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Heart failure new treatments review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678287/novel-mechanisms-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-functions-at-1-angiotensin-receptor-acts-as-a-signaling-hub-and-focal-point-of-receptor-cross-talk
#1
REVIEW
András D Tóth, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady, András Balla
AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1 R), a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is the main receptor, which mediates the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). AT1 R plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and salt-water homeostasis, and in the development of pathological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, cardiovascular remodeling, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Stimulation of AT1 R leads to pleiotropic signal transduction pathways generating arrays of complex cellular responses...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663894/coenzyme-q10-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-current-state-of-the-problem
#2
Vladlena I Zozina, Serghei Covantev, Olga A Goroshko, Liudmila M Krasnykh, Vladimir G Kukes
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation...
April 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658862/progress-in-gene-therapy-for-chronic-heart-failure
#3
Zhi-Qiang Yin, Wan-Hong Xing
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and carries with it large economic and social burdens. Although steady and substantial progress has been made in reducing mortality from heart failure using conventional treatments, novel pharmacologic and surgical interventions have not been effective in extending five year survival rates. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new therapies. Gene therapy was introduced in 1970s with the development of recombinant DNA technology...
March 5, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651826/new-percutaneous-interventions-in-heart-failure
#4
Elisabetta Moscarella, Salvatore Brugaletta, Manel Sabaté
Chronic heart failure (HF) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and represents a growing challenge in interventional cardiology. Its prevalence is recently increasing due to the improvements in cardiac care with subsequent significant reduction in the HF acute mortality. HF may occur with either a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (LVEF<40%, HFrEF) or a preserved EF (typically LVEF≥50%, HFpEF) indicative of diastolic dysfunction. Despite recent advances in drug therapies as well as in nonpharmacological strategies, including defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy, LV assist devices (LVAD), mortality in HF remains high...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627355/contemporary-reviews-in-critical-care-medicine-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas A Bosch, Jonathan Cimini, Allan J Walkey
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in the intensive care unit. Pre-existing AF is highly prevalent among older patients with chronic conditions who are at risk for critical illness, while new-onset AF can be triggered by accelerated atrial remodeling and arrhythmogenic triggers encountered during critical illness. The acute loss of atrial systole and onset of rapid ventricular rates that characterize new-onset AF often lead to decreased cardiac output and hemodynamic compromise...
April 5, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623530/novel-insights-and-treatment-strategies-for-right-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Weiqin Lin, Ai-Ling Poh, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The function of the right ventricle (RV) is intimately linked to its preload (systemic volume status) and afterload (pulmonary vasculature). In this review, we explore current knowledge in RV physiology, RV function assessment, causes of right heart failure (RHF), and specific treatment strategies for RHF. RECENT FINDINGS: We examine the evidence behind new pharmacological therapies available, such as macitentan and riociguat in the treatment of specific etiologies of RHF...
April 6, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604206/from-molecules-to-patients-exploring-the-therapeutic-role-of-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulators
#7
Peter Sandner
Nitric Oxide (NO) signaling represents one of the major regulatory pathways for cardiovascular function. After the discovery of NO, awarded with the Nobel Prize in 1998, this signaling cascade was stepwise clarified. We now have a good understanding of NO production and NO downstream targets such as the soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs) which catalyze cGMP production. Based on the important role of NO-signaling in the cardiovascular system, intense research and development efforts are currently ongoing to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of cGMP increase...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589064/recent-major-advances-in-cardiovascular-pharmacotherapy
#8
REVIEW
James Milner, Andreia Cunha, Carlota Gamboa-Cruz, Julie Reis, Márcia Campos, Natália António
The field of cardiovascular pharmacotherapy remains extremely active. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent major advances in cardiovascular pharmacotherapy, with a focus on (1) the new approved drug for treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction-sacubitril/valsartan; (2) proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors; (3) the novel reversal agents for non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs); and finally, (4) new evidence on pharmacological treatment of coronary artery disease...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576856/macroautophagy-and-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-in-heart-failure-the-known-and-the-unknown
#9
REVIEW
Rajeshwary Ghosh, J Scott Pattison
Cardiac diseases including hypertrophic and ischemic cardiomyopathies are increasingly being reported to accumulate misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. These findings have led to an increasing interest in protein degradation pathways, like autophagy, which are essential not only for normal protein turnover but also in the removal of misfolded and damaged proteins. Emerging evidence suggests a previously unprecedented role for autophagic processes in cardiac physiology and pathology. This review focuses on the major types of autophagic processes, the genes and protein complexes involved, and their regulation...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566757/molecular-mechanism-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-and-modulation-of-microrna-function-by-synthetic-oligonucleotides
#10
REVIEW
Nilanjan Ghosh, Rajesh Katare
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a chronic complication in individuals with diabetes and is characterized by ventricular dilation and hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, decreased or preserved systolic function and reduced ejection fraction eventually resulting in heart failure. Despite being well characterized, the fundamental mechanisms leading to DCM are still elusive. Recent studies identified the involvement of small non-coding small RNA molecules such as microRNAs (miRs) playing a key role in the etiology of DCM...
March 22, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566413/rivaroxaban-a-new-treatment-paradigm-in-the-setting-of-vascular-protection
#11
Rupert Bauersachs, Faiez Zannad
The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis involves a diseased endothelium, lipid accumulation and low-grade inflammation. In later stages of coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), plaque rupture may induce atherothrombosis caused by fibrin formation and platelet activation, leading to vessel occlusion with subsequent organ damage such as myocardial infarction, stroke or limb ischaemia. Because of the high disease burden associated with CAD and PAD, there is a need for continuous vascular protection beyond currently available treatments including antiplatelet agents...
