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Minseo Kim, Terry A Beehr
Based on the job demand-resource theory, this study examined the differential relationships of two types of job demands, challenge and hindrance stressors, with three outcomes: ill health, organizational citizenship behaviour, and work engagement. These relationships were mediated by two personal resources: psychological empowerment and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). Data were collected at two separate points, 2 weeks apart. With 336 full-time U.S. employees, results from path analysis indicated that the challenge stressor, workload, was positively related to psychological empowerment and OBSE, both of which were in turn positively related to good work behaviours as well as negatively related to ill health, an indication that employees experienced physical symptoms and psychological strains...
January 12, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Christopher J Draper-Joyce, Mayako Michino, Ravi Kumar Verma, Carmen Klein Herenbrink, Jeremy Shonberg, Anitha Kopinathan, Peter J Scammells, Ben Capuano, David M Thal, Jonathan A Javitch, Arthur Christopoulos, Lei Shi, J Robert Lane
SB269652 is a negative allosteric modulator of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) yet possesses structural similarity to ligands with a competitive mode of interaction. In this study, we aimed to understand the ligand-receptor interactions that confer its allosteric action. We combined site-directed mutagenesis with molecular dynamics simulations using both SB269652 and derivatives from our previous structure activity studies. We identify residues within the conserved orthosteric binding site (OBS) and a secondary binding pocket (SBP) that determine affinity and cooperativity...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Marc A Furrer, Urs E Studer, Tobias Gross, Fiona C Burkhard, George N Thalmann, Daniel P Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: To analyse urinary continence in long-term survivors after cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitute according to attempted nerve-sparing status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed 180 consecutive patients treated at our department between 1985 and 2007 who underwent cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution, and survived ≥10 years post-cystectomy. We stratified patients by attempted nerve-sparing status and evaluated continence outcomes using descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards regression models...
January 10, 2018: BJU International
Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Sadia Iftikhar, Anum Saqib
BACKGROUND: Availability and affordability of anticancer medicines is a matter of great concern especially for low and middle income countries e.g., Pakistan. Prime focus of this study was to evaluate the availability of anticancer medicines in public and private sectors, and their affordability among patients with different income levels. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 22 cancer care hospitals (18 public hospitals and 04 private hospitals) and 44 private pharmacies in Punjab, Pakistan...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
A Bernal, O Simón, T Williams, D Muñoz, P Caballero
BACKGROUND: A Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus from the Canary Islands (ChchNPV-TF1) has proved to be effective for control of this pest on banana crops. Commercialization of this virus as a bioinsecticide requires an efficient production system. RESULTS: The most suitable larval instar for virus production was the sixth instar (L6 ), which produced 1.80x1011 occlusion bodies (OBs)/larva and showed a lower prevalence of cannibalism (5.4%) than fourth (L4 ) or fifth (L5 ) instars...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Purnendu K Dasgupta, Charles Phillip Shelor, Akinde Florence Kadjo, Karsten G Kraiczek
Following a brief overview of the emergence of absorbance detection in liquid chromatography, we focus on the dispersion caused by the absorbance measurement cell and its inlet. A simple experiment is proposed wherein chromatographic flow and conditions are held constant but a variable portion of the column effluent is directed into the detector. The temporal peak variance (σ_(t,obs)^2), which increases as the flow rate (F) through the detector decreases, is found to be well-described as a quadratic function of 1/F...
December 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Gillian S Gould, Yael Bar Zeev, Laura Tywman, Christopher Oldmeadow, Simon Chiu, Marilyn Clarke, Billie Bonevski
Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pengbin Yin, Houchen Lv, Yi Li, Yuan Deng, Licheng Zhang, Peifu Tang
The skeletal system functions and maintains itself based on communication between cells of diverse origins, especially between osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs), accounting for bone formation and resorption, respectively. Previously, protein-level information exchange has been the research focus, and this has been discussed in detail. The regulative effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on OB and OC ignite the question as to whether genetic information could be transferred between bone cells. Exosomes, extracellular membrane vesicles 30-100 nm in diameter, have recently been demonstrated to transfer functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and serve as mediators of intercellular communication...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Farah Zaaboul, Husnain Raza, Cao Chen, Yuanfa Liu
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Lin Xu, Yali Shi, Chuangxiu Li, Xiaowei Song, Zhanfen Qin, Dong Cao, Yaqi Cai
The existence of more than 3000 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on the global market has prompted the identification and hazard characterization of hitherto unknown PFASs. In the present study, a novel PFAS, sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS), was identified using Orbitrap MS/MS in water samples around a suspected application area, Daqing Oilfield, China. The peak OBS concentration was 3.2 × 103 ng/L in a sample taken near the oil well with the longest production history in Daqing...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Hasan T Imam, Claudia A Blindauer
The dynamics of metal binding to and transfer from metalloproteins involved in metal homeostasis are important for understanding cellular distribution of metal ions. The dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana has two type 4 seed-specific metallothionein homologues, MT4a and MT4b, with likely roles in zinc(II) homeostasis. These two metallothioneins are 84% identical, with full conservation of all metal-binding cysteine and histidine residues. Yet, differences in their spatial and temporal expression patterns suggested divergence in their biological roles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Yudi Han, Lihai Zhang, Yaling Xing, Licheng Zhang, Xiaojuan Chen, Peifu Tang, Zhongbin Chen
Autophagy may be a major mechanism by which osteoblasts (OBs) protect against the negative effects of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) usage. OBs are closely associated with the remodeling that occurs in GC‑induced osteoporosis (GIO). In osteocytes, in response to stress induced by GCs, several pathways are activated, including cell necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of autophagy in OBs following treatment with excess GCs has not been addressed. In the current study, confocal microscopy observation of green fluorescent protein‑microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3β (LC3) punctuate, and western blotting for LC3Ⅱ and Beclin 1 were performed for detection of autophagy in the MC3T3‑E1 osteoblastic cell line...
