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Mental imagery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046111/eeg-classification-with-a-sequential-decision-making-method-in-motor-imagery-bci
#1
Rong Liu, Yongxuan Wang, Geoffrey I Newman, Nitish V Thakor, Sarah Ying
To develop subject-specific classifier to recognize mental states fast and reliably is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this paper, a sequential decision-making strategy is explored in conjunction with an optimal wavelet analysis for EEG classification. The subject-specific wavelet parameters based on a grid-search method were first developed to determine evidence accumulative curve for the sequential classifier...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044223/modulating-hemispheric-lateralization-by-brain-stimulation-yields-gain-in-mental-and-physical-activity
#2
Catharina Zich, Siobhán Harty, Cornelia Kranczioch, Karen L Mansfield, Francesco Sella, Stefan Debener, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Imagery plays an important role in our life. Motor imagery is the mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output. Previous studies have documented the effect of motor imagery practice. However, its translational potential for patients as well as for athletes, musicians and other groups, depends largely on the transfer from mental practice to overt physical performance. We used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over sensorimotor areas to modulate neural lateralization patterns induced by unilateral mental motor imagery and the performance of a physical motor task...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039681/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-services-in-the-military-health-system
#3
Patricia M Herman, Melony E Sorbero, Ann C Sims-Columbia
OBJECTIVES: Surveys of military personnel indicate substantial use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that possibly exceeds use in the general U.S. POPULATION: Although military treatment facilities (MTFs) are known to offer CAM, surveys do not indicate where service members receive this care. This study offers a comprehensive system-wide accounting of the types of CAM offered across the military health system (MHS), the conditions for which it is used, and its level of use...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037618/immediate-effect-of-mental-practice-with-and-without-mirror-therapy-on-muscle-activation-in-hemiparetic-stroke-patients
#4
Tamise Aguiar Caires, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho Fernandes, Lislei Jorge Patrizzi, Rafael de Almeida Oliveira, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci Sande de Souza
Mental practice (MP) consists of the repeated mental rehearsal of a physical skill without movement, called motor imagery (MI). Studies show that MP and MI associated mirror therapy (MPMT) may improve muscle control of the upper limbs in hemiparesis. This study aimed to evaluate muscle activation during active flexion of the wrist (MA), MP, and MPMT in patients with history of stroke and hemiparesis. Individuals diagnosed with stroke showing sequelae of upper limb hemiparesis were enrolled. The flexor carpi ulnaris was analyzed using electromyography during tasks (MA, MP, MPMT) involving wrist flexion...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033221/on-the-role-of-visual-experience-in-mathematical-development-evidence-from-blind-mathematicians
#5
Marie Amalric, Isabelle Denghien, Stanislas Dehaene
Advanced mathematical reasoning, regardless of domain or difficulty, activates a reproducible set of bilateral brain areas including intraparietal, inferior temporal and dorsal prefrontal cortex. The respective roles of genetics, experience and education in the development of this math-responsive network, however, remain unresolved. Here, we investigate the role of visual experience by studying the exceptional case of three professional mathematicians who were blind from birth (n=1) or became blind during childhood (n=2)...
October 4, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032698/text-messages-promoting-mental-imagery-increase-self-reported-physical-activity-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Guillaume R Coudevylle, Shelly Ruart, Olivier Hue, Stéphane Sinnapah
This study tested whether text messages prompting adults over 50 years of age to perform mental imagery would increase Aerobic Physical Activity (APA) duration using a randomized parallel trial design. METHOD: Participants were assigned to an Imagery 1, Imagery 2 or Placebo group. For 4 weeks, each group was exposed to two conditions (morning text message vs. no morning text message). In the morning message condition, the Imagery groups received a text message with the instruction to mentally imagine performing an APA and the Placebo group received a placebo message...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031830/action-observation-facilitates-motor-cortical-activity-in-patients-with-stroke-and-hemiplegia
#7
Marina Tani, Yumie Ono, Miku Matsubara, Satoko Ohmatsu, Yoshihiro Yukawa, Masashi Kohno, Takanori Tominaga
Motor imagery (MI) is a mental practice that reproduces the visual- and/or kinesthetic-modality brain activations accompanying movement. It is a useful rehabilitation technique as the affected motor cortex can be stimulated in patients with stroke and hemiplegia. However, most patients with stroke have difficulty with MI owing to advanced age and/or higher-cognitive dysfunction, thus impairing their ability to internally simulate the action. We therefore investigated whether action observation (AO), an alternative form of motor stimulation that works via the mirror-neuron system, could facilitate motor cortical activity in such patients...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978349/effects-of-action-observation-therapy-and-mirror-therapy-after-stroke-on-rehabilitation-outcomes-and-neural-mechanisms-by-meg-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Tsai-Yu Shih, Ching-Yi Wu, Keh-Chung Lin, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Yu-Wei Hsieh, Chia-Ling Chen, Chih-Jou Lai, Chih-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: Loss of upper-extremity motor function is one of the most debilitating deficits following stroke. Two promising treatment approaches, action observation therapy (AOT) and mirror therapy (MT), aim to enhance motor learning and promote neural reorganization in patients through different afferent inputs and patterns of visual feedback. Both approaches involve different patterns of motor observation, imitation, and execution but share some similar neural bases of the mirror neuron system...
