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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546809/comparison-of-brain-activation-during-motor-imagery-and-motor-movement-using-fnirs
#1
Alyssa M Batula, Jesse A Mark, Youngmoo E Kim, Hasan Ayaz
Motor-activity-related mental tasks are widely adopted for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as they are a natural extension of movement intention, requiring no training to evoke brain activity. The ideal BCI aims to eliminate neuromuscular movement, making motor imagery tasks, or imagined actions with no muscle movement, good candidates. This study explores cortical activation differences between motor imagery and motor execution for both upper and lower limbs using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#2
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#3
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527300/feasibility-of-a-relaxation-guided-imagery-intervention-to-reduce-maternal-stress-in-the-nicu
#4
Lois C Howland, Nancy Jallo, Cynthia D Connelly, Rita H Pickler
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of a relaxation guided imagery (RGI) intervention for mothers of hospitalized preterm infants and to explore the biobehavioral effects of RGI on their distress, responsiveness, and physiological stress. DESIGN: Single sample, pretest-posttest design. SETTING: A large Level III NICU in Southern California. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (24-32 weeks gestational age)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515538/effects-of-engaging-in-repeated-mental-imagery-of-future-positive-events-on-behavioural-activation-in-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Fritz Renner, Julie L Ji, Arnaud Pictet, Emily A Holmes, Simon E Blackwell
Depression is associated with decreased engagement in behavioural activities. A wide range of activities can be promoted by simulating them via mental imagery. Mental imagery of positive events could thus provide a route to increasing adaptive behaviour in depression. The current study tested whether repeated engagement in positive mental imagery led to increases in behavioural activation in participants with depression, using data from a randomized controlled trial (Blackwell et al. in Clin Psychol Sci 3(1):91-111, 2015...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505600/god-imagery-and-affective-outcomes-in-a-spiritually-integrative-inpatient-program
#6
Joseph M Currier, Joshua D Foster, Alexis D Abernethy, Charlotte V O Witvliet, Lindsey M Root Luna, Katharine M Putman, Sarah A Schnitker, Karl VanHarn, Janet Carter
Religion and/or spirituality (R/S) can play a vital, multifaceted role in mental health. While beliefs about God represent the core of many psychiatric patients' meaning systems, research has not examined how internalized images of the divine might contribute to outcomes in treatment programs/settings that emphasize multicultural sensitivity with R/S. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative information with a religiously heterogeneous sample of 241 adults who completed a spiritually integrative inpatient program over a two-year period, this study tested direct/indirect associations between imagery of how God views oneself, religious comforts and strains, and affective outcomes (positive and negative)...
May 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504334/advances-in-functional-brain-imaging-technology-and-developmental-neuro-psychology-their-applications-in-the-jungian-analytic-domain
#7
Leon Petchkovsky
Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499976/daily-modulation-of-the-speed-accuracy-trade-off
#8
Nicolas Gueugneau, Thierry Pozzo, Christian Darlot, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Goal-oriented arm movements are characterized by a balance between speed and accuracy. The relation between speed and accuracy has been formalized by Fitts' law and predicts a linear increase in movement duration with task constraints. Up to now this relation has been investigated on a short-time scale only, that is during a single experimental session, although chronobiological studies report that the motor system is shaped by circadian rhythms. Here, we examine whether the speed-accuracy trade-off could vary during the day...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495307/event-related-potentials-during-encoding-comparing-unitization-to-relational-processing
#9
Hsiao-Wei Tu, Emma E Alty, Rachel A Diana
Context details are typically encoded into episodic memory via arbitrary associations to the relevant item, known as relational binding. Subsequent retrieval of those context details is primarily supported by recollection. Research suggests that context retrieval can rely on familiarity if the context details are "unitized" and thereby encoded as features of the item itself in a single new representation. With most investigations into unitization focusing on the contributions of familiarity and recollection during retrieval, little is known about unitization during encoding...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495273/the-key-of-the-maze-the-role-of-mental-imagery-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-navigational-planning
#10
Alessia Bocchi, Marika Carrieri, Stefania Lancia, Valentina Quaresima, Laura Piccardi
Spatial navigation planning ability relies on both mental imagery and cognitive flexibility. Considering the importance of planning ability in everyday life, several neuropsychological tests are used in clinical practice for its assessment, although some of these are not aimed at assessing the strategies of navigational planning. The Porteus Maze Test (PMT) and the Key Search Task (KST) require to plan a strategy in a maze and in an imagined space, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, although these two tests share some features, the relationship between them has never been explored...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489541/the-effect-of-prosthesis-use-on-hand-mental-rotation-after-unilateral-upper-limb-amputation
#11
Xiaoli Guo, Zixuan Lin, Yuanyuan Lyu, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Herta Flor, Shanbao Tong
Amputation of a limb induces changes in the so-called body schema, which might be influenced by the use of prosthetic devices. Changes in the body representation associated with prosthesis use could be investigated using a hand mental rotation task. However, direct neurophysiologic evidence for the effect of prosthesis use on hand mental rotation is still lacking. In this study, we recruited two groups of unilateral upper-limb amputees, i.e., amputees using a prosthesis or with a history of prosthesis use (Pro group) and amputees without a prosthesis (non-Pro group), as well as a sample of matched healthy controls...
