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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#1
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726462/allan-urho-paivio-1925-2016
#2
Albert Katz
Presents an obituary for Allan Urho Paivio, who passed away on June 19, 2016. One of his many accomplishments was the development of a dual-coding theory. Dual-coding theory, while very influential, has, unfortunately, been discussed all too often as a theory of mental imagery, and not within its larger context wherein mental imagery and verbal processes are separable but interconnected representational systems, an academic battle in clarification that Paivio waged much of his life. He published prodigiously, even in the decades after retirement...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#3
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716675/what-we-imagine-is-what-we-do-a-critical-overview-about-mental-imagery-as-a-strategy-to-study-human-defensive-responses
#4
REVIEW
Rosana Shuhama, D Caroline Blanchard, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711118/mental-imagery-training-increases-wanting-of-rewards-and-reward-sensitivity-and-reduces-depressive-symptoms
#5
Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa
High reward sensitivity and wanting of rewarding stimuli help to identify and motivate repetition of pleasant activities. This behavioral activation is thought to increase positive emotions. Therefore, both mechanisms are highly relevant for resilience against depressive symptoms. Yet, these mechanisms have not been targeted by psychotherapeutic interventions. In the present study, we tested a mental imagery training comprising eight 10-minute sessions every second day and delivered via the Internet to healthy volunteers (N = 30, 21 female, mean age of 23...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682260/is-implicit-motor-imagery-a-reliable-strategy-for-a-brain-computer-interface
#6
Bethel A Osuagwu, Magdalena Zych, Aleksandra Vuckovic
Explicit motor imagery (eMI) is a widely used brain computer interface (BCI) paradigm, but not everybody can accomplish this task. Here we propose a BCI based on implicit motor imagery (iMI). We compared classification accuracy between eMI and iMI of hands. Fifteen able bodied people were asked to judge the laterality of hand images presented on a computer screen in a lateral or medial orientation. This judgement task is known to require mental rotation of a person's own hands which in turn is thought to involve iMI...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673767/diminished-motor-imagery-capability-in-adults-with-motor-impairment-an-fmri-mental-rotation-study
#7
S R Kashuk, J Williams, G Thorpe, P H Wilson, G F Egan
Recent research has demonstrated that adults with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (pDCD) show similar behavioural deficits as those observed in children DCD when performing a motor imagery task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pattern of neural activation in adults with pDCD during motor imagery differed from adults without motor skill impairment. Twelve adults with pDCD (5 male; age M=24.5 yrs) and 11 adults without pDCD (6 male; age M=26.7 yrs) participated. The hand rotation task was used to assess motor imagery ability, while functional neural images were acquired using a 3 Tesla MR scanner...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665329/treatment-of-intrusive-suicidal-imagery-using-eye-movements
#8
Jaël S van Bentum, Marit Sijbrandij, Marcus J H Huibers, Annemiek Huisman, Arnoud Arntz, Emily A Holmes, Ad J F M Kerkhof
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns, and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite increased efforts for national suicide prevention strategies, there are still few effective interventions available for reducing suicide risk. In this article, we describe various theoretical approaches for suicide ideation and behavior, and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659060/mental-imagery-and-school-readiness
#9
Maria Guarnera, Palmira Faraci, Elena Commodari, Stefania Lucia Buccheri
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the skills that constitute school readiness, such as linguistic, phonological, logical-mathematical and psychomotor skills, and mental imagery processes in preschool children. The participants were 100 healthy children (50 boys and 50 girls) aged four to five. Two batteries of tests were used to assess school readiness and different aspects of the mental imagery processes. The mental imagery battery measured mental imagery generation, inspection, and rotation of images...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642208/assessing-the-efficacy-of-imagery-enhanced-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Peter M McEvoy, Michelle L Moulds, Jessica R Grisham, Emily A Holmes, David A Moscovitch, Delia Hendrie, Lisa M Saulsman, Ottmar V Lipp, Robert T Kane, Ronald M Rapee, Matthew P Hyett, David M Erceg-Hurn
Cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) is effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but a substantial proportion of patients do not typically achieve normative functioning. Cognitive behavioral models of SAD emphasize negative self-imagery as an important maintaining factor, and evidence suggests that imagery is a powerful cognitive mode for facilitating affective change. This study will compare two group CBGT interventions, one that predominantly uses verbally-based strategies (VB-CBGT) and another that predominantly uses imagery-enhanced strategies (IE-CBGT), in terms of (a) efficacy, (b) mechanisms of change, and (c) cost-effectiveness...
