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Legionella Australia

Amba Lawrence, Sofroni Eglezos, Wilhelmina Huston
Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course...
February 2016: Research in Microbiology
Sandra L Currie, Tara K Beattie
Human disease caused by Legionella species is dominated by Legionella pneumophila, the main causative agent in cases of Legionnaires' disease. However, other species are known to cause infection, for example, Legionella longbeachae causes an equivalent number of cases of disease as L. pneumophila in Australia and New Zealand. Infection with L. longbeachae is commonly associated with exposure to composts and potting soils, and cases of infection with this organism have been increasing in Europe over the past ten years...
November 2015: Perspectives in Public Health
Paul B Bartley, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Mitchell Stanton-Cook, Raghuram Muguli, Luis Prado, Vyt Garnys, Katherine Taylor, Timothy C Barnett, Glen Pinna, Jennifer Robson, David L Paterson, Mark J Walker, Mark A Schembri, Scott A Beatson
BACKGROUND: Two proven nosocomial cases of Legionella pneumonia occurred at the Wesley Hospital (Brisbane, Australia) in May 2013. To trace the epidemiology of these cases, whole genome sequence analysis was performed on Legionella pneumophila isolates from the infected patients, prospective isolates collected from the hospital water distribution system (WDS), and retrospective patient isolates available from the Wesley Hospital and other local hospitals. METHODS: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates were cultured from patient sputum (n = 3), endobronchial washings (n = 3), pleural fluid (n = 1), and the Wesley Hospital WDS (n = 39)...
February 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kimberly A Barker, Ellen A Whitney, Sarah Blake, Ruth L Berkelman
Legionellosis is an important public health problem in the United States and other countries, and residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are at higher risk for Legionnaires' disease than the general population. In this study, we reviewed published US and international guidelines for the primary prevention of legionellosis in LTCFs, including nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, assisted living facilities, and aged care facilities. The results of this review indicate that most guidelines emphasize adequate design and maintenance of water systems and water temperatures; however, guidance regarding routine preventative environmental testing for Legionella bacteria is not uniform among various jurisdictions, and facilities are generally left without clear guidance on this issue...
October 1, 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
H Whiley, A Keegan, H Fallowfield, R Bentham
Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively...
June 2015: Journal of Water and Health
R M A Graham, C J Doyle, A V Jennison
Legionella pneumophila is the main pathogen responsible for outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease, which can be related to contaminated water supplies such as cooling towers or water pipes. We combined conventional molecular methods and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis to investigate an outbreak of L. pneumophila in a large Australian hospital. Typing of these isolates using sequence-based typing and virulence gene profiling, was unable to discriminate between outbreak and non-outbreak isolates. WGS analysis was performed on isolates during the outbreak, as well as on unlinked isolates from the Public Health Microbiology reference collection...
November 2014: Epidemiology and Infection
W Ahmed, H Brandes, P Gyawali, J P S Sidhu, S Toze
In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used for the detection of four opportunistic bacterial pathogens in water samples collected from 72 rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Tank water samples were also tested for fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) using culture-based methods. Among the 72 tank water samples tested, 74% and 94% samples contained E. coli and Enterococcus spp., respectively, and the numbers of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in tank water samples ranged from 0...
April 15, 2014: Water Research
P H Dobrowsky, M De Kwaadsteniet, T E Cloete, W Khan
The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period...
April 2014: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A J Wright, A Humar, S Gourishankar, K Bernard, D Kumar
Legionella species are intracellular gram-negative bacilli that require specific culture media for growth. Transplant recipients with impaired cellular immunity are at particular risk for infection with this pathogen. Most human disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila; disease caused by non-L. pneumophila species is reported mainly in immunosuppressed patients with the exception of Legionella longbeachae. L. longbeachae is a common cause of Legionnaires' disease in Australia and New Zealand, and is associated with exposure to potting soil...
August 2012: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
S D Guy, L J Worth, K A Thursky, P A Francis, M A Slavin
Legionella species are a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, infrequently complicated by cavitary disease. We describe Legionella pneumophila pneumonia and abscess formation in an immunosuppressed patient receiving corticosteroid therapy for metastatic breast carcinoma. The predisposing role of corticosteroids is discussed and the management of this complication is reviewed.
October 2011: Internal Medicine Journal
B Teh, M L Grayson, P D R Johnson, P G P Charles
We assessed the comparative efficacy of empirical therapy with beta-lactam plus macrolide vs. beta-lactam plus doxycycline for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among patients in the Australian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Study. Both regimens demonstrated similar outcomes against CAP due to either 'atypical' (Chlamydophila, Legionella or Mycoplasma spp.) or typical bacterial pathogens.
