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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818000/exploring-the-relation-between-visual-mental-imagery-and-affect-in-the-daily-life-of-previously-depressed-and-never-depressed-individuals
#1
Christien Slofstra, Maaike H Nauta, Emily A Holmes, Elisabeth H Bos, Marieke Wichers, Nikolaos Batalas, Nicola S Klein, Claudi L H Bockting
Previously depressed individuals experience disturbances in affect. Affective disturbances may be related to visual mental imagery, given that imagery-based processing of emotional stimuli causes stronger affective responses than verbal processing in experimental laboratory studies. However, the role of imagery-based processing in everyday life is unknown. This study assessed mental imagery in the daily life of previously and never depressed individuals. Higher levels of visual mental imagery was hypothesised to be associated with more affective reactivity to both negatively and positively valenced mental representations...
August 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814176/changing-beliefs-about-past-public-events-with-believable-and-unbelievable-doctored-photographs
#2
Robert A Nash
Doctored photographs can shape what people believe and remember about prominent public events, perhaps due to their apparent credibility. In three studies, subjects completed surveys about the 2012 London Olympic torch relay (Experiment 1) or the 2011 Royal Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton (Experiments 2-3). Some were shown a genuine photo of the event; others saw a doctored photo that depicted protesters and unrest. A third group of subjects saw a doctored photo whose inauthenticity had been made explicit, either by adding a written disclaimer (Experiment 1) or by making the digital manipulation deliberately poor (Experiments 2-3)...
August 17, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808983/ability-and-sex-differences-in-spatial-thinking-what-does-the-mental-rotation-test-really-measure
#3
Mary Hegarty
Spatial ability tests are often interpreted as measuring facility with imagined spatial transformations of objects. But some spatial ability tests can be solved by analytic strategies as well as imagery transformation strategies. In the present study, participants gave verbal protocols while completing items on the Vandenberg and Kuse (Perceptual & Motor Skills, 4, 599-604, 1978) mental rotation test, and/or reported the strategies they had used on the test. Most participants used both imagery transformation and analytic strategies (i...
August 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801065/multimodal-mental-imagery
#4
REVIEW
Bence Nanay
When I am looking at my coffee machine that makes funny noises, this is an instance of multisensory perception - I perceive this event by means of both vision and audition. But very often we only receive sensory stimulation from a multisensory event by means of one sense modality, for example, when I hear the noisy coffee machine in the next room, that is, without seeing it. The aim of this paper is to bring together empirical findings about multimodal perception and empirical findings about (visual, auditory, tactile) mental imagery and argue that on occasions like this, we have multimodal mental imagery: perceptual processing in one sense modality (here: vision) that is triggered by sensory stimulation in another sense modality (here: audition)...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799864/internal-and-external-imagery-effects-on-tennis-skills-among-novices
#5
Amir Dana, Elmira Gozalzadeh
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15 to 18 years, from a summer tennis program participated in the study. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12)...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771377/the-missing-thread-how-fiction-cheats-mental-health-nursing
#6
Henry J Bladon
Mental health nursing occupies an important place in mental health care, and nurses perform valuable work, yet fiction writers tend to rely on outdated imagery to portray the profession. This imagery reinforces negative stereotypes of mental health nursing. This article examines the problem and explores the implications for the profession, particularly in relation to stigma and public confidence. It outlines a significant gap in narrative literature, specifically in relation to the therapeutic relationship, and asks what can be done to encourage more realistic portrayals of the role...
