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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919676/about-the-individuality-of-vision
#1
Lukasz Grzeczkowski, Aaron M Clarke, Gregory Francis, Fred W Mast, Michael H Herzog
In cognition, audition, and somatosensation, performance correlates strongly between different paradigms, which suggests the existence of common factors. In contrast, visual performance in seemingly very similar tasks, such as visual and bisection acuity, are hardly related. Here we show similar results for visual illusions. Consistent with previous findings, we found significant correlations between the illusion magnitude of the Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusions, but this relationship was the only significant correlation out of 15 further comparisons...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915122/effects-of-a-training-in-mental-imagery-on-worry-a-proof-of-principle-study
#2
Timo Skodzik, Alexandra Leopold, Thomas Ehring
Worry is characterized by a predominance of verbal thinking and relatively little mental imagery. This cognitive bias of verbal and abstract processing has been found to impair emotional processing of worry topics so that worrisome thoughts are maintained. On the other hand, engaging in mental imagery during the worry process fosters emotional processing of worry themes. In the present study, we examined whether training high worriers (n=71) to use more mental imagery in their everyday lives is an effective intervention to reduce pathological worry...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#3
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907825/seeing-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel-positive-prospective-mental-imagery-and-optimism-in-depression
#4
Julie L Ji, Emily A Holmes, Simon E Blackwell
Optimism is associated with positive outcomes across many health domains, from cardiovascular disease to depression. However, we know little about cognitive processes underlying optimism in psychopathology. The present study tested whether the ability to vividly imagine positive events in one's future was associated with dispositional optimism in a sample of depressed adults. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted, using baseline (all participants, N=150) and follow-up data (participants in the control condition only, N=63) from a clinical trial (Blackwell et al...
November 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890831/neural-plasticity-during-motor-learning-with-motor-imagery-practice-review-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Célia Ruffino, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Florent Lebon
In the last decade, many studies confirmed the benefits of mental practice with motor imagery. In this review we first aimed to compile data issued from fundamental and clinical investigations and to provide the key-components for the optimization of motor imagery strategy. We focused on transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, supported by brain imaging research, that sustain the current hypothesis of a functional link between cortical reorganization and behavioral improvement. As perspectives, we suggest a model of neural adaptation following mental practice, in which synapse conductivity and inhibitory mechanisms at the spinal level may also play an important role...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873188/imagining-the-personal-past-episodic-counterfactuals-compared-to-episodic-memories-and-episodic-future-projections
#6
Müge Özbek, Annette Bohn, Dorthe Berntsen
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person's past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content have been few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869190/embodied-neurofeedback-with-an-anthropomorphic-robotic-hand
#7
Niclas Braun, Reiner Emkes, Jeremy D Thorne, Stefan Debener
Neurofeedback-guided motor imagery training (NF-MIT) has been suggested as a promising therapy for stroke-induced motor impairment. Whereas much NF-MIT research has aimed at signal processing optimization, the type of sensory feedback given to the participant has received less attention. Often the feedback signal is highly abstract and not inherently coupled to the mental act performed. In this study, we asked whether an embodied feedback signal is more efficient for neurofeedback operation than a non-embodiable feedback signal...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855346/eeg-and-fmri-agree-mental-arithmetic-is-the-easiest-form-of-imagery-to-detect
#8
Amabilis H Harrison, Michael D Noseworthy, James P Reilly, Weiguang Guan, John F Connolly
fMRI and EEG during mental imagery provide alternative methods of detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) without reliance on behaviour. Because using fMRI in patients with DOC is difficult, studies increasingly employ EEG. However, there has been no verification that these modalities provide converging information at the individual subject level. The present study examined simultaneous EEG and fMRI in healthy volunteers during six mental imagery tasks to determine whether one mental imagery task generates more robust activation across subjects; whether activation can be predicted from familiarity with the imagined activity; and whether EEG and fMRI converge upon the same conclusions about individual imagery performance...
November 14, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849545/open-access-dataset-for-eeg-nirs-single-trial-classification
#9
Jaeyoung Shin, Alexander von Luhmann, Benjamin Blankertz, Do-Won Kim, Jichai Jeong, Han-Jeong Hwang, Klaus-Robert Muller
We provide an open access dataset for hybrid brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). For this, we con-ducted two BCI experiments (left vs. right hand motor imagery; mental arithmetic vs. resting state). The dataset was validated using baseline signal analysis methods, with which classification performance was evaluated for each modality and a combination of both modalities. As already shown in previous literature, the capability of discriminating different mental states can be en-hanced by using a hybrid approach, when comparing to single modality analyses...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825661/development-and-validation-of-a-mental-practice-tool-for-total-abdominal-hysterectomy
#10
Said S Saab, Jamie Bastek, Sandra Dayaratna, Ellyn Hutton, Catherine R Salva
OBJECTIVE: Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) is a common operation performed by obstetrician-gynecologists. Training opportunities for this procedure are declining. Mental practice (MP), the use of mental imagery to rehearse a task symbolically before performance, has been used successfully in sports and music to enhance skill. This strategy demonstrates benefit in existing surgical education literature. We aimed to develop and validate a MP tool (MPT) for resident training in TAH. DESIGN: A prospective survey study was performed in a large, urban, academic medical center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822194/reading-pictures-for-story-comprehension-requires-mental-imagery-skills
#11
Inouk E Boerma, Suzanne E Mol, Jelle Jolles
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821974/effect-of-mental-practice-using-inverse-video-of-the-unaffected-upper-limb-in-a-subject-with-chronic-hemiparesis-after-stroke
#12
Naoki Iso, Shirou Ooso, Noboru Yamamoto, Takefumi Moriuchi, Akira Sagari, Fumiko Iso, Koji Tanaka, Takayuki Tabira, Toshio Higashi
[Purpose] The aim of this case study was to investigate whether a method of mental practice (MP) using an inverse video of a subject's unaffected limb to complement the vividness of motor imagery (MI) would be effective for improving affected upper limb function. [Subjects and Methods] The participant was 60-year-old male in the chronic stage of stroke recovery with left sided hemiparesis. The design of the study was AB method of Single-System-Design. He performed the MP as a home program with DVD. The intervention lasted 30 minutes a session, twice a day, 5 times a week, over 6 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821369/exploring-the-mind-s-eye-contents-and-characteristics-of-mental-images-in-overweight-individuals-with-binge-eating-behaviour
#13
Rebecca Dugué, Silke Keller, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Gitta A Jacob
Mental images play a role in various mental disorders and are strongly associated with emotions. Negative emotions and their regulation are important in eating disorders. However, research on mental imagery in eating disorders is still scarce. We investigated mental images and their relation to distress and eating disorder psychopathology in individuals with binge eating behaviour. Content and characteristics of mental images and their relation to psychopathology of 21 individuals with binge eating behaviour, 19 mixed patient controls and 21 healthy controls have been assessed with a semi-structured interview...
