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Legionella colonisation

D Wilmes, E Coche, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, N Kanaan
Bacterial pathogens are the most frequent cause of pneumonia after transplantation. Early after transplantation, recipients are at higher risk for nosocomial infections. The most commonly encountered pathogens during this period are gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa …), but gram-positive coccus such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria can also be found. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be guided by previous colonisation of the recipient and bacterial resistance pattern in the hospital...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
F Di Pippo, L Di Gregorio, R Congestri, V Tandoi, S Rossetti
Matrix-embedded, surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, profusely colonise industrial cooling water systems, where the availability of nutrients and organic matter favours rapid microbial proliferation and their adhesion to surfaces in the evaporative fill material, heat exchangers, water reservoir and cooling water sections and pipelines. The extensive growth of biofilms can promote micro-biofouling and microbially induced corrosion (MIC) as well as pose health problems associated with the presence of pathogens like Legionella pneumophila...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jaap M Stolk, Anne Russcher, Erika P M van Elzakker, Emile F Schippers
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) equipment can be colonised by Legionellae and might cause Legionella pneumonia in the user. However, there is no reported case of Legionella pneumonia related to CPAP equipment in which an identical Legionella was found in both the patient and the CPAP equipment. A 51-year-old man came to the Emergency Department with fever, confusion and dyspnoea that had been present for 3 days. His medical history included obstructive sleep apnoea, for which he had been using CPAP therapy at home for 10 weeks...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Zsófia Barna, Mihály Kádár, Emese Kálmán, Anita Scheirich Szax, Márta Vargha
Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples...
March 1, 2016: Water Research
Harriet Whiley, Steven Giglio, Richard Bentham
Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7...
2015: Pathogens
Savina Ditommaso, Monica Giacomuzzi, Susan R Arauco Rivera, Roberto Raso, Pierangela Ferrero, Carla M Zotti
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, L. pneumophila sg 1 is the most common agent of Legionnaires' disease ( 80 to 90% of the reported cases). In contrast, L. pneumophila sg 2-14 account for only 15 to 20% of community-acquired cases, although they account for over 50% of the environmental isolates. The discrepancy between environmental isolates and clinical cases of disease suggested that there are differences in virulence.We decided to subtype the environmental Legionella strains isolated from health care facilities (HCFs) and to compare the distribution of strains with the occurrence of hospital-acquired legionellosis...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
Delphine Jakubek, Carole Guillaume, Marie Binet, Gérard Leblon, Michael DuBow, Matthieu Le Brun
Members of the Legionella genus find suitable conditions for their growth and survival in nuclear power plant cooling circuits. To limit the proliferation of Legionella pathogenic bacteria in nuclear power plant cooling circuits, and ensure that levels remain below regulatory thresholds, monochloramine treatment can be used. Although the treatment is highly effective, i.e. it reduces Legionella numbers by over 99%, Legionella bacteria can still be detected at low concentrations and rapid re-colonisation of circuits can occur after the treatment has ceased...
2013: Microbes and Environments
Anita Rakić, Jelena Perić, Lucija Foglar
The microbiological colonisation of buildings and man-made structures often occurs on the walls of plumbing systems; therefore, monitoring of opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), both in water distribution mains and in consumers' plumbing systems, is an important issue according to the international and national guidelines that regulate the quality of drinking water. This paper investigates the presence of L. pneumophila in the Dalmatian County of Croatia and the relationship between L...
2012: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Jonathan Baillie
Speaking at a recent IHEEM seminar focusing on some of the key water hygiene and safety, and waterborne infection prevention issues, facing healthcare estates/ engineering personnel responsible for 'large, complex' water systems, Dr Nick Hill, technical director of the Water Hygiene Centre, examined some of the continuing areas of uncertainty over the characteristics and properties of different Legionella serogroups, the colonisation levels necessary to cause illness in individuals of varying susceptibility, potential sources, and the materials most likely to harbour the bacterium, and discussed effective methods for killing the organism, and preventing its spread...
September 2012: Health Estate
Annalisa Bargellini, Isabella Marchesi, Elena Righi, Angela Ferrari, Stefano Cencetti, Paola Borella, Sergio Rovesti
The contamination of hot water samples with Legionella spp. was studied in relation to temperature, total hardness, trace element concentrations (iron, zinc, manganese, and copper) and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) at both 22 and 37 °C. Factor analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to establish the cut-off of water parameters as predictors for Legionella contamination. Legionella spp. was isolated in 194 out of 408 samples (47.5%), with Legionella pneumophila being the most common (92...
March 2011: Water Research
P Messi, I Anacarso, A Bargellini, M Bondi, I Marchesi, S de Niederhäusern, P Borella
Three Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from water samples and belonging to serogroups (sgs) 1, 6 and 9 were analysed for their capacity to colonise an experimental model simulating a domestic hot water distribution system. Ecological factors that could influence the persistence of the sgs such as intracellular life within protozoan hosts and bacterial interference by the production of antagonistic compounds were also studied. Viable counts of L. pneumophila increased both in the planktonic and in the sessile phases...