April 2012: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Paul H Edelstein, Martha A Edelstein, Lisa J Shephard, Kevin W Ward, Rodney M Ratcliff
Legionella-like bacteria were isolated from the respiratory tract of two patients in California, USA, and South Australia, but were not thought to cause disease. These bacteria, strains F2632 and IMVS-3376(T), were found to have identical Legionella macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) gene sequences and were therefore further characterized to determine their genetic and phenotypic relatedness and properties. Both of these Gram-negative-staining bacterial strains grew on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium, were cysteine auxotrophs and made a characteristic diffusible bright yellow fluorescent pigment, with one strain making a late appearing colony-bound blue-white fluorescent pigment...
August 2012: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Harriet Whiley, Richard Bentham
Reported cases of legionellosis attributable to Legionella longbeachae infection have increased worldwide. In Australia and New Zealand, L. longbeachae has been a known cause of legionellosis since the late 1980s. All cases for which a source was confirmed were associated with potting mixes and composts. Unlike the situation with other Legionella spp., L. longbeachae-contaminated water systems in the built environment that cause disease have not been reported. Spatially and temporally linked outbreaks of legionellosis associated with this organism also have not been reported...
April 2011: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Genyan Yang, Robert F Benson, Rodney M Ratcliff, Ellen W Brown, Arnold G Steigerwalt, W Lanier Thacker, Maryam I Daneshvar, Roger E Morey, Atsushi Saito, Barry S Fields
A novel Legionella species was identified based on analysis of 16S rRNA and mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) gene sequences, cellular fatty acids, isoprenoid quinones, biochemical reactions, antigens and quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization. Strain CDC-1796-JAP-E(T) was isolated from well water at the Nagasaki Municipal Medical Center, Japan. Two strains, CDC-3041-AUS-E and CDC-3558-AUS-E, were isolated from water samples during an outbreak of legionellosis in South Australia. Strain CDC-5427-OH-H was isolated from a 66-year-old female patient diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease in the US...
February 2012: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
W Ahmed, A Vieritz, A Goonetilleke, T Gardner
A total of 214 rainwater samples from 82 tanks were collected in urban Southeast Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and analyzed for the presence and numbers of zoonotic bacterial and protozoal pathogens using binary PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) analysis was used to quantify the risk of infection associated with the exposure to potential pathogens from roof-harvested rainwater used as potable or nonpotable water. Of the 214 samples tested, 10.7%, 9.8%, 5.6%, and 0...
November 2010: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
W Ahmed, A Goonetilleke, T Gardner
The study aimed to evaluate the suitability of Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens for assessing the microbiological quality of roof-harvested rainwater and assessing whether the concentrations of these faecal indicators can be used to predict the presence or absence of specific zoonotic bacterial or protozoan pathogens. From a total of 100 samples tested, 58%, 83%, and 46% of samples were found to be positive for, respectively, E. coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens spores, as determined by traditional culture-based methods...
June 2010: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Natalia A Kozak, Meghan Buss, Claressa E Lucas, Michael Frace, Dhwani Govil, Tatiana Travis, Melissa Olsen-Rasmussen, Robert F Benson, Barry S Fields
Legionella longbeachae causes most cases of legionellosis in Australia and may be underreported worldwide due to the lack of L. longbeachae-specific diagnostic tests. L. longbeachae displays distinctive differences in intracellular trafficking, caspase 1 activation, and infection in mouse models compared to Legionella pneumophila, yet these two species have indistinguishable clinical presentations in humans. Unlike other legionellae, which inhabit freshwater systems, L. longbeachae is found predominantly in moist soil...
February 2010: Journal of Bacteriology
Christopher C Blyth, D Nicholas Adams, Sharon C A Chen
Legionella infection is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia in Australia. Morbidity and mortality is significant. Diagnosis remains a challenge with infection often unrecognised, particularly early in the course of illness. An understanding of available diagnostic methods and their limitations is important to public health practitioners and clinicians alike.
September 2009: New South Wales Public Health Bulletin
S Casati, A Gioria-Martinoni, V Gaia
Legionella spp. are pathogens that can cause Legionnaires' disease in humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The principal reservoir for these microorganisms is water, but Legionella spp. have been isolated from composted vegetable and plant material, and from many potting mixes as well. In Australia, there have been several cases of Legionnaires' disease in which Legionella longbeachae has been isolated from potting soils. In Switzerland, the source of infection cannot always be identified as water or cooling towers: therefore, we have investigated 46 commercially available potting soils in Switzerland to determine the presence of Legionella spp...
June 2009: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jonathan Darby, Kirsty Buising
BACKGROUND: Community acquired pneumonia is a common condition presenting to general practitioners and emergency departments across Australia. Legionella is one of many pathogens responsible for community acquired pneumonia. Cases of Legionella may occur sporadically or as part of an outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the clinical manifestations of Legionella infection and provides clinicians with an approach to its diagnosis and management. DISCUSSION: Legionella infection is typically associated with community acquired pneumonia, which can be severe...
October 2008: Australian Family Physician
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