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Heart failure new treatments review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087688/thirty-years-of-evidence-on-the-efficacy-of-drug-treatments-for-chronic-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-a-network-meta-analysis
#1
Heather Burnett, Amy Earley, Adriaan A Voors, Michele Senni, John J V McMurray, Celine Deschaseaux, Shannon Cope
BACKGROUND: Treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), β-blockers (BB), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), have not been studied in a head-to-head fashion. This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of these drugs and their combinations regarding all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction...
January 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063800/gene-therapy-for-heart-failure
#2
REVIEW
Barry Greenberg
Novel strategies are needed to treat the growing population of heart failure patients. While new drug and device based therapies have improved outcomes over the past several decades, heart failure patients continue to experience amongst the lowest quality of life of any chronic disease, high likelihood of being hospitalized and marked reduction in survival. Better understanding of many of the basic mechanisms involved in the development of heart failure has helped identify abnormalities that could potentially be targeted by gene transfer...
November 5, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060547/the-safety-of-sacubitril-valsartan-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-heart-failure
#3
Jeffrey M Tyler, John R Teerlink
Sacubitril-valsartan is a combination drug that contains the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril and angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sacubitril-valsartan for treatment of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association class II-IV symptoms following a large, Phase III clinical trial (PARADIGM-HF) that demonstrated a 20% reduction in the combined primary end-point of death from cardiovascular cause or hospitalization for heart failure compared to enalapril...
January 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059840/management-of-heart-failure-in-the-elderly
#4
Faisal Alghamdi, Michael Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is a major chronic illness with no definitive cure. With improving healthcare and with an aging population in many countries, heart failure has become a common disease of the elderly. Pharmacological management of heart failure in the elderly remains a challenge. The syndrome of heart failure cannot be isolated from other comorbidities, which are very common in this population. The purpose of this review is to assist practicing clinicians to more effectively make decisions about management of heart failure in the elderly...
January 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051871/modulating-mineralocorticoid-receptor-with-non-steroid-antagonists-new-opportunities-for-the-development-of-potent-and-selective-ligands-without-off-target-side-effects
#5
Mercedes Martín-Martínez, Felipe Luis Pérez-Gordillo, Diego Alvarez De la Rosa, Yoel Rodríguez, Guillermo Gerona-Navarro, Rosario González-Muñiz, Ming-Ming Zhou
Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are used for treatment of a range of human diseases, but present challenging issues of complex chemical synthesis, undesirable physical properties and poor selectivity along with unwanted side effects. Therefore, there is a great interest in the discovery of non-steroidal ligands able to bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the MR, and recruit different coregulators to produce tissue-specific therapeutic effects. Several academic groups and pharmaceutical companies have been developing a series of non-steroidal ligands that consist of different chemical scaffolds, yielding MR antagonists currently evaluated in clinical studies for the treatment of congestive heart failure, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012165/stem-cell-therapy-for-chronic-ischaemic-heart-disease-and-congestive-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Sheila A Fisher, Carolyn Doree, Anthony Mathur, David P Taggart, Enca Martin-Rendon
BACKGROUND: A promising approach to the treatment of chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure is the use of stem cells. The last decade has seen a plethora of randomised controlled trials developed worldwide, which have generated conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: The critical evaluation of clinical evidence on the safety and efficacy of autologous adult bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells as a treatment for chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure...
24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011332/cardiac-complications-in-cancer-treatment-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Xianchi Li, Min Liu, Rongrong Sun, Yi Zeng, Shuang Chen, Peiying Zhang
Cardiac dysfunction an often seen associated with an effective cancer treatment. A number of targeted therapies against cancer have been observed to cause cardiac dysfunction. In some instances, a patient may outlive his or her cancer but die due to heart failure. Recent research is being focused development of new avenues and technological advancements to keep check over clinical cardio toxicity and cardiac dysfunction due to anticancer treatment. These newer treatment options are also increasingly effective, focused more on the post-cancer life too...
December 20, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004291/sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-in-heart-failure
#8
Yasser Khder, Victor Shi, John J V McMurray, Martin P Lefkowitz
It has been known since the 1990s that long-term morbidity and mortality is improved in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) by treatments that target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). It has also long been thought that enhancement of the activity of natriuretic peptides (NPs) could potentially benefit patients with HFrEF, but multiple attempts to realize this benefit had failed over the years - until 2014, when a large, phase III, randomized, controlled clinical trial (PARADIGM-HF) was completed comparing sacubitril/valsartan with enalapril, a well-established treatment for HFrEF...
