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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617759/functional-topography-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-during-motor-execution-and-motor-imagery-as-revealed-by-functional-mri
#2
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Ramy S Soliman, Abdalla Z Mohamed, Jeungchan Lee, Kyungmo Park
Controversy exists regarding the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor imagery (MI) and also regarding the differential somatotopic representation of motor execution (ME) and mental simulation of movement, that is, MI within M1. Although some research reported clear M1 involvement during MI without overt motor output, others did not. However, possible somatotopic representation between execution and imagery has not been clearly investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to aid in the resolution of this controversy by investigating the possible involvement of M1 during MI, and the differential, within M1, somatotopic representation between execution and imagery by quantitatively assessing different location markers such as activation peak and center of mass as well as intensity differences between the two tasks in case of with and without the overlap between the two representations...
June 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605723/a-combined-cognitive-and-gait-quantification-to-identify-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-from-its-mimics-the-geneva-s-protocol
#3
Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Stéphane Armand, Shahan Momjian, Bruno Marques, Arnaud Saj, Frédéric Assal
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is very prevalent in aging, underdiagnosed, and represents a rare cause of reversible neurological condition. The clinical triad of iNPH - gait, cognitive and urinary symptoms - and its neuroradiological features (i.e. ventriculomegaly) are not specific and found a various neurodegenerative and/or vascular conditions. We present our iNPH standardized protocol at the Geneva University Hospitals involving a multispecialty team of behavioral neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, engineers, and physical therapists...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601694/feeling-happy-when-feeling-down-the-effectiveness-of-positive-mental-imagery-in-dysphoria
#4
Maud Grol, Naomi Vanlessen, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental imagery can evoke strong emotional responses, but imagery perspective can influence the response, with observer perspective reducing emotionality. This is important provided that positive imagery can be an effective mood repair strategy in healthy individuals. However, (sub-clinical) depressed individuals tend to spontaneously adopt an observer perspective. We investigated whether positive imagery would result in a similar emotional response in dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals when instructed and trained to use field perspective imagery...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600742/does-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-help-in-searching-for-the-lost-key-evidence-from-an-fnirs-study
#5
Marika Carrieri, Stefania Lancia, Alessia Bocchi, Marco Ferrari, Laura Piccardi, Valentina Quaresima
The Key Search Task (KST) is a neuropsychological test that requires strategies for searching a lost key in an imaginary field. This request may involve different cognitive processes as mental imagery and navigation planning. This study was aimed at investigating, by a twenty-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, the hemodynamic response (i.e., oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb) changes) of the prefrontal cortex in navigation planning. A right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) activation during the KST was hypothesized...
June 10, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597846/single-trial-effective-brain-connectivity-patterns-enhance-discriminability-of-mental-imagery-tasks
#6
Dheeraj Rathee, Hubert Cecotti, Girijesh Prasad
The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based BCI systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588538/object-recognition-in-mental-representations-directions-for-exploring-diagnostic-features-through-visual-mental-imagery
#7
REVIEW
Stephanie M Roldan
One of the fundamental goals of object recognition research is to understand how a cognitive representation produced from the output of filtered and transformed sensory information facilitates efficient viewer behavior. Given that mental imagery strongly resembles perceptual processes in both cortical regions and subjective visual qualities, it is reasonable to question whether mental imagery facilitates cognition in a manner similar to that of perceptual viewing: via the detection and recognition of distinguishing features...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588527/unconscious-imagination-and-the-mental-imagery-debate
#8
REVIEW
Berit Brogaard, Dimitria Electra Gatzia
Traditionally, philosophers have appealed to the phenomenological similarity between visual experience and visual imagery to support the hypothesis that there is significant overlap between the perceptual and imaginative domains. The current evidence, however, is inconclusive: while evidence from transcranial brain stimulation seems to support this conclusion, neurophysiological evidence from brain lesion studies (e.g., from patients with brain lesions resulting in a loss of mental imagery but not a corresponding loss of perception and vice versa) indicates that there are functional and anatomical dissociations between mental imagery and perception...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588510/the-representation-of-motor-inter-action-states-of-action-and-learning-three-perspectives-on-motor-learning-by-way-of-imagery-and-execution
#9
Cornelia Frank, Thomas Schack
Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different states of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different states of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580191/motor-imagery-based-rehabilitation-potential-neural-correlates-and-clinical-application-for-functional-recovery-of-motor-deficits-after-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Yanna Tong, John T Pendy, William A Li, Huishan Du, Tong Zhang, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
Motor imagery (MI), defined as the mental implementation of an action in the absence of movement or muscle activation, is a rehabilitation technique that offers a means to replace or restore lost motor function in stroke patients when used in conjunction with conventional physiotherapy procedures. This article briefly reviews the concepts and neural correlates of MI in order to promote improved understanding, as well as to enhance the clinical utility of MI-based rehabilitation regimens. We specifically highlight the role of the cerebellum and basal ganglia, premotor, supplementary motor, and prefrontal areas, primary motor cortex, and parietal cortex...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578977/the-dorsal-frontoparietal-network-a-core-system-for-emulated-action
#11
REVIEW
Radek Ptak, Armin Schnider, Julia Fellrath
The dorsal frontoparietal network (dFPN) of the human brain assumes a puzzling variety of functions, including motor planning and imagery, mental rotation, spatial attention, and working memory. How can a single network engage in such a diversity of roles? We propose that cognitive computations relying on the dFPN can be pinned down to a core function underlying offline motor planning: action emulation. Emulation creates a dynamic representation of abstract movement kinematics, sustains the internal manipulation of this representation, and ensures its maintenance over short time periods...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577488/motor-imagery-based-implicit-sequence-learning-depends-on-the-formation-of-stimulus-response-associations
#12
Sarah N Kraeutner, Theresa C Gaughan, Sarah N Eppler, Shaun G Boe
Implicit sequence learning (ISL) occurs without conscious awareness and is critical for skill acquisition. The extent to which ISL occurs is a function of exposure (i.e., total training time and/or sequence to noise ratio) to a repeated sequence, and thus the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL is the formation of stimulus-response associations. As the majority of ISL studies employ paradigms whereby individuals unknowingly physically practice a repeated sequence, the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL through motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, remains unknown...
