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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922252/update-on-new-stents-and-protection-devices-for-carotid-artery-stenting-what-we-know-what-we-learnt-recently-and-what-we-need-to-know
#1
Dimitrios N Nikas, Xenofon Makos, Tomoyuki Umemoto, George Liappas, Andrea Pacchioni, Narek Zakarian, Bernhard Reimers
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is considered an alternative option to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for significant carotid stenosis, in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Comparing to CEA, CAS offers significant advantages. The most important arise from the minimally invasive nature of the procedure, which reduces the surgical complications and adds significant comfort to the patient, without compromising the efficacy. Nowadays, CAS can achieve acute and long-term outcome results comparable to CEA, maintaining low rates of periprocedural embolic events...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922212/immune-by-heart-unexpected-observations-inspiring-perspective-therapeutic-preventive-strategies-against-cancer
#2
Filippo Minutolo
We often overlook ordinary events that take place right in front of our eyes. However, such events might be inspiring sources of revolutionary scientific discovery. Simple observations, such as those regarding the substantial immunity of the heart to cancer or the noninvasive behavior of plant tumors, are just the tips of icebergs hiding profound mechanistic causes that deserve deeper investigation. Several current or unprecedented approaches aimed at improving both the prevention and treatment of tumors are discussed on these bases herein...
December 6, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922122/identification-of-critical-paralog-groups-with-indispensable-roles-in-the-regulation-of-signaling-flow
#3
Dezso Modos, Johanne Brooks, David Fazekas, Eszter Ari, Tibor Vellai, Peter Csermely, Tamas Korcsmaros, Katalin Lenti
Extensive cross-talk between signaling pathways is required to integrate the myriad of extracellular signal combinations at the cellular level. Gene duplication events may lead to the emergence of novel functions, leaving groups of similar genes - termed paralogs - in the genome. To distinguish critical paralog groups (CPGs) from other paralogs in human signaling networks, we developed a signaling network-based method using cross-talk annotation and tissue-specific signaling flow analysis. 75 CPGs were found with higher degree, betweenness centrality, closeness, and 'bowtieness' when compared to other paralogs or other proteins in the signaling network...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922097/arctic-megaslide-at-presumed-rest
#4
Wolfram H Geissler, A Catalina Gebhardt, Felix Gross, Jutta Wollenburg, Laura Jensen, Mechita C Schmidt-Aursch, Sebastian Krastel, Judith Elger, Giacomo Osti
Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922080/warming-trends-and-bleaching-stress-of-the-world-s-coral-reefs-1985-2012
#5
Scott F Heron, Jeffrey A Maynard, Ruben van Hooidonk, C Mark Eakin
Coral reefs across the world's oceans are in the midst of the longest bleaching event on record (from 2014 to at least 2016). As many of the world's reefs are remote, there is limited information on how past thermal conditions have influenced reef composition and current stress responses. Using satellite temperature data for 1985-2012, the analysis we present is the first to quantify, for global reef locations, spatial variations in warming trends, thermal stress events and temperature variability at reef-scale (~4 km)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922053/electrophysiological-properties-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-along-the-longitudinal-axis-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#6
Giampaolo Milior, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Livio Pepe' Sciarria, Stefano Garofalo, Igor Branchi, Davide Ragozzino, Cristina Limatola, Laura Maggi
Evidence for different physiological properties along the hippocampal longitudinal axis is emerging. Here, we examined the electrophysiological features of neurons at different dorso-ventral sites of the mouse CA1 hippocampal region. Cell position was defined with respect to longitudinal coordinates of each slice. We measured variations in neuronal excitability, subthreshold membrane properties and neurotransmitter responses along the longitudinal axis. We found that (i) pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were less excitable than those of the ventral hippocampus (VH)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922040/functional-urological-disorders-a-sensitized-defence-response-in-the-bladder-gut-brain-axis
#7
REVIEW
Carsten Leue, Joanna Kruimel, Desiree Vrijens, Adrian Masclee, Jim van Os, Gommert van Koeveringe
Functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders are interrelated and characterized by a chronic course and considerable treatment resistance. Urological disorders associated with a sizeable functional effect include overactive bladder (OAB), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Poor treatment outcomes might be attributable to untreated underlying psychological and psychiatric disorders, as the co-occurrence of functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders with mood and anxiety disorders is common...