December 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000001/role-of-integrins-in-mediating-cardiac-fibroblast-cardiomyocyte-cross-talk-a-dynamic-relationship-in-cardiac-biology-and-pathophysiology
#9
REVIEW
Robert A Civitarese, Andras Kapus, Christopher A McCulloch, Kim A Connelly
Integrins are a family of heterodimeric proteins expressed by cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes that provide critical adhesive and signaling functions through their interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the actin cytoskeleton. These adhesive processes are important for paracrine signaling, ECM homeostasis and for the intercellular interactions that impact cardiac cell biology and pathophysiological adaptation in disease. Despite considerable progress, our understanding of the interplay between cardiac cells, the ECM and integrins remains largely elusive...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999776/-freeze-don-t-move-how-to-arrest-a-suspect-in-heart-failure-a-review-on-available-grk2-inhibitors
#10
REVIEW
Daniela Sorriento, Michele Ciccarelli, Ersilia Cipolletta, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
Cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF) still collect the largest toll of death in western societies and all over the world. A growing number of molecular mechanisms represent possible targets for new therapeutic strategies, which can counteract the metabolic and structural changes observed in the failing heart. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is one of such targets for which experimental and clinical evidence are established. Indeed, several strategies have been carried out in place to interface with the known GRK2 mechanisms of action in the failing heart...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995387/noncoding-rnas-in-heart-failure
#11
Seema Dangwal, Katharina Schimmel, Ariana Foinquinos, Ke Xiao, Thomas Thum
Heart failure is a major contributor to the healthcare burden and mortality worldwide. Current treatment strategies are able to slow down the transition of healthy heart into the failing one; nevertheless better understanding of the complex genetic regulation of maladaptive remodeling in the failing heart is essential for new drug discovery. Noncoding RNAs are key epigenetic regulators of cardiac gene expression and thus significantly influence cardiac homeostasis and functions.In this chapter we will discuss characteristics of noncoding RNAs, especially miRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs, and review recent evidences proving their profound involvement during different stages of heart failure progression...
December 20, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990270/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Halley Tsai, Yon K Sung, Vinicio de Jesus Perez
Over the past 20 years, there has been an explosion in the development of therapeutics to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rare but life-threatening disorder associated with progressive elevation of pulmonary pressures and severe right heart failure. Recently, the field has seen the introduction of riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, a new endothelin receptor antagonist (macitentan), and oral prostanoids (treprostinil and selexipag). Besides new drugs, there have been significant advances in defining the role of upfront combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients as well as proposed methods to deliver systemic prostanoids by use of implantable pumps...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974807/long-term-neprilysin-inhibition-implications-for-arnis
#13
REVIEW
Duncan J Campbell
Neprilysin has a major role in both the generation and degradation of bioactive peptides. LCZ696 (valsartan/sacubitril, Entresto), the first of the new ARNI (dual-acting angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor) drug class, contains equimolar amounts of valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and sacubitril, a prodrug for the neprilysin inhibitor LBQ657. LCZ696 reduced blood pressure more than valsartan alone in patients with hypertension. In the PARADIGM-HF study, LCZ696 was superior to the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and LCZ696 was approved by the FDA for this purpose in 2015...
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957251/clinical-characteristics-and-prognostic-impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#14
Lorenzo Gigli, Pietro Ameri, Gianmarco Secco, Gabriele De Blasi, Roberta Miceli, Alessandra Lorenzoni, Francesco Torre, Francesco Chiarella, Claudio Brunelli, Marco Canepa
AIM: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics and independent prognostic impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, and the potential protective effect of disease-modifying medications, particularly beta-blockers (BB). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients referred to our center since January 2004, and collected all clinical information available at their first visit. We assessed mortality to the end of June 2015...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892684/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-lcz696-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-development
#16
Yue Hua, Ian Wang, Bin Liu, Darren J Kelly, Christopher Reid, Danny Liew, Yingchun Zhou, Bing H Wang
Heart failure still has a significant disease burden with poor outcomes worldwide despite advances in therapy. The standard therapies have been focused on blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid antagonists and the sympathetic nervous system with β-blockers. The natriuretic peptide system is a potential counter-regulatory system that promotes vasodilatation and natriuresis. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors are a new class drug capable of blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and enhancing the natriuretic peptide system to improve neurohormonal balance...
November 28, 2016: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884088/physiopathology-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#17
Fabrice Gankam Kengne
Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. It develops when the mechanisms regulating water and electrolyte handling are impaired, which in many instances occur in the setting of concurrent diseases such as heart failure, liver failure, renal failure etc… Hyponatremia as an electrolyte disorder has several specificities: when profound it can be quickly fatal and when moderate it carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity, but at the same time incorrect treatment of profound hyponatremia can lead to debilitating neurological disease and it remains unclear if treatment of moderate hyponatremia is associated with a decrease in mortality and morbidity...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883118/cachexia
#18
A I Graul, M Stringer, L Sorbera
Cachexia is a multiorgan, multifactorial and often irreversible wasting syndrome associated with cancer and other serious, chronic illnesses including AIDS, chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Treatment of the patient with cachexia is currently targeted to correcting the two underlying features of the condition: anorexia and metabolic disturbances. Greater understanding of the mechanisms behind cachexia and muscle wasting have led to new therapeutic possibilities, however...
September 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878511/new-challenges-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-left-ventricular-support-lvad-thrombosis
#19
REVIEW
Ann B Nguyen, Nir Uriel, Sirtaz Adatya
Mechanical circulatory support has revolutionized the treatment of heart failure, affording patients significantly improved survival and quality of life. However, further advancements in this technology have been hindered by adverse events, particularly gastrointestinal bleeding, driveline infection, stroke, and device thrombosis. Recently, there has been a renewed focus on device thrombosis as the reported incidence has increased. This review focuses on an update on the diagnostic modalities and current treatment algorithms of this serious complication...
December 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874936/relationship-between-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#20
C-Y Hu, C-Y Wang, J-Y Li, J Ma, Z-Q Li
Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are major health issues and often co-exist. HF and AF also share common mechanisms, as well as therapies and treatment strategies. The relationship between AF and HF has not been clarified and, therefore, remains an area of research interest. The choice of optimal treatment is a challenge for AF and HF. Control of rate or rhythm is the most important decision for physicians. New tactics for budgeting and centralized monitoring may have an exciting effect on stroke occurrence...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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