October 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818001/simultaneous-eeg-fnirs-reveals-how-age-and-feedback-affect-motor-imagery-signatures
#14
Catharina Zich, Stefan Debener, Ann-Kathrin Thoene, Ling-Chia Chen, Cornelia Kranczioch
Stroke frequently results in motor impairment. Motor imagery (MI), the mental practice of movements, has been suggested as a promising complement to other therapeutic approaches facilitating motor rehabilitation. Of particular potential is the combination of MI with neurofeedback (NF). However, MI NF protocols have been largely optimized only in younger healthy adults, although strokes occur more frequently in older adults. The present study examined the influence of age on the neural correlates of MI supported by electroencephalogram (EEG)-based NF and on the neural correlates of motor execution...
October 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816776/mental-imagery-of-positive-and-neutral-memories-a-fmri-study-comparing-field-perspective-imagery-to-observer-perspective-imagery
#15
Maud Grol, Guy Vingerhoets, Rudi De Raedt
Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816082/emotional-mental-imagery-as-simulation-of-reality-fear-and-beyond-a-tribute-to-peter-lang
#16
REVIEW
Julie L Ji, Stephanie Burnett Heyes, Colin MacLeod, Emily A Holmes
This article pays tribute to the seminal paper by Peter J. Lang (1977; this journal), "Imagery in Therapy: Information Processing Analysis of Fear." We review research and clinical practice developments in the past five decades with reference to key insights from Lang's theory and experimental work on emotional mental imagery. First, we summarize and recontextualize Lang's bio-informational theory of emotional mental imagery (1977, 1979) within contemporary theoretical developments on the function of mental imagery...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809880/investigating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-attention-bias-modification-abm-for-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-a-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#17
Gina R A Ferrari, Eni S Becker, Filip Smit, Mike Rinck, Jan Spijker
BACKGROUND: Despite the range of available, evidence-based treatment options for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the rather low response and remission rates suggest that treatment is not optimal, yet. Computerized attention bias modification (ABM) trainings may have the potential to be provided as cost-effective intervention as adjunct to usual care (UC), by speeding up recovery and bringing more patients into remission. Research suggests, that a selective attention for negative information contributes to development and maintenance of depression and that reducing this negative bias might be of therapeutic value...
November 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803622/effects-of-mental-imagery-on-muscular-strength-in-healthy-and-patient-participants-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari
The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the "mental imagery-strength performance" relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792974/-flash-forwards-and-suicidal-ideation-a-prospective-investigation-of-mental-imagery-entrapment-and-defeat-in-a-cohort-from-the-hong-kong-mental-morbidity-survey
#19
Roger M K Ng, Martina Di Simplicio, Freda McManus, Helen Kennerley, Emily A Holmes
'Flash-forwards' - mental images of suicide - have been reported in selected Caucasian samples. Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are considered to be associated with suicidal ideation. We aimed to investigate (1) the presence of suicidal flash-forwards in people with recent suicidal ideation versus those without such ideation in an Asian sample, and (2) associations between suicidal flash-forwards, and perceptions of entrapment accounting for suicidal ideation. Eighty two suicidal and 80 non-suicidal participants from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey completed questionnaires including suicidal ideation, presence of suicidal flash-forward images, defeat and entrapment, at baseline and seven weeks later...
October 18, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788457/understanding-and-treating-amotivation-in-people-with-psychosis-an-experimental-study-of-the-role-of-guided-imagery
#20
Charlotte Cox, Suzanne Jolley, Louise Johns
Psychological models propose that the amotivational negative symptoms (ANS) of psychosis are influenced by expectations of future events; both anticipatory success (believing one can achieve something, AS) and anticipatory pleasure (mentally pre-creating potential future experiences of enjoyment, AP). Mental imagery manipulations have been shown to change expectations across a range of settings, and may therefore enhance psychological interventions for ANS in people with psychosis. We set out to investigate the impact of a guided imagery manipulation on AS and AP in this group...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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