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Heart failure new treatments review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226041/dapagliflozin-cardiovascular-safety-and-benefits-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) such as dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin, are a promising new therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2is can effectively reduce hyperglycemia thus improving glycemic control and they offer some beneficial effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system which can benefit patients with heart failure in addition toT2DM. The United States Food and Drug Administration requires new diabetes mellitus therapies to show a CV safety profile...
October 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225577/if-channel-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-for-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-controversies
#2
REVIEW
Hayelom G Mengesha, Tadesse B Tafesse, Mohammed H Bule
In 2015, non-communicable diseases accounted for 39.5 million (70%) of the total 56.4 million deaths that occurred globally, of which 17.7 million (45%) were due to cardiovascular diseases. An elevated heart rate is considered to be one of the independent predictors and markers of future cardiovascular diseases. A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies have found that atherosclerosis, heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, and arrhythmia are linked to elevated heart rate. Although there are established drugs to reduce the heart rate, these drugs have undesirable side effects...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158679/treatment-of-pulmonary-hypertension-with-left-heart-disease-a-concise-review
#3
REVIEW
Anish Desai, Shilpa A Desouza
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, as determined by right heart catheterization. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can no longer be considered an orphan disease given the increase in awareness and availability of new drugs. PH carries with it a dismal prognosis and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Symptoms can range from dyspnea, fatigue and chest pain to right ventricular failure and death. PH is divided into five groups by the World Health Organization (WHO), based on etiology...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117873/implementation-of-an-emergency-department-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter-pathway-improves-rates-of-appropriate-anticoagulation-reduces-length-of-stay-and-thirty-day-revisit-rates-for-congestive-heart-failure
#4
David Barbic, Chris DeWitt, Devin Harris, Robert Stenstrom, Eric Grafstein, Crane Wu, Cristian Vadeanu, Brett Heilbron, Jenelle Haaf, Stanley Tung, Dan Kalla, Julian Marsden, Jim Christenson, Frank Scheuermeyer
OBJECTIVES: An evidence-based emergency department (ED) atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) pathway was developed to improve care. The primary objective was to measure rates of new anticoagulation (AC) on ED discharge for AFF patients who were not AC correctly upon presentation. METHODS: This is a pre-post evaluation from April to December 2013 measuring the impact of our pathway on rates of new AC and other performance measures in patients with uncomplicated AFF solely managed by emergency physicians...
November 9, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109195/sleep-apnea-and-cardiovascular-disease-lessons-from-recent-trials-and-need-for-team-science
#5
REVIEW
Luciano F Drager, R Doug McEvoy, Ferran Barbe, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Susan Redline
Emerging research highlights the complex interrelationships between sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease, presenting clinical and research opportunities as well as challenges. Patients presenting to cardiology clinics have a high prevalence of obstructive and central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Multiple mechanisms have been identified by which sleep disturbances adversely affect cardiovascular structure and function. Epidemiological research indicates that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increases in the incidence and progression of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation...
November 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096787/structural-and-functional-phenotyping-of-the-failing-heart-is-the-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-obsolete
#6
REVIEW
Michael R Bristow, David P Kao, Khadijah K Breathett, Natasha L Altman, John Gorcsan, Edward A Gill, Brian D Lowes, Edward M Gilbert, Robert A Quaife, Douglas L Mann
Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and development of new therapies for diseases or syndromes depend on a reliable means of identifying phenotypes associated with distinct predictive probabilities for these various objectives. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) provides the current basis for combined functional and structural phenotyping in heart failure by classifying patients as those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
November 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080984/benefit-risk-assessment-of-crataegus-extract-ws%C3%A2-1442-an-evidence-based-review
#7
REVIEW
Christian J F Holubarsch, Wilson S Colucci, Jaan Eha
Preparations from Crataegus (hawthorn) have a long history in the treatment of heart failure. WS 1442 is a dry extract from hawthorn leaves with flowers (4-6.6:1), extraction solvent of ethanol 45% (w/w), adjusted to 17.3-20.1% of oligomeric procyanidins. Nonclinical studies show that WS 1442 has positive inotropic and antiarrhythmic properties and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage, reperfusion injury, and hypertension-related hypertrophy, improves endothelial functions such as NO synthesis, and delays endothelial senescence...