May 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476285/is-heart-rate-variability-affected-by-distinct-motor-imagery-strategies
#12
Talita Peixoto Pinto, Maitê Mello Russo Ramos, Thiago Lemos, Claudia Domingues Vargas, Luis Aureliano Imbiriba
Although some studies have reported significant changes in autonomic responses according to the perspective-taking during motor imagery [first person perspective (1P) and third person perspective (3P)], investigations on how the strategies adopted to mentally simulate a given movement affect the heart rate variability (HRV) seem so far unexplored. Twenty healthy subjects mentally simulated the movement of middle-finger extension in 1P and 3P, while electrocardiogram was recorded. After each task, the level of easiness was self-reported...
May 2, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466825/pure-visual-imagery-as-a-potential-approach-to-achieve-three-classes-of-control-for-implementation-of-bci-in-non-motor-disorders
#13
Teresa Sousa, Carlos Amaral, João Andrade, Gabriel Pires, Urbano Nunes, Miguel Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: The achievement of multiple instances of control with the same type of mental strategy represents a way to improve flexibility of BCI systems. Here we test the hypothesis that pure visual motion imagery of an external actuator can be used as a tool to achieve three classes of EEG based control, which might be useful in attention disorders. APPROACH: We hypothesize that different number of imagined motion alternations lead to distinctive signals, as predicted by distinct motion patterns...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461204/challenge-and-threat-imagery-manipulates-heart-rate-and-anxiety-responses-to-stress
#14
Sarah E Williams, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Gavin P Trotman, Mary L Quinton, Annie T Ginty
This study investigated the influence of different types of mental imagery on heart rate and anxiety responses to a standard psychological stress task. Using a within-design, 25 females (Mage=23.24; SD=4.19) imaged three different scripts (challenge, threat, and neutral) to manipulate appraisal of a speech preparation task. Following each script, participants completed the task. Heart rate was recorded during a resting baseline prior to each imagery script and during each speech preparation task. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence were assessed prior to the speech preparation trials, and immediately prior to each speech preparation following imagery...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458926/motor-imagery-impairment-in-postacute-stroke-patients
#15
Niclas Braun, Cornelia Kranczioch, Joachim Liepert, Christian Dettmers, Catharina Zich, Imke Büsching, Stefan Debener
Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI) and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task) to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455738/mental-imagery-skills-predict-the-ability-in-performing-environmental-directional-judgements
#16
Laura Piccardi, Alessia Bocchi, Massimiliano Palmiero, Paola Verde, Raffaella Nori
Mental imagery plays a crucial role in several cognitive processes, including human navigation. According to the Kosslyn's Model, mental imagery is subserved by three components: generation, inspection and transformation. The role of transformation, where by individuals recognise, from a different perspective, a place they have already visited, is no longer a matter of debate. However, the role of the other two components when recalling a map from different perspectives, has never been fully investigated. In the present study, we enrolled forty-nine college students and asked them to learn a schematic map and to provide directional judgements aligned or counter-aligned compared to the learnt map orientation...
April 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449277/expertise-shapes-domain-specific-functional-cerebral-asymmetry-during-mental-imagery-the-case-of-culinary-arts-and-music
#17
Moustafa Bensafi, Arnaud Fournel, Pauline Joussain, Johan Poncelet, Lauranne Przybylski
Mental imagery in experts has been documented in visual arts, music and dance. Here, we examined this issue in an understudied art domain, namely culinary arts. Previous research investigating mental imagery in experts has reported either a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere or bilateral brain activation. The first aim of our study was to examine whether culinary arts also recruit such a hemispheric pattern specifically during odor mental imagery. In a second aim, we investigated whether expertise effects observed in a given sensory domain transfer to another modality...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443011/the-lateral-occipito-temporal-cortex-is-involved-in-the-mental-manipulation-of-body-part-imagery
#18
Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Tetsu Hirosawa, Yumi Oboshi, Etsuji Yoshikawa, Yoshio Minabe, Yasuomi Ouchi
The lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), including the extrastriate body area, is known to be involved in the perception of body parts. Although still controversial, recent studies have demonstrated the role of the LOTC in higher-level body-related cognition in humans. This study consisted of two experiments (E1 and E2). The first (E1) was an exploratory experiment to find the neural correlate of the mental manipulation of body part imagery, in which brain cerebral glucose metabolic rates and the performance of mental rotation of the hand were measured in 100 subjects who exhibited a range of symptoms of cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439149/refinement-and-preliminary-testing-of-an-imagery-based-program-to-improve-coping-and-performance-and-prevent-trauma-among-urban-police-officers
#19
Eamonn Arble, Mark A Lumley, Nnamdi Pole, James Blessman, Bengt B Arnetz
Police officers are regularly exposed to traumatic critical incidents. The substantial mental, behavioral, and social costs of police trauma indicate a substantial need for prevention. We have refined and enhanced a previously tested Swedish program to the harsh conditions of U.S. inner cities. The program was designed to strengthen resilience during stressful encounters and teach methods of coping after exposure, thereby preventing the emergence of maladaptive symptoms and behaviors with adverse effects on professionalism...
March 2017: J Police Crim Psychol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434472/tai-chi-with-mental-imagery-theory-improves-soleus-h-reflex-and-nerve-conduction-velocity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Abdulrahman Alsubiheen, Jerrold Petrofsky, Noha Daher, Everett Lohman, Edward Balbas, Haneul Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is a disease that leads to damage to the peripheral nerves which may eventually cause balance instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on soleus H-reflex and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves in people with diabetes. DESIGNS: Quasi-experimental, one group pretest-posttest design. SETTING: Human Research Laboratory...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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