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Legionella Australia

Chirhakarhula E Chubaka, Harriet Whiley, John W Edwards, Kirstin E Ross
To address concern regarding water sustainability, the Australian Federal Government and many state governments have implemented regulatory mechanisms and incentives to support households to purchase and install rainwater harvesting systems. This has led to an increase in rainwater harvesting in regional and urban Australia. This review examines the implementation of the regulatory mechanisms across Australia. In addition, the literature investigating the potential health consequences of rainwater consumption in Australia was explored...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
C Raina MacIntyre, Amalie Dyda, Chau Minh Bui, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is reported from many parts of the world, mostly linked to drinking water sources or cooling towers. We reviewed two unusual rolling outbreaks in Sydney and New York, each clustered in time and space. Data on these outbreaks were collected from public sources and compared to previous outbreaks in Australia and the US. While recurrent outbreaks of LD over time linked to an identified single source have been described, multiple unrelated outbreaks clustered in time and geography have not been previously described...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Verlaine J Timms, Rebecca Rockett, Nathan L Bachmann, Elena Martinez, Qinning Wang, Sharon C-A Chen, Neisha Jeoffreys, Peter J Howard, Anna Smith, Sheena Adamson, Robin Gilmour, Vicky Sheppeard, Vitali Sintchenko
The city of Sydney, Australia, experienced a persistent outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) pneumonia in 2016. To elucidate the source and guide public health actions, the genomes of clinical and environmental Lp1 isolates recovered over 7 weeks were examined. A total of 48 isolates from human cases and cooling towers were sequenced and compared using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based core-genome multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and pangenome approaches. All three methods confirmed phylogenetic relatedness between isolates associated with outbreaks in the Central Business District (CBD) in March and May and those in suburb 1...
March 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Emma Quinn, Travers Johnstone, Zeina Najjar, Toni Cains, Geoff Tan, Essi Huhtinen, Sven Nilsson, Stuart Burgess, Matthew Dunn, Leena Gupta
The incident command system (ICS) provides a common structure to control and coordinate an emergency response, regardless of scale or predicted impact. The lessons learned from the application of an ICS for large infectious disease outbreaks are documented. However, there is scant evidence on the application of an ICS to manage a local multiagency response to a disease cluster with environmental health risks. The Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (PHU) in New South Wales, Australia, was notified of 5 cases of Legionnaires' disease during 2 weeks in May 2016...
September 5, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Andrew H Buultjens, Kyra Y L Chua, Sarah L Baines, Jason Kwong, Wei Gao, Zoe Cutcher, Stuart Adcock, Susan Ballard, Mark B Schultz, Takehiro Tomita, Nela Subasinghe, Glen P Carter, Sacha J Pidot, Lucinda Franklin, Torsten Seemann, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires' disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium ( Legionella pneumophila ) has an unusual population structure, with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires' disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based on L...
November 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kerry A Hamilton, Warish Ahmed, Simon Toze, Charles N Haas
A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila (LP) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was undertaken for various uses of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) reported in Queensland, Australia to identify appropriate usages and guide risk management practices. Risks from inhalation of aerosols due to showering, swimming in pools topped up with RHRW, use of a garden hose, car washing, and toilet flushing with RHRW were considered for LP while both ingestion (drinking, produce consumption, and accidental ingestion from various activities) and inhalation risks were considered for MAC...
August 1, 2017: Water Research
W Ahmed, C Staley, K A Hamilton, D J Beale, M J Sadowsky, S Toze, C N Haas
Overall, 26% of Australian households use rainwater tanks as a source of potable and nonpotable water. Limited information is available on the total bacterial communities in tank water. Therefore, identification of dominant bacterial communities, diversity, and their distribution is important in understanding the microbial quality of tank water. In this study, the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities in 88 tank water samples collected from the urban areas of Brisbane (n=44) and the peri-urban center of Currumbin (n=44) in Southeast Queensland, Australia were determined using amplicon-based Illumina next-generation sequencing...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Amba Lawrence, Sofroni Eglezos, Wilhelmina Huston
Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course...
February 2016: Research in Microbiology
Sandra L Currie, Tara K Beattie
Human disease caused by Legionella species is dominated by Legionella pneumophila, the main causative agent in cases of Legionnaires' disease. However, other species are known to cause infection, for example, Legionella longbeachae causes an equivalent number of cases of disease as L. pneumophila in Australia and New Zealand. Infection with L. longbeachae is commonly associated with exposure to composts and potting soils, and cases of infection with this organism have been increasing in Europe over the past ten years...