October 28, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057207/harnessing-epicardial-progenitor-cells-and-their-derivatives-for-rescue-and-repair-of-cardiac-tissue-after-myocardial-infarction
#8
Krithika S Rao, Jeffrey L Spees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease and stroke lead to the greatest number of deaths worldwide. Despite decreased time to intervention and improvements in the standard of care, 1 out of 5 patients that survive a myocardial infarction (MI) still face long-term chronic heart failure and a 5-year mortality rate of about 50%. Based on their multi-potency for differentiation and paracrine activity, epicardial cells and their derivatives have potential to rescue jeopardized tissue and/or promote cardiac regeneration...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034264/reducing-cardiac-fibrosis-na-k-atpase-signaling-complex-as-a-novel-target
#9
X Fan, J Xie, J Tian
Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathological process in cardiac disease and may lead to heart failure. It can also cause sudden death even in those without cardiac symptoms. Tissue fibrosis can be categorized into two categories: replacement fibrosis (also called reparative fibrosis) and reactive fibrosis. In replacement fibrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) proteins are the initial steps in forming scarlike fibrotic tissue after acute cardiac injury and cardiac cell necrosis...
2017: Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018938/heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-current-management-and-future-strategies-expert-opinion-on-the-behalf-of-the-nucleus-of-the-heart-failure-working-group-of-the-german-society-of-cardiology-dkg
#10
REVIEW
Carsten Tschöpe, Christoph Birner, Michael Böhm, Oliver Bruder, Stefan Frantz, Andreas Luchner, Lars Maier, Stefan Störk, Behrouz Kherad, Ulrich Laufs
About 50% of all patients suffering from heart failure (HF) exhibit a reduced ejection fraction (EF ≤ 40%), termed HFrEF. The others may be classified into HF with midrange EF (HFmrEF 40-50%) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, EF ≥ 50%). Presentation and pathophysiology of HFpEF is heterogeneous and its management remains a challenge since evidence of therapeutic benefits on outcome is scarce. Up to now, there are no therapies improving survival in patients with HFpEF. Thus, the treatment targets symptom relief, quality of life and reduction of cardiac decompensations by controlling fluid retention and managing risk factors and comorbidities...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956198/immunity-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-heart-failure-emerging-molecular-targets
#11
REVIEW
Karam F Ayoub, Naga Venkata K Pothineni, Joshua Rutland, Zufeng Ding, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE: Heart failure (HF) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although various therapies developed over the last two decades have shown improved long term outcomes in patients with established HF, there has been little progress in preventing the adverse cardiac remodeling that initiates HF. To fill the gap in treatment, current research efforts are focused on understanding novel mechanisms and signaling pathways. Immune activation, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics, and autophagy have been postulated as important pathophysiological events in this process...
September 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954706/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-a-review
#12
REVIEW
C D'Amore, F Marsico, A Parente, S Paolillo, F De Martino, P Gargiulo, F Ferrazzano, A M De Roberto, L La Mura, C Marciano, S Dellegrottaglie, B Trimarco, P Perrone Filardi
AIM: The aim of this review was to summarize evidence on the role of Vitamin D deficiency in heart failure (HF), from pathophysiological mechanisms to clinical effects of Vitamin D supplementation. DATA SYNTHESIS: Chronic HF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is a growing health problem, still associated with poor clinical outcome. In recent years, experimental and epidemiological evidence focused on the role of Vitamin D in HF. Cross sectional studies demonstrated that prevalence of HF is increased in patients with Vitamin D deficiency or parathyroid hormone (PTH) plasma level increase, whereas longitudinal studies showed enhanced risk of developing new HF in patients with Vitamin D deficiency...
