI tract. Here we examined how melatonin signalling is affected by colitis and determined how this relates to 5-HT signalling. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using electroanalytical approaches, we investigated how 5-HT release, reuptake and availability as well as melatonin availability are altered in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Neeraj Chandrahas Deshpande, Mansi Rajendrakumar Amrutiya
Introduction: Periodontitis is defined as a destructive inflammatory disease involving the supporting tissues of the teeth due to specific microorganisms which results in a progressive destruction of supporting structures of the periodontium. Obesity is excessive body fat in proportion to lean body mass, to such an extent that health is impaired. Obesity, a serious public health problem, relates to a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and is involved in the development of obesity-linked disorders including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome...
May 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Gerald Holtmann, Ayesha Shah, Mark Morrison
Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety...
2017: Digestive Diseases
Yeonsoo Kim, Jie Chen, Michael D Wirth, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert
The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), the glycemic index (GI), and the glycemic load (GL) is not known, although it is known that carbohydrates are pro-inflammatory. We aimed to measure the association between the DII and both GI and GL among college students. In this cross-sectional study, 110 college students completed a 3-day food diary, which was used to calculate the DII, the GI, the GL, and the healthy eating index (HEI)-2010. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals of the GI, the GL, and the HEI-2010 were presented per DII tertile using generalized linear mixed models...
February 7, 2018: Nutrients
Christine Frazer, Leslie Hussey, Mary Bemker
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility problems are common complications in critical care patients. GI problems contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Toxic megacolon (TM) is a type of acquired megacolon categorized as a medical emergency and includes severe inflammation affecting all layers of the colon wall. The high incidence of GI complications in critically ill patients requires the critical care nurse to provide close monitoring of patients at risk and an acute awareness of the causation, signs and symptoms, and treatment of various GI motility disorders, including gastroparesis, ileus, and TM...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Rima Chattopadhyay, Arul M Mani, Nikhlesh K Singh, Gadiparthi N Rao
In recent years, various studies have demonstrated a role for endogenously derived specialized proresolving mediators such as resolvins in the resolution of inflammation. In exploring the signaling mechanisms, in the present study we show that Resolvin D1 (RvD1) reduces LPS-induced endothelial cell (EC)-monocyte interactions via blocking H2O2-mediated PP2A inactivation, NFκB activation and ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression. In addition, we found that H2O2-mediated SHP2 inhibition leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and inactivation of PP2A by LPS, which in turn, accounts for increased NFκB activation and ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression facilitating EC-monocyte interactions and all these LPS-mediated responses were reduced by RvD1...
February 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
J Zhang, N Ab Malik, C McGrath, Olt Lam
AIM: To review the effectiveness of antiseptic oral sprays on oral health. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science) were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral sprays to placebo/control spray or mouthrinse on dental plaque and gingival inflammation were included. RESULTS: Among a total of 996 papers, 20 effective studies fulfilled the selection criteria, and 8 studies were suitable for inclusion in meta-analyses...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Anirban Chatterjee, Koel Debnath, Nagabhushan Koratagere Hanumanta Rao
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 0.1% curcumin mouthwash and to compare it with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiplaque agent and its effect on gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty subjects, age between 20 and 30 years were recruited. Study population were randomly divided into three groups. In Group A, 50 subjects were advised the experimental mouthwash. Group B subjects used placebo mouthrinse, and chlorhexidine mouth wash was given to Group C...
March 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Larisa Broglie, Alfred Rademaker, John Galvin, Ayita Ray, William T Tse, Reggie Duerst, Jennifer Schneiderman, Morris Kletzel, Sonali Chaudhury
BACKGROUND: Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) affects approximately 30-60% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and our ability to predict who develops this complication and their response to treatment is limited. Fecal calprotectin has recently gained popularity as an effective marker of GI inflammation in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). METHODS: Fecal calprotectin and albumin were evaluated as prognostic and predictive markers of aGVHD in 60 adult and pediatric HCT patients...
January 31, 2018: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Mariam Bakshi, Tae Kwon Kim, Albert Mulenga
Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are thought to mediate the tick's evasion of the host's serine protease-mediated defense pathways such as inflammation and blood clotting. This study describes characterization and target validation of 11 blood meal-responsive serpins that are associated with nymph and adult Ixodes scapularis tick feeding as revealed by quantitative (q)RT-PCR and RNAi silencing analyses. Given the high number of targets, we used combinatorial (co) RNAi silencing to disrupt candidate serpins in two groups (G): seven highly identical and four non-identical serpins based on amino acid identities, here after called GI and GII respectively...
January 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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