November 2015: Perspectives in Public Health
Paul B Bartley, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Mitchell Stanton-Cook, Raghuram Muguli, Luis Prado, Vyt Garnys, Katherine Taylor, Timothy C Barnett, Glen Pinna, Jennifer Robson, David L Paterson, Mark J Walker, Mark A Schembri, Scott A Beatson
BACKGROUND: Two proven nosocomial cases of Legionella pneumonia occurred at the Wesley Hospital (Brisbane, Australia) in May 2013. To trace the epidemiology of these cases, whole genome sequence analysis was performed on Legionella pneumophila isolates from the infected patients, prospective isolates collected from the hospital water distribution system (WDS), and retrospective patient isolates available from the Wesley Hospital and other local hospitals. METHODS: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates were cultured from patient sputum (n = 3), endobronchial washings (n = 3), pleural fluid (n = 1), and the Wesley Hospital WDS (n = 39)...
February 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kimberly A Barker, Ellen A Whitney, Sarah Blake, Ruth L Berkelman
Legionellosis is an important public health problem in the United States and other countries, and residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are at higher risk for Legionnaires' disease than the general population. In this study, we reviewed published US and international guidelines for the primary prevention of legionellosis in LTCFs, including nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, assisted living facilities, and aged care facilities. The results of this review indicate that most guidelines emphasize adequate design and maintenance of water systems and water temperatures; however, guidance regarding routine preventative environmental testing for Legionella bacteria is not uniform among various jurisdictions, and facilities are generally left without clear guidance on this issue...
October 1, 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
H Whiley, A Keegan, H Fallowfield, R Bentham
Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively...
June 2015: Journal of Water and Health
R M A Graham, C J Doyle, A V Jennison
Legionella pneumophila is the main pathogen responsible for outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease, which can be related to contaminated water supplies such as cooling towers or water pipes. We combined conventional molecular methods and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis to investigate an outbreak of L. pneumophila in a large Australian hospital. Typing of these isolates using sequence-based typing and virulence gene profiling, was unable to discriminate between outbreak and non-outbreak isolates. WGS analysis was performed on isolates during the outbreak, as well as on unlinked isolates from the Public Health Microbiology reference collection...
November 2014: Epidemiology and Infection
W Ahmed, H Brandes, P Gyawali, J P S Sidhu, S Toze
In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used for the detection of four opportunistic bacterial pathogens in water samples collected from 72 rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Tank water samples were also tested for fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) using culture-based methods. Among the 72 tank water samples tested, 74% and 94% samples contained E. coli and Enterococcus spp., respectively, and the numbers of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in tank water samples ranged from 0...
April 15, 2014: Water Research
P H Dobrowsky, M De Kwaadsteniet, T E Cloete, W Khan
The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period...
April 2014: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A J Wright, A Humar, S Gourishankar, K Bernard, D Kumar
Legionella species are intracellular gram-negative bacilli that require specific culture media for growth. Transplant recipients with impaired cellular immunity are at particular risk for infection with this pathogen. Most human disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila; disease caused by non-L. pneumophila species is reported mainly in immunosuppressed patients with the exception of Legionella longbeachae. L. longbeachae is a common cause of Legionnaires' disease in Australia and New Zealand, and is associated with exposure to potting soil...
August 2012: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
S D Guy, L J Worth, K A Thursky, P A Francis, M A Slavin
Legionella species are a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, infrequently complicated by cavitary disease. We describe Legionella pneumophila pneumonia and abscess formation in an immunosuppressed patient receiving corticosteroid therapy for metastatic breast carcinoma. The predisposing role of corticosteroids is discussed and the management of this complication is reviewed.
October 2011: Internal Medicine Journal
B Teh, M L Grayson, P D R Johnson, P G P Charles
We assessed the comparative efficacy of empirical therapy with beta-lactam plus macrolide vs. beta-lactam plus doxycycline for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among patients in the Australian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Study. Both regimens demonstrated similar outcomes against CAP due to either 'atypical' (Chlamydophila, Legionella or Mycoplasma spp.) or typical bacterial pathogens.
April 2012: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Paul H Edelstein, Martha A Edelstein, Lisa J Shephard, Kevin W Ward, Rodney M Ratcliff
Legionella-like bacteria were isolated from the respiratory tract of two patients in California, USA, and South Australia, but were not thought to cause disease. These bacteria, strains F2632 and IMVS-3376(T), were found to have identical Legionella macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) gene sequences and were therefore further characterized to determine their genetic and phenotypic relatedness and properties. Both of these Gram-negative-staining bacterial strains grew on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium, were cysteine auxotrophs and made a characteristic diffusible bright yellow fluorescent pigment, with one strain making a late appearing colony-bound blue-white fluorescent pigment...
August 2012: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Harriet Whiley, Richard Bentham
Reported cases of legionellosis attributable to Legionella longbeachae infection have increased worldwide. In Australia and New Zealand, L. longbeachae has been a known cause of legionellosis since the late 1980s. All cases for which a source was confirmed were associated with potting mixes and composts. Unlike the situation with other Legionella spp., L. longbeachae-contaminated water systems in the built environment that cause disease have not been reported. Spatially and temporally linked outbreaks of legionellosis associated with this organism also have not been reported...
April 2011: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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