June 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#11
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617759/functional-topography-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-during-motor-execution-and-motor-imagery-as-revealed-by-functional-mri
#12
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Ramy S Soliman, Abdalla Z Mohamed, Jeungchan Lee, Kyungmo Park
Controversy exists regarding the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor imagery (MI) and also regarding the differential somatotopic representation of motor execution (ME) and mental simulation of movement, that is, MI within M1. Although some research reported clear M1 involvement during MI without overt motor output, others did not. However, possible somatotopic representation between execution and imagery has not been clearly investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to aid in the resolution of this controversy by investigating the possible involvement of M1 during MI, and the differential, within M1, somatotopic representation between execution and imagery by quantitatively assessing different location markers such as activation peak and center of mass as well as intensity differences between the two tasks in case of with and without the overlap between the two representations...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605723/a-combined-cognitive-and-gait-quantification-to-identify-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-from-its-mimics-the-geneva-s-protocol
#13
Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Stéphane Armand, Shahan Momjian, Bruno Marques, Arnaud Saj, Frédéric Assal
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is very prevalent in aging, underdiagnosed, and represents a rare cause of reversible neurological condition. The clinical triad of iNPH - gait, cognitive and urinary symptoms - and its neuroradiological features (i.e. ventriculomegaly) are not specific and found a various neurodegenerative and/or vascular conditions. We present our iNPH standardized protocol at the Geneva University Hospitals involving a multispecialty team of behavioral neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, engineers, and physical therapists...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601694/feeling-happy-when-feeling-down-the-effectiveness-of-positive-mental-imagery-in-dysphoria
#14
Maud Grol, Naomi Vanlessen, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental imagery can evoke strong emotional responses, but imagery perspective can influence the response, with observer perspective reducing emotionality. This is important provided that positive imagery can be an effective mood repair strategy in healthy individuals. However, (sub-clinical) depressed individuals tend to spontaneously adopt an observer perspective. We investigated whether positive imagery would result in a similar emotional response in dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals when instructed and trained to use field perspective imagery...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600742/does-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-help-in-searching-for-the-lost-key-evidence-from-an-fnirs-study
#15
Marika Carrieri, Stefania Lancia, Alessia Bocchi, Marco Ferrari, Laura Piccardi, Valentina Quaresima
The Key Search Task (KST) is a neuropsychological test that requires strategies for searching a lost key in an imaginary field. This request may involve different cognitive processes as mental imagery and navigation planning. This study was aimed at investigating, by a twenty-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, the hemodynamic response (i.e., oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb) changes) of the prefrontal cortex in navigation planning. A right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) activation during the KST was hypothesized...
June 10, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597846/single-trial-effective-brain-connectivity-patterns-enhance-discriminability-of-mental-imagery-tasks
#16
Dheeraj Rathee, Hubert Cecotti, Girijesh Prasad
The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based BCI systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588538/object-recognition-in-mental-representations-directions-for-exploring-diagnostic-features-through-visual-mental-imagery
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie M Roldan
One of the fundamental goals of object recognition research is to understand how a cognitive representation produced from the output of filtered and transformed sensory information facilitates efficient viewer behavior. Given that mental imagery strongly resembles perceptual processes in both cortical regions and subjective visual qualities, it is reasonable to question whether mental imagery facilitates cognition in a manner similar to that of perceptual viewing: via the detection and recognition of distinguishing features...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588527/unconscious-imagination-and-the-mental-imagery-debate
#18
REVIEW
Berit Brogaard, Dimitria Electra Gatzia
Traditionally, philosophers have appealed to the phenomenological similarity between visual experience and visual imagery to support the hypothesis that there is significant overlap between the perceptual and imaginative domains. The current evidence, however, is inconclusive: while evidence from transcranial brain stimulation seems to support this conclusion, neurophysiological evidence from brain lesion studies (e.g., from patients with brain lesions resulting in a loss of mental imagery but not a corresponding loss of perception and vice versa) indicates that there are functional and anatomical dissociations between mental imagery and perception...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588510/the-representation-of-motor-inter-action-states-of-action-and-learning-three-perspectives-on-motor-learning-by-way-of-imagery-and-execution
#19
Cornelia Frank, Thomas Schack
Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different states of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different states of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580191/motor-imagery-based-rehabilitation-potential-neural-correlates-and-clinical-application-for-functional-recovery-of-motor-deficits-after-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Yanna Tong, John T Pendy, William A Li, Huishan Du, Tong Zhang, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
Motor imagery (MI), defined as the mental implementation of an action in the absence of movement or muscle activation, is a rehabilitation technique that offers a means to replace or restore lost motor function in stroke patients when used in conjunction with conventional physiotherapy procedures. This article briefly reviews the concepts and neural correlates of MI in order to promote improved understanding, as well as to enhance the clinical utility of MI-based rehabilitation regimens. We specifically highlight the role of the cerebellum and basal ganglia, premotor, supplementary motor, and prefrontal areas, primary motor cortex, and parietal cortex...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
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