December 6, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922029/safety-of-eluxadoline-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea
#8
Brooks D Cash, Brian E Lacy, Philip S Schoenfeld, Leonard S Dove, Paul S Covington
OBJECTIVES: Eluxadoline is a mixed μ-opioid receptor (OR) and κ-OR agonist and δ-OR antagonist, approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). This analysis evaluated the safety and tolerability of eluxadoline 75 and 100 mg twice daily (BID) in one Phase 2 (IBS-2001) and two Phase 3 (IBS-3001 and IBS-3002) studies. METHODS: Adults with IBS-D (Rome III criteria) were randomized to placebo or eluxadoline (75 or 100 mg) BID for 12 (IBS-2001), 26 (IBS-3002), or 52 (IBS-3001) weeks...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922028/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-effectiveness-of-lubiprostone-on-constipation-symptoms-and-colon-transit-time-in-diabetic-patients
#9
Jennifer Christie, Sagar Shroff, Nikrad Shahnavaz, Latoya A Carter, Melanie S Harrison, Karan A Dietz-Lindo, John Hanfelt, Shanthi Srinivasan
OBJECTIVES: Constipation is the most common GI symptom in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Importantly, patients with constipation have lower health-related quality of life than those without constipation. Effective therapies for constipation are limited and there is a paucity of data evaluating the treatment of constipation in diabetics. METHODS: Diabetic patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) as defined by Rome III criteria were recruited from outpatient clinics at a tertiary-care center and a Veterans Administration Hospital...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922026/percutaneous-gastrostomy-device-for-the-treatment-of-class-ii-and-class-iii-obesity-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Christopher C Thompson, Barham K Abu Dayyeh, Robert Kushner, Shelby Sullivan, Alan B Schorr, Anastassia Amaro, Caroline M Apovian, Terrence Fullum, Amir Zarrinpar, Michael D Jensen, Adam C Stein, Steven Edmundowicz, Michel Kahaleh, Marvin Ryou, J Matthew Bohning, Gregory Ginsberg, Christopher Huang, Daniel D Tran, Joseph P Glaser, John A Martin, David L Jaffe, Francis A Farraye, Samuel B Ho, Nitin Kumar, Donna Harakal, Meredith Young, Catherine E Thomas, Alpana P Shukla, Michele B Ryan, Miki Haas, Heidi Goldsmith, Jennifer McCrea, Louis J Aronne
OBJECTIVES: The AspireAssist System (AspireAssist) is an endoscopic weight loss device that is comprised of an endoscopically placed percutaneous gastrostomy tube and an external device to facilitate drainage of about 30% of the calories consumed in a meal, in conjunction with lifestyle (diet and exercise) counseling. METHODS: In this 52-week clinical trial, 207 participants with a body-mass index (BMI) of 35.0-55.0 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with AspireAssist plus Lifestyle Counseling (n=137; mean BMI was 42...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922020/efficacy-of-losartan-in-the-management-of-post-dialysis-euvolemic-hypertension-held-trial-a-single-blind-randomized-control-trial
#11
Raja Ahsan Aftab, Amer Hayat Khan, Azreen Syazril Adnan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Tahir Mehmood Khan
To assess the effectiveness of losartan 50 mg on post dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients against standard antihypertensive pharmacotherapy. A multicentre, prospective, randomized, single-blind trial was conducted to assess the effect of losartan 50 mg every other day (EOD), once a morning (OM) among post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients. Covariate-adaptive randomization was used to allocate participants to a standard or treatment arm, and they were followed up for eight weeks. Pre-, intra- and post-dialysis session blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded along with any adverse events...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922016/gabaergic-anxiolytic-drug-in-water-increases-migration-behaviour-in-salmon
#12
Gustav Hellström, Jonatan Klaminder, Fia Finn, Lo Persson, Anders Alanärä, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick, Tomas Brodin
Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922000/membrane-pyrophosphatases-from-thermotoga-maritima-and-vigna-radiata-suggest-a-conserved-coupling-mechanism
#13
Kun-Mou Li, Craig Wilkinson, Juho Kellosalo, Jia-Yin Tsai, Tommi Kajander, Lars J C Jeuken, Yuh-Ju Sun, Adrian Goldman
Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases), which couple proton/sodium ion transport to pyrophosphate synthesis/hydrolysis, are important in abiotic stress resistance and in the infectivity of protozoan parasites. Here, three M-PPase structures in different catalytic states show that closure of the substrate-binding pocket by helices 5-6 affects helix 13 in the dimer interface and causes helix 12 to move down. This springs a 'molecular mousetrap', repositioning a conserved aspartate and activating the nucleophilic water...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921637/facets-of-psychopathy-in-relation-to-trauma-exposure-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptomology-in-a-sample-of-incarcerated-male-offenders
#14
Russell Woodfield, Katie Dhingra, Daniel Boduszek, Agata Debowska
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of psychopathy facets on the relationship between traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Design/methodology/approach Participants were male prisoners incarcerated in the UK. Findings The analysis revealed differential associations between the two facets of psychopathy, with potentially traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, neither primary psychopathy nor trauma exposure were significantly related to PTSD, while secondary psychopathy was positively and significantly related with PTSD symptoms...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#15
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921425/-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complex-as-a-pro-atherogenic-autoantigen-is-atherosclerosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#16
Pavel Kraml
Oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidation stress and inflammation are closely interrelated and they can potentiate one another. In the subendothelial space of the arterial intima, monocytes/macrophages become activated and phagocyte oxidized LDL (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors. It has been demonstrated that oxLDL forms complex with plasma β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and becomes autoantigenic triggering synthesis of specific antiphosholipid antibodies...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921349/repeated-trauma-exposure-does-not-impair-distress-reduction-during-imaginal-exposure-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Alissa B Jerud, Frank J Farach, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Hillary Smith, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
BACKGROUND: Based on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Adults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#18
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921324/statins-and-mortality-the-untold-story
#19
Michael S Kostapanos, Moses S Elisaf
Statins are first-line evidence-based drugs for the management of dyslipidaemias and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, statin clinical trials have shown marginally significant benefits on mortality, especially in the primary prevention setting. A major limitation of those trials is their relatively short follow-up. A reduced number of fatal events within a 5-year follow-up make mortality benefits unlikely to arise. This is particularly relevant for the primary prevention trials, whereby the risk of cardiovascular death is low...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921321/from-paperwork-to-parenting-experiences-of-professional-staff-in-student-support
#20
Wendy C Y Hu, Eleanor Flynn, Rebecca Mann, Robyn Woodward-Kron
CONTEXT: For academic staff, responding to student concerns is an important responsibility. Professional staff, or non-academic staff who do administrative work in medical schools, are often the first to be approached by students, yet there is little research on how they manage student issues. Informed by the conceptual framework of emotional labour, we examined the experiences of professional staff, aiming to identify theoretical and practical insights for improving the provision of student support...
December 5, 2016: Medical Education
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