March 22, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561765/non-coding-rna-in-the-pathogenesis-progression-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Christiana Leimena, Hongyu Qiu
Hypertension is a complex, multifactorial disease that involves the coexistence of multiple risk factors, environmental factors and physiological systems. The complexities extend to the treatment and management of hypertension, which are still the pursuit of many researchers. In the last two decades, various genes have emerged as possible biomarkers and have become the target for investigations of specialized drug design based on its risk factors and the primary cause. Owing to the growing technology of microarrays and next-generation sequencing, the non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have increasingly gained attention, and their status of redundancy has flipped to importance in normal cellular processes, as well as in disease progression...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557071/current-management-and-future-directions-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-contemporary-review
#13
REVIEW
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Marrick L Kukin
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a complex and debilitating syndrome, is commonly seen in elderly populations. Exacerbation of HFpEF is among the most common reasons for hospital admission in the USA. The high rate of morbidity and mortality from this condition underscores the fact that HFpEF is heterogeneous, complex, and poorly characterized. Randomized, controlled trials have been very successful at identifying treatments for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but effective treatment options for HFpEF are lacking...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550338/mechanism-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-by-proteasome-inhibitors-new-paradigm-derived-from-clinical-and-pre-clinical-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Mara Gavazzoni, Enrico Vizzardi, Elio Gorga, Ivano Bonadei, Laura Rossi, Angelo Belotti, Giuseppe Rossi, Rossella Ribolla, Marco Metra, Riccardo Raddino
Proteasome Inhibitors (PI) have now become the cornerstone of treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Carfilzomib has been demonstrated to cause more frequent cardiovascular side effects such as dyspnea, hypertension, and heart failure. Recent pre-clinical studies have investigated the effects of proteasome on myocardial and vascular cells, but the pathogenic mechanism underlying the effects of proteasome inhibition on these cells is poorly understood. We reviewed the evidence from clinical trials, post-hoc analysis and small observational studies currently available and summarized the data from experimental, focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms potentially implicated in the cardiovascular toxicity of proteasome inhibitor, particularly of carfilzomib that is most responsible for cardiovascular side effects...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541610/echocardiographic-feature-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-where-are-we-now
#15
REVIEW
Kazuaki Negishi
We are now entering the very exciting era of treatment and management of diabetes mellitus (DM) with the emergence of new therapeutic agents, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i). From a cardiology and echocardiography perspective, the existence of diabetic cardiomyopathy has been proven through over four decades of discussion. DM is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Independent associations are found after adjusting for hypertension (HTN) and coronary artery disease (CAD)...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528698/opioids-in-cardiovascular-disease-therapeutic-options
#16
Hemangi Rawal, Bhoomika M Patel
The World Health Organization suggests that the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major cause of mortality and account for two-thirds of the deaths all over the world. These diseases kill about 17 million people every year and 3 in every 10 deaths are due to these diseases. The past decade has seen considerable improvements in diagnosis as well as treatment of various heart diseases. Various new therapeutic targets are being identified through in-depth knowledge of the disease mechanisms which has favored the testing of new strategies leading to newer treatment options...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511694/-aerococcus-urinae-mitral-valve-endocarditis-related-stroke-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Darius Adomavicius, Mark Bock, Christian-Friedrich Vahl, Ekkehard Siegel
Background. Aerococcus urinae is a rare causative pathogen of infective endocarditis that results in a high risk of embolic events. The mortality rate for A urinae endocarditis is high. Old age and underlying urologic conditions are the best-known risk factors for infection. Case Description. We report the clinical course of the disease in a 49-year-old man who presented symptoms of a urinary tract infection. A few days later, transthoracic echocardiography showed a conspicuous mitral valve with myxomatous alterations...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508636/emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Alessandro Capucci, Laura Cipolletta, Federico Guerra, Irene Giannini
The main aim of current research on the field of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment is to find new antiarrhythmic drugs with less side effects. Areas covered: Dronedarone and vernakalant showed promising result in term of efficacy and safety in selected patients. Ranolazine and colchicine are obtaining a role as a potential antiarrhythmic drug. Ivabradine is used in experimental studies for the rate control of AF. Moreover, new compounds (vanoxerine, moxonidine, budiodarone) are still under investigation. Monoclonal antibodies or selective antagonist of potassium channel are under investigation for long term maintenance of sinus rhythm...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488151/a-review-of-the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-heart-failure-transition-of-care
#19
REVIEW
Sarah L Anderson, Joel C Marrs
This article reviews current literature on the role of pharmacists in the transition of care (TOC) for patients with heart failure (HF) and the impact of their contributions on therapeutic and economic outcomes. Optimizing the TOC for patients with HF from the hospital to the community/home is crucial for improving outcomes and decreasing high rates of hospital readmissions, which are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. A multidisciplinary team approach to the management of patients with HF facilitates the transition from the hospital to the ambulatory care setting, allowing for the consideration of medical, pharmacological, and lifestyle variables that impact the care of individual patients...
February 27, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485963/carcinoid-heart-disease-early-outcomes-after-surgical-valve-replacement-in-nine-patients
#20
Syed Saleem Mujtaba, Stephen Clark
AIM: To describe the early outcomes of carcinoid patients undergoing surgical heart valve replacement. METHODS: In a retrospective study, records of patients with symptomatic carcinoid heart disease referred for valve surgery between 2012 and 2016 were reviewed. The perioperative and early postoperative outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Nine patients, with a mean age of 61 years (range 55-70 years) underwent cardiac surgery for carcinoid syndrome...
February 16, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
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