February 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Guiling Wang, Feng Zhao, Di Yang, Jing Wang, Lihong Qiu, Xining Pang
Since the beginning of the use of stem cells in tissue regenerative medicine, there has been a search for optimal sources of stem cells. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are derived from human amnions, which are typically discarded as medical waste, but were recently found to include cells with trilineage differentiation potential in vitro. Previous study has focused on the osteogenic differentiation ability of hAECs as seed cells in bone regeneration; however, their paracrine effects on osteoblasts (OBs) are yet to be elucidated...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Eric Rivas, Karel D Capek, Anahi D Delgadillo, Nisha Bhattarai, Armando Elizondo, Charles D Voigt, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal mitochondrial function represents a new target for strategies aimed at mitigating the stress response to severe burn trauma and hastening recovery. Our objective was to investigate the determinants of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function and its association with glucose metabolism and functional capacity in burned children. METHODS: Data from burned children enrolled in the placebo arm of an ongoing prospective clinical trial were analyzed...
December 4, 2017: Shock
Robert L Harrison, Joseph D Mowery, Daniel L Rowley, Gary R Bauchan, David A Theilmann, George F Rohrmann, Martin A Erlandson
A baculovirus isolate from a USDA Forest Service collection was characterized by electron microscopy and analysis of its genome sequence. The isolate, formerly referred to as Pseudoletia (Mythimna) sp. nucleopolyhedrovirus #7 (MyspNPV#7), was determined by barcoding PCR to derive from the host species Mythimna unipuncta (true armyworm) and was renamed Mythimna unipuncta nucleopolyhedrovirus #7 (MyunNPV#7). The occlusion bodies (OBs) and virions exhibited a size and morphology typical for OBs produced by the species of genus Alphabaculovirus, with occlusion-derived virions consisting of 2-5 nucleocapsids within a single envelope...
December 4, 2017: Virus Genes
İbrahim Hatemi, Sinem Nihal Esatoğlu
The meta-analyses of observational studies (OBS) showed the risk of any fracture and hip fracture slightly increased with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment depending on the dose and regardless of time. This was not observed with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA). The risk of bacterial overgrowth and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were increased with PPI therapy, but not with H2RA. In meta-analyses of OBS, a slight increase was observed in the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the early stages (<1 month) of PPI use and particularly at high doses...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Feifei Li, Marat R Talipov, Chao Dong, Sofia Bali, Keying Ding
We report that pyridinium ions (HPyr+) accelerate the conversion of [Tp*MoIVOCl(OPMe3)] (1) to [Tp*MoIVOCl(NCCH3)] (2) by 103-fold, affording 2 in near-quantitative yield; Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate. This novel reactivity and the mechanism of this reaction were investigated in detail. The formation of 2 followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, with the observed pseudo-first-order rate constant (k obs) linearly correlated with [HPyr+]. An Eyring plot revealed that this HPyr+-facilitated reaction has a small positive value of ∆S ‡ indicative of a dissociative interchange (Id) mechanism, different from the slower associative interchange (Ia) mechanism in the absence of HPyr+ marked with a negative ∆S ‡...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
M G López, H M Pallarés, V Alfonso, S J Carmona, M Farber, O Taboga, S E Wilkowsky
Baculoviruses are large DNA virus of insects principally employed in recombinant protein expression. Its ability to form occlusion bodies (OBs), which are composed mainly of polyhedrin protein (POLH), makes them biotechnologically attractive, as these crystals (polyhedra) can incorporate foreign peptides and can be easily isolated. On the other hand, peptide microarrays allow rapid and inexpensive high-throughput serological screening of new candidates to be incorporated to OBs. To integrate these 2 biotechnological approaches, we worked on Babesia bovis, one of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis...
November 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Samantha Ballham, Scott Buxton, Rosa Camacho, Adrianna Sinclair, Chris Dyer, Nicola Jakeman
INTRODUCTION: The over 75 s make up 20% of our ED attendances. The greatest increase has been in the over 85 s. This very elderly cohort are more likely to be frail and are 10X more likely to require admission than 20-40 year olds and once in hospital have longer stays. There is evidence that multidisciplinary care and early Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) improves outcomes for older patients, reducing readmissions, long term care, greater satisfaction and lower costs. The aim of this project was to improve the acute care provided to our older patients at the Front Door of the hospital...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Ching-San Tseng, Hsu-Wen Chao, Hsien-Sung Huang, Yi-Shuian Huang
Mammalian olfactory bulbs (OBs) require continuous replenishment of interneurons (mainly granule cells [GCs]) to support local circuits throughout life. Two spatiotemporally distinct waves of postnatal neurogenesis contribute to expanding and maintaining the GC pool. Although neonate-born GCs have a higher survival rate than adult-born GCs, the molecular mechanism underlying this survival remains unclear. Here, we find that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 (CPEB4) acts as a survival factor exclusively for early postnatal GCs...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
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