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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642493/effects-of-tdcs-on-real-time-bci-detection-of-pedaling-motor-imagery
#1
Maria de la Soledad Rodriguez-Ugarte, Eduardo Iáñez, Mario Ortiz-Garcia, José M Azorín
The purpose of this work is to strengthen the cortical excitability over the primary motor cortex (M1) and the cerebro-cerebellar pathway by means of a new transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) configuration to detect lower limb motor imagery (MI) in real time using two different cognitive neural states: relax and pedaling MI. The anode is located over the primary motor cortex in Cz, and the cathode over the right cerebro-cerebellum. The real-time brain-computer interface (BCI) designed is based on finding, for each electrode selected, the power at the particular frequency where the most difference between the two mental tasks is observed...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621693/attachment-security-priming-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Omri Gillath, Gery Karantzas
Attachment security priming has been used to shed light on the cognitive processes related to attachment internal working models as well as the cognitive substrates of people's attachment-related affect and behavior. Security primes activate a sense of attachment security by making mental representations in one's memory more accessible and salient. In the current paper, we report on a qualitative synthesis of 20 studies published in the last two years to determine the effects of security priming. We found that supraliminally administered security priming (especially via guided imagery or visualization) is associated with beneficial effects across a diverse set of domains...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620519/neurocognitive-emotional-and-neuroendocrine-correlates-of-exposure-to-sexual-assault-in-women
#3
Yann Quidé, Helen Cléry, Frédéric Andersson, Céline Descriaud, Pauline Saint-Martin, Laurent Barantin, Valérie Gissot, Marie-Paule Carrey Le Bas, Sylvie Osterreicher, Diane Dufour-Rainfray, Bruno Brizard, Maja Ogielska, Wissam El-Hage
BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual assault are vulnerable to long-term negative psychological and physical health outcomes, but few studies have investigated changes in cognition, emotional processing and brain function in the early stages after sexual assault. We used a multimodal approach to identify the cognitive and emotional correlates associated with sexual assault in women. METHODS: Twenty-seven female survivors of sexual assault were included within 4 weeks of the traumatic event, and they were compared with 20 age-matched controls...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618125/distributed-affective-space-represents-multiple-emotion-categories-across-the-human-brain
#4
Heini Saarimäki, Lara Farzaneh Ejtehadian, Enrico Glerean, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Patrik Vuilleumier, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The functional organization of human emotion systems as well as their neuroanatomical basis and segregation in the brain remains unresolved. Here we used pattern classification and hierarchical clustering to characterize the organization of a range of specific emotion categories in the human brain. We induced 14 emotions (6 "basic", e.g. fear and anger; and 8 "non-basic", e.g. shame and gratitude) and a neutral state using guided mental imagery while participants' brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595294/benchmark-validation-of-statistical-models-application-to-mediation-analysis-of-imagery-and-memory
#5
David P MacKinnon, Matthew J Valente, Ingrid C Wurpts
This article describes benchmark validation, an approach to validating a statistical model. According to benchmark validation, a valid model generates estimates and research conclusions consistent with a known substantive effect. Three types of benchmark validation-(a) benchmark value, (b) benchmark estimate, and (c) benchmark effect-are described and illustrated with examples. Benchmark validation methods are especially useful for statistical models with assumptions that are untestable or very difficult to test...