October 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974940/visual-and-imagery-magnitude-comparisons-are-affected-following-left-parietal-lesion
#9
Yarden Gliksman, Sharon Naparstek, Gal Ifergane, Avishai Henik
We describe Jane Dow (JD), a young right-handed female with acalculia following a cerebral infarction in the left intraparietal sulcus. We investigated automatic processing of different types of magnitudes that were presented visually or through imagery. We employed the size congruity task and the mental clock task that differ in stimuli presentation and in working memory load. In the size congruity task, for physical comparisons, JD presented a lack of facilitation effect, suggesting a deficit in the automatic processing of numerical values...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974339/a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-interpretation-biases-in-depression
#10
REVIEW
Jonas Everaert, Ioana R Podina, Ernst H W Koster
Interpretation biases have long been theorized to play a central role in depression. Yet, the strength of the empirical evidence for this bias remains a topic of debate. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the overall effect size and to identify moderators relevant to theory and methodology. PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and dissertation databases were searched. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 87 studies (N=9443). Results revealed a medium overall effect size (g=0.72, 95%-CI:[0...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965127/how-effector-specific-is-the-effect-of-sequence-learning-by-motor-execution-and-motor-imagery
#11
Jagna Sobierajewicz, Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Wojciech Jaśkowski, Rob H J van der Lubbe
The aim of the present study was twofold. First, we wanted to examine how effector specific the effect of sequence learning by motor execution is, and second, we wanted to compare this effect with learning by motor imagery. We employed a Go/NoGo discrete sequence production task in which in each trial a spatial sequence of five stimuli was presented. After a Go signal the corresponding spatial response sequence had to be executed, while after a NoGo signal, the response sequence had to be mentally imagined...
September 30, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964180/index-finger-motor-imagery-eeg-pattern-recognition-in-bci-applications-using-dictionary-cleaned-sparse-representation-based-classification-for-healthy-people
#12
Minmin Miao, Hong Zeng, Aimin Wang, Fengkui Zhao, Feixiang Liu
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) has shown its effectiveness for the control of rehabilitation devices designed for large body parts of the patients with neurologic impairments. In order to validate the feasibility of using EEG to decode the MI of a single index finger and constructing a BCI-enhanced finger rehabilitation system, we collected EEG data during right hand index finger MI and rest state for five healthy subjects and proposed a pattern recognition approach for classifying these two mental states...
September 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958416/the-functional-effects-of-prior-motion-imagery-and-motion-perception
#13
Shuai Chang, Joel Pearson
The functional sensory effects and commonalties between mental imagery of different visual features such as color, form or motion remains largely unknown. Mental imagery of static visual features, including color and orientation, can have a facilitative, priming effect on subsequent perception. However, whether motion imagery can have a similar effect remains unknown. Here we used the binocular rivalry method as a measure of motion mental imagery. After imagining or viewing motion of a particular direction, participants were required to report the dominant motion direction in a brief motion rivalry stimulus...