May 31, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572817/development-of-a-novel-motor-imagery-control-technique-and-application-in-a-gaming-environment
#13
Ting Li, Jinhua Zhang, Tao Xue, Baozeng Wang
We present a methodology for a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system, with the recognition of motor imagery (MI) based on EEG and blink EOG signals. We tested the BCI system in a 3D Tetris and an analogous 2D game playing environment. To enhance player's BCI control ability, the study focused on feature extraction from EEG and control strategy supporting Game-BCI system operation. We compared the numerical differences between spatial features extracted with common spatial pattern (CSP) and the proposed multifeature extraction...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558741/brain-computer-interface-application-auditory-serial-interface-to-control-a-two-class-motor-imagery-based-wheelchair
#14
Ricardo Ron-Angevin, Francisco Velasco-Álvarez, Álvaro Fernández-Rodríguez, Antonio Díaz-Estrella, María José Blanca-Mena, Francisco Javier Vizcaíno-Martín
BACKGROUND: Certain diseases affect brain areas that control the movements of the patients' body, thereby limiting their autonomy and communication capacity. Research in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces aims to provide patients with an alternative communication channel not based on muscular activity, but on the processing of brain signals. Through these systems, subjects can control external devices such as spellers to communicate, robotic prostheses to restore limb movements, or domotic systems...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546809/comparison-of-brain-activation-during-motor-imagery-and-motor-movement-using-fnirs
#15
Alyssa M Batula, Jesse A Mark, Youngmoo E Kim, Hasan Ayaz
Motor-activity-related mental tasks are widely adopted for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as they are a natural extension of movement intention, requiring no training to evoke brain activity. The ideal BCI aims to eliminate neuromuscular movement, making motor imagery tasks, or imagined actions with no muscle movement, good candidates. This study explores cortical activation differences between motor imagery and motor execution for both upper and lower limbs using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#16
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#17
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527300/feasibility-of-a-relaxation-guided-imagery-intervention-to-reduce-maternal-stress-in-the-nicu
#18
Lois C Howland, Nancy Jallo, Cynthia D Connelly, Rita H Pickler
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of a relaxation guided imagery (RGI) intervention for mothers of hospitalized preterm infants and to explore the biobehavioral effects of RGI on their distress, responsiveness, and physiological stress. DESIGN: Single sample, pretest-posttest design. SETTING: A large Level III NICU in Southern California. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (24-32 weeks gestational age)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515538/effects-of-engaging-in-repeated-mental-imagery-of-future-positive-events-on-behavioural-activation-in-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Fritz Renner, Julie L Ji, Arnaud Pictet, Emily A Holmes, Simon E Blackwell
Depression is associated with decreased engagement in behavioural activities. A wide range of activities can be promoted by simulating them via mental imagery. Mental imagery of positive events could thus provide a route to increasing adaptive behaviour in depression. The current study tested whether repeated engagement in positive mental imagery led to increases in behavioural activation in participants with depression, using data from a randomized controlled trial (Blackwell et al. in Clin Psychol Sci 3(1):91-111, 2015...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505600/god-imagery-and-affective-outcomes-in-a-spiritually-integrative-inpatient-program
#20
Joseph M Currier, Joshua D Foster, Alexis D Abernethy, Charlotte V O Witvliet, Lindsey M Root Luna, Katharine M Putman, Sarah A Schnitker, Karl VanHarn, Janet Carter
Religion and/or spirituality (R/S) can play a vital, multifaceted role in mental health. While beliefs about God represent the core of many psychiatric patients' meaning systems, research has not examined how internalized images of the divine might contribute to outcomes in treatment programs/settings that emphasize multicultural sensitivity with R/S. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative information with a religiously heterogeneous sample of 241 adults who completed a spiritually integrative inpatient program over a two-year period, this study tested direct/indirect associations between imagery of how God views oneself, religious comforts and strains, and affective outcomes (positive and negative)...
May 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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