March 29, 2018: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595292/imaginary-alternatives-the-effects-of-mental-simulation-on-powerless-negotiators
#6
Michael Schaerer, Martin Schweinsberg, Roderick I Swaab
This research demonstrates that people can act more powerfully without having power. Researchers and practitioners advise people to obtain alternatives in social exchange relationships to enhance their power. However, alternatives are not always readily available, often forcing people to interact without having much power. Building on research suggesting that subjective power and objective outcomes are disconnected and that mental simulation can improve aspirations, we show that the mental imagery of a strong alternative can provide some of the benefits that real alternatives provide...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592830/a-community-led-harm-reduction-approach-to-chemsex-case-study-from-australia
#7
Zahra Stardust, Johann Kolstee, Stefan Joksic, James Gray, Siobhan Hannan
Rates of drug use remain substantially higher among gay and bisexual men (GBM) and people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The use of drugs to enhance sexual pleasure within cultures of Party and Play creates opportunities to discuss sexual health, mental health, consent and wellbeing. Community organisations with a history of HIV prevention, care, treatment are well-placed to respond. ACON's (formerly the AIDS Council of New South Wales) multi-dimensional response to 'chemsex' includes: direct client services support for individuals seeking to manage or reduce their use; health promotion activities that support peer education; partnerships with research institutions to better understand cultures of chemsex; and policy submissions that call for drug use to be approached as a health, rather than a criminal, issue...
March 29, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590161/a-rat-in-the-sewer-how-mental-imagery-interacts-with-object-recognition
#8
Harun Karimpur, Kai Hamburger
The role of mental imagery has been puzzling researchers for more than two millennia. Both positive and negative effects of mental imagery on information processing have been discussed. The aim of this work was to examine how mental imagery affects object recognition and associative learning. Based on different perceptual and cognitive accounts we tested our imagery-induced interaction hypothesis in a series of two experiments. According to that, mental imagery could lead to (1) a superior performance in object recognition and associative learning if these objects are imagery-congruent (semantically) and to (2) an inferior performance if these objects are imagery-incongruent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584538/reducing-fear-of-reinjury-and-pain-perception-among-athletes-with-first-time-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstructions-by-implementing-imagery-training
#9
Rosa M Rodriguez, Ashley Marroquin, Nicole Cosby
Injuries are an inevitable part of competitive sports as well a recreational activities. Research shows that one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints that accounts for approximately 48 out of 1,000 patients are knee related injuries.1 As noted, approximately nine percent of these knee complaints are related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.2 ,3 The ACL is commonly injured in contact sports via a non-contact action such as planting, cutting, landing on a hyperextended knee, or pivoting and sudden deceleration...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565235/team-action-imagery-and-team-cognition-imagery-of-game-situations-and-required-team-actions-promotes-a-functional-structure-in-players-representations-of-team-level-tactics
#10
Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen, Thomas Schack
A team's cognitions of interpersonally coordinated actions are a crucial component for successful team performance. Here, we present an approach to practice team action by way of imagery and examine its impact on team cognitions in long-term memory. We investigated the impact of a 4-week team action imagery intervention on futsal players' mental representations of team-level tactics. Skilled futsal players were assigned to either an imagery training group or a no imagery training control group. Participants in the imagery training group practiced four team-level tactics by imagining team actions in specific game situations for three times a week...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557276/non-physical-approaches-to-counteract-age-related-functional-deterioration-applications-for-rehabilitation-and-neural-mechanisms
#11
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543833/prospective-mental-imagery-as-its-link-with-anxiety-and-depression-in-prisoners
#12
Belén López-Pérez, Catherine Deeprose, Yaniv Hanoch
Mental imagery is known to play a key role in the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety. Prisoners commonly experience psychological distress, but interventions to address this are currently lacking. We aimed to examine the link between prospective mental imagery and anxiety and depression among prisoners. One hundred twenty-three male prisoners from a Category C prison in southwest England participated in the study. They completed the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to measure whether they experience depression and/or anxiety symptoms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541965/effects-and-dose-response-relationships-of-motor-imagery-practice-on-strength-development-in-healthy-adult-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Armin H Paravlic, Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Uros Marusic, Zoran Milanovic, Rado Pisot
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of a movement without overt muscle contraction, has been largely used to improve general motor tasks. However, the effects of MI practice on maximal voluntary strength (MVS) remain equivocal. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this meta-analysis were to (1) estimate whether MI practice intervention can meaningfully improve MVS in healthy adults; (2) compare the effects of MI practice on MVS with its combination with physical practice (MI-C), and with physical practice (PP) training alone; and (3) investigate the dose-response relationships of MI practice...