October 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943106/at2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-a-silver-lining-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Anuradha Pandey, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
The currently available therapies for diabetic nephropathy, one of the leading causes of renal failure globally are based on inhibition of renin angiotensin system. However, recently, the focus has shifted towards activation of its protective arm rather than the inhibition of deteriorative axis, using specific agonists. Compound 21 (C21), a novel non-peptide Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) agonist, recently granted orphan drug status for the treatment of a rare disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has also shown a potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic potential in various diseases including heart failure, myocardial infarction, chronic inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941606/new-developments-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#14
REVIEW
Robert M Cooper, Claire E Raphael, Max Liebregts, Nandan S Anavekar, Josef Veselka
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death in young individuals and an important cause of heart failure at any age. In this review we discuss advances in investigation and management of this heterogenous disease. Improved cardiac imaging has allowed us to detail many of the structural abnormalities whereas the use of new techniques, predominantly in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, has given us a greater insight in to tissue architecture, mechanism of contractile abnormalities, and function...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936433/trpc3-channels-in-cardiac-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Sayaka Oda, Tsukasa Shimauchi, Akiyuki Nishimura, Supachoke Mangmool, Motohiro Nishida
Cardiac stiffness, caused by interstitial fibrosis due to deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, is thought as a major clinical outcome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) subfamily proteins are components of Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channels activated by receptor stimulation and mechanical stress, and have been attracted attention as a key mediator of maladaptive cardiac remodeling. How TRPC-mediated local Ca(2+) influx encodes a specific signal to induce maladaptive cardiac remodeling has been long obscure, but our recent studies suggest a pathophysiological significance of channel activity-independent function of TRPC proteins for amplifying redox signaling in heart...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902721/hiv-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Harish Jarrett, Christopher Barnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is a well-recognized severe cardiovascular complication of HIV infection that confers an adverse prognosis irrespective of the stage of disease. This review will summarize the available data on HIV-PAH epidemiology and provide insights into the pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies currently available. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with HIV are several thousand times more likely to develop HIV-PAH compared to the incidence of idiopathic PAH...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902412/interventions-for-treating-tuberculous-pericarditis
#17
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Lehana Thabane, Jimmy Volmink, Dumisani Majombozi, Freedom Gumedze, Shaheen Pandie, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017)...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899229/thyroid-storm-a-japanese-perspective
#18
Takashi Akamizu
BACKGROUND: Thyroid storm (TS) is life threatening. In the mid-2000s, its incidence was poorly defined, peer-reviewed diagnostic criteria were not available, and management and treatment did not seem to be verified based upon evidence and latest advances in medicine. METHODS: First, diagnostic criteria were developed based on 99 patients in the literature and seven patients in this study. Then, initial and follow-up surveys were conducted from 2004 through 2008, targeting all hospitals in Japan to obtain and verify information on patients who met diagnostic criteria for TS...
October 5, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887110/percutaneous-decommissioning-of-left-ventricular-assist-device
#19
Jia-Lin Soon, Ju-Le Tan, Choon-Pin Lim, Teing-Ee Tan, Swee-Yaw Tan, Ka-Lee Kerk, Kheng-Leng David Sim, Cumaraswamy Sivathasan
BACKGROUND: The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) has revolutionised our treatment of advanced stage heart failure, giving debilitated patients a new lease on life. A small proportion of these LVAD patients can be bridged-to-recovery. The identification of these patients and decision to wean, however, can be challenging. METHODS: The need to fully explant the device upon recovery has evolved to a minimalist approach aiming to avoid injury to the 'recovered' heart...
August 19, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887060/ethnicity-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-possibilities-for-novel-phenotypes-in-the-age-of-personalized-medicine
#20
Sarah K Medrek, Sandeep Sahay
In the past decade and a half, the introduction of new therapeutic agents has revolutionized the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). These new treatment options have improved the quality of life and survival in PAH. With an armamentarium of options available, the identification of unique phenotypes can help practitioners choose tailored treatment regimens. Experts in other cardiovascular diseases, such as congestive heart failure and hypertension, have recommended race-specific treatments in their fields based on data highlighting variations in response to therapies...
September 5, 2017: Chest
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