September 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951163/dynamic-changes-in-large-scale-functional-network-organization-during-autobiographical-memory-retrieval
#14
Cory S Inman, G Andrew James, Katherine Vytal, Stephan Hamann
Autobiographical memory (AM), episodic memory for life events, involves the orchestration of multiple dynamic cognitive processes, including memory access and subsequent elaboration. Previous neuroimaging studies have contrasted memory access and elaboration processes in terms of regional brain activation and connectivity within large, multi-region networks. Although interactions between key memory-related regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to play an important role in AM retrieval, it remains unclear how such connectivity between specific, individual regions involved in AM retrieval changes dynamically across the retrieval process and how these changes relate to broader memory networks throughout the whole brain...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948168/towards-rehabilitation-robotics-off-the-shelf-bci-control-of-anthropomorphic-robotic-arms
#15
Alkinoos Athanasiou, Ioannis Xygonakis, Niki Pandria, Panagiotis Kartsidis, George Arfaras, Kyriaki Rafailia Kavazidi, Nicolas Foroglou, Alexander Astaras, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Advances in neural interfaces have demonstrated remarkable results in the direction of replacing and restoring lost sensorimotor function in human patients. Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are popular due to considerable advantages including simplicity, safety, and low cost, while recent advances aim at improving past technological and neurophysiological limitations. Taking into account the neurophysiological alterations of disabled individuals, investigating brain connectivity features for implementation of BCI control holds special importance...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940324/vividness-of-positive-mental-imagery-predicts-positive-emotional-response-to-visually-presented-project-soothe-pictures
#16
Alexander C Wilson, Matthias Schwannauer, Angela McLaughlin, Fiona Ashworth, Stella W Y Chan
Lang's bioinformational theory of mental imagery proposes that mental imagery and external stimuli engage emotional information-processing systems in similar ways. However, the positive and negative systems are thought to be distinct, so this similarity is likely to show a valence-specific effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that an individual's ability to construct vivid positive, but not negative, mental imagery would predict positive emotional responding to positive visual stimuli, independently of depressive symptoms...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934887/somatosensory-cortex-excitability-changes-due-to-differences-in-instruction-conditions-of-motor-imagery
#17
Takashi Hasegawa, Hironori Miyata, Keita Nishi, Akira Sagari, Takefumi Moriuchi, Takashi Matsuo, Takayuki Tabira, Toshio Higashi
Purpose Vivid motor imagery appears to be associated with improved motor learning efficiency. However, the practical difficulties in measuring vivid motor imagery warrant new analytical approaches. The present study aimed to determine the instruction conditions for which vividness in motor imagery could be more easily seen and the excitability of the sensory cortex as it relates to the motor image. Materials and methods In total, 15 healthy, right-handed volunteers were instructed to imagine grasping a rubber ball under a verbal-only instruction condition (verbal condition), a verbal + visual instruction condition (visual condition), and a verbal + execution (physically grasping a real ball) condition (execution condition)...
September 21, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926593/target-directed-motor-imagery-of-the-lower-limb-enhances-event-related-desynchronization
#18
Kosuke Kitahara, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Shiro Yano, Toshiyuki Kondo
Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/S) is an electroencephalogram (EEG) feature widely used as control signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms and functions of ERD/S are largely unknown, thus investigating them is crucial to improve the reliability of ERD/S-based BCIs. This study aimed to identify Motor Imagery (MI) conditions that enhance ERD/S. We investigated following three questions: 1) whether target-directed MI affects ERD/S, 2) whether MI with sound imagery affects ERD/S, and 3) whether ERD/S has a body part dependency of MI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916259/what-we-see-when-we-read-visualization-and-vividness-in-reading-fictional-narratives
#19
REVIEW
Renate Brosch
Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912037/the-role-of-mental-imagery-in-mood-amplification-an-investigation-across-subclinical-features-of-bipolar-disorders
#20
Caitlin O'Donnell, Martina Di Simplicio, Randi Brown, Emily A Holmes, Stephanie Burnett Heyes
Vivid emotional mental imagery has been identified across a range of mental disorders. In bipolar spectrum disorders - psychopathologies characterized by mood swings that alternate between depression and mania, and include irritability and mixed affect states - mental imagery has been proposed to drive instability in both 'positive' and 'negative' mood. That is, mental imagery can act as an "emotional amplifier". The current experimental study tested this hypothesis and investigated imagery characteristics associated with mood amplification using a spectrum approach to psychopathology...
August 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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