March 14, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540959/selective-association-between-tetris-game-play-and-visuospatial-working-memory-a-preliminary-investigation
#14
Alex Lau-Zhu, Emily A Holmes, Sally Butterfield, Joni Holmes
Recent experimental and clinical research has suggested that Tetris game play can disrupt maladaptive forms of mental imagery because Tetris competes for limited cognitive resources within visuospatial working memory (WM) that contribute to imagery. Whether or not Tetris performance is selectively associated with visuospatial WM remains to be tested. In this study, young adults (N = 46) completed six standardized measures indexing verbal and non-verbal reasoning, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory, and verbal and visuospatial WM...
July 2017: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527160/a-ternary-hybrid-eeg-nirs-brain-computer-interface-for-the-classification-of-brain-activation-patterns-during-mental-arithmetic-motor-imagery-and-idle-state
#15
Jaeyoung Shin, Jinuk Kwon, Chang-Hwan Im
The performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) can be enhanced by simultaneously using two or more modalities to record brain activity, which is generally referred to as a hybrid BCI. To date, many BCI researchers have tried to implement a hybrid BCI system by combining electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to improve the overall accuracy of binary classification. However, since hybrid EEG-NIRS BCI, which will be denoted by hBCI in this paper, has not been applied to ternary classification problems, paradigms and classification strategies appropriate for ternary classification using hBCI are not well investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524639/intrinsic-neural-linkage-between-primary-visual-area-and-default-mode-network-in-human-brain-evidence-from-visual-mental-imagery
#16
Zheng Zhang, Delong Zhang, Zengjian Wang, Junchao Li, Yuting Lin, Song Chang, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Previous studies have reported the essence of the sensory-based properties of human brain function, in which mental imagery is of great importance. In this study, we explored the association between the activities of two special regions, i.e., the primary visual area (PVA), which is the classically dominant sensory region, and the default mode network (DMN), which is the classical supra-sensory region, with a focus on their linkage in visual mental imagery. For this purpose, we collected fMRI data from 30 healthy participants (15 males; 22...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519852/human-v4-activity-patterns-predict-behavioral-performance-in-imagery-of-object-color
#17
Michael M Bannert, Andreas Bartels
Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516453/-executive-neurofunctionality-a-comparative-study-in-high-intellectual-abilities
#18
S Sastre-Riba, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: From a differential perspective, high intellectual ability is an expression of intellectual functioning with characteristic functional correlates and structural correlates of the underlying neural activity that suggests an improved executive capacity as a relevant characteristic, highlighting in it a more effective working memory. DEVELOPMENT: The neuroscientific evidences about the neural mechanisms that can explain the differences are analyzed between the intellectual functioning of the high intellectual ability and the typical intellectual capacity...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512844/experience-modulates-motor-imagery-based-brain-activity
#19
Sarah N Kraeutner, Sean R McWhinney, Jack P Solomon, Lori Dithurbide, Shaun G Boe
Whether or not brain activation during motor imagery (MI) the mental rehearsal of movement, is modulated by experience (i.e., skilled performance, achieved through long-term practice) remains unclear. Specifically, MI is generally associated with diffuse activation patterns that closely resemble novice physical performance, which may be attributable to a lack of experience with the task being imagined vs. being a distinguishing feature of MI. We sought to examine how experience modulates brain activity driven via MI, implementing a within- and between-group design to manipulate experience across tasks as well as expertise of the participants...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510958/task-dependent-activation-of-distinct-fast-and-slow-er-motor-pathways-during-motor-imagery
#20
Martin Keller, Wolfgang Taube, Benedikt Lauber
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery and actual movements share overlapping activation of brain areas but little is known about task-specific activation of distinct motor pathways during mental simulation of movements. For real contractions, it was demonstrated that the slow(er) motor pathways are activated differently in ballistic compared to tonic contractions but it is unknown if this also holds true for imagined contractions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during mentally simulated movements of ballistic and tonic contractions...
February 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
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