February 2011: Biofouling
L H Krøjgaard, K A Krogfelt, H J Albrechtsen, S A Uldum
During December 2008 to January 2009, two persons contracted Legionnaires’ disease in a newly built block of flats in a suburb of Copenhagen in Denmark. Polymerase chain reaction and culture was used to diagnose Legionnaires’ disease in this cluster. Isolates from both patients tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 subgroup Philadelphia sequence type 1 and the same strain was detected in hot water samples taken from the residential area indicating that the hot water supply system was the most likely source of infection...
2011: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
P-M Roger, K Risso, H Hyvernat, L Landraud, M Vassallo, J Dellamonica, F de Salvador, E Cua, G Bernardin
UNLABELLED: We performed urinary antigen tests for pneumococcus and Legionella for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), to prescribe a documented antibiotic therapy. We report the efficiency of low-spectrum antibiotic treatment, illustrating the inappropriateness of bacteriological respiratory sampling. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with CAP were enrolled from three different units; the pneumonia severity index was used to assess the disease. Respiratory samples were also listed...
June 2010: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
I R Cooper, J White, E Mahenthiralingam, G W Hanlon
The ability of Legionella pneumophila to colonise domestic water systems is a primary cause of outbreaks of Legionnaire's disease in humans. World Health Organization guidelines recommend that drinking water is chlorinated to between 0.2 and 1mg/L [Chlorine in drinking-water. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd edn. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996], but L. pneumophila is repeatedly isolated from chlorinated water systems, indicating that this treatment is not effective at preventing colonisation...
October 2008: Journal of Hospital Infection
B Casini, P Valentini, A Baggiani, F Torracca, S Frateschi, L Ceccherini Nelli, G Privitera
This paper describes the results of a five-year monitoring programme applied to the water distribution system of the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy). The purpose of the programme was to evaluate the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan in controlling Legionella spp. colonisation of the potable water system. The impact of the safety plan on the ecology of legionella in the water network was evaluated by studying the genetic variability and the chlorine susceptibility of the strains isolated prior to, and throughout, the application of continuous chlorine dioxide treatment...
June 2008: Journal of Hospital Infection
Y S Chen, Y E Lin, Y-C Liu, W K Huang, H Y Shih, S R Wann, S S Lee, H C Tsai, C H Li, H L Chao, C M Ke, H H Lu, C L Chang
A medical centre in Southern Taiwan experienced an outbreak of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease, with the water distribution system thought to be the source of the infection. Even after two superheats and flush, the rate of Legionella positivity in distal sites in hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs) was 14% and 66%, respectively. Copper-silver ionisation was therefore implemented in an attempt to control Legionella colonisation in both hot- and cold-water systems. Environmental cultures and ion concentration testing were performed to evaluate the efficacy of ionisation...
February 2008: Journal of Hospital Infection
J-M Rivera, L Aguilar, J J Granizo, A Vos-Arenilla, M-J Giménez, J-M Aguiar, J Prieto
Surveillance of Legionella spp. in hospital water systems was performed in forty-four inpatient healthcare facilities in Spain during 2005-2006. A total of 2,341 samples were collected: 470 from cooling systems (cooling towers) and 1,871 from potable water systems. The latter included 211 from cold-water tanks and 260 from hot-water tanks, totalling 471 from central water reservoirs 136 from showers, 1,172 from unfiltered taps and 92 from filtered taps, totalling 1,400 from peripheral points. Temperature, chlorine levels and the presence of Legionella spp...
December 2007: Journal of Hospital Infection
Caroline L Pankhurst, Wilson A Coulter
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence that the dental unit waterlines are a source of occupational and healthcare acquired infection in the dental surgery. DATA: Transmission of infection from contaminated dental unit waterlines (DUWL) is by aerosol droplet inhalation or rarely imbibing or wound contamination in susceptible individuals. Most of the organisms isolated from DUWL are of low pathogenicity. However, data from a small number of studies described infection or colonisation in susceptible hosts with Legionella spp...
September 2007: Journal of Dentistry
David Greenberg, Christine C Chiou, Ronald Famigilleti, Tzielan C Lee, Victor L Yu
Legionnaires' disease is an established and frequent cause of pneumonia in adults but is thought to be a rare cause in children. We reviewed the medical literature for cases of Legionnaires' disease in children and analysed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment. 76 cases of legionella infection in children were identified. In 56%, diagnosis was made with culture methodology. 46% were community-acquired infections. 51.5% were under 2 years of age. 78% of the patients had an underlying condition such as malignancy...
August 2006: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Bernard Panaszek
Intracellular, non capsulated atypical bacteria (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila) colonise lower airways very often. Atypical bacteria cause acute infection and exacerbation of chronic inflammation of bronchial tree, mainly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They may trigger bronchial asthma and induce asthma exacerbation. These pathogens are often isolated in sputum of patients suffering from asthma and COPD in stable clinical stage, but opinion about eradication of bacteria in this situation is controversial...
November 2005: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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