August 3, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769781/enhancing-classification-performance-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-brain-computer-interface-using-adaptive-estimation-of-general-linear-model-coefficients
#7
Nauman Khalid Qureshi, Noman Naseer, Farzan Majeed Noori, Hammad Nazeer, Rayyan Azam Khan, Sajid Saleem
In this paper, a novel methodology for enhanced classification of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals utilizable in a two-class [motor imagery (MI) and rest; mental rotation (MR) and rest] brain-computer interface (BCI) is presented. First, fNIRS signals corresponding to MI and MR are acquired from the motor and prefrontal cortex, respectively, afterward, filtered to remove physiological noises. Then, the signals are modeled using the general linear model, the coefficients of which are adaptively estimated using the least squares technique...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769776/affective-aspects-of-perceived-loss-of-control-and-potential-implications-for-brain-computer-interfaces
#8
Sebastian Grissmann, Thorsten O Zander, Josef Faller, Jonas Brönstrup, Augustin Kelava, Klaus Gramann, Peter Gerjets
Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) focus on detecting single aspects of user states (e.g., motor imagery) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to use these aspects as control input for external systems. This communication can be effective, but unaccounted mental processes can interfere with signals used for classification and thereby introduce changes in the signal properties which could potentially impede BCI classification performance. To improve BCI performance, we propose deploying an approach that potentially allows to describe different mental states that could influence BCI performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768745/altered-modulation-of-sensorimotor-rhythms-with-chronic-paralysis
#9
Stephen T Foldes, Douglas John Weber, Jennifer L Collinger
After paralysis, the disconnection between the cortex and its peripheral targets leads to neuroplasticity throughout the nervous system. However, it is unclear how chronic paralysis specifically impacts cortical oscillations associated with attempted movement of impaired limbs. We hypothesized that mu (8-13Hz) and beta (15-30Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) would be less modulated for individuals with hand paralysis due to cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). To test this, we compared the modulation of ERD from magnetoencephalography (MEG) during attempted and imagined grasping performed by participants with cervical SCI (n = 12) and able-bodied controls (n = 13)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767280/yoga-practice-is-associated-with-superior-motor-imagery-performance
#10
Susannah H Hartnoll, T David Punt
Yoga is an activity that aims to integrate physical, mental and spiritual elements and is an increasingly popular approach to enhancing physical fitness. The integration of imagery within yoga practice is considered an important component and may be critical in contributing to the benefits of yoga that have been reported. In this study, we tested whether individuals who practice yoga demonstrate superior performance on an objective measure of implicit motor imagery. Thirty-six participants (18 yoga, 18 nonyoga) matched for age, sex and handedness, undertook the hand laterality recognition task; an objective measure of implicit motor imagery performance...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755572/reality-monitoring-performance-and-the-role-of-visual-imagery-in-visual-hallucinations
#11
Charlotte Aynsworth, Nazik Nemat, Daniel Collerton, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND: Auditory Hallucinations may arise from people confusing their own inner speech with external spoken speech. People with visual hallucinations (VH) may similarly confuse vivid mental imagery with external events. This paper reports two experiments exploring confusion between internal and external visual material. METHOD: Experiment 1 examined reality monitoring in people with psychosis; those with visual hallucinations (n = 16) and those without (n = 15)...
July 20, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746902/remembering-verbally-presented-items-as-pictures-brain-activity-underlying-visual-mental-images-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#12
Christian Stephan-Otto, Sara Siddi, Carl Senior, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Maria Rosa Cambra-Martí, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia consist of mental images mistaken for percepts due to failure of the reality-monitoring processes. However, the neural substrates that underpin such dysfunction are currently unknown. We conducted a brain imaging study to investigate the role of visual mental imagery in visual hallucinations. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy participants were administered a reality-monitoring task whilst undergoing an fMRI protocol...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743457/mental-imagery-of-face-enhances-face-sensitive-event-related-potentials-to-ambiguous-visual-stimuli
#13
Lingxi Lu, Changxin Zhang, Liang Li
Visual mental imagery forms mental representations of visual objects when correspondent stimuli are absent and shares some characters with visual perception. Both the vertex-positive-potential (VPP) and N170 components of event-related potentials (ERPs) to visual stimuli have a remarkable preference to faces. This study investigated whether visual mental imagery modulates the face-sensitive VPP and/or N170 components. The results showed that with significantly larger amplitudes under the face-imagery condition than the house-imagery condition, the VPP and P2 responses, but not the N170 component, were elicited by phase-randomized ambiguous stimuli...
July 22, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733754/the-influence-of-imagery-capacity-in-motor-performance-improvement
#14
Célia Ruffino, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Florent Lebon
Motor imagery (MI) training improves motor performance, but the inter-individual variability of this improvement remains still unexplored. In this study, we tested the influence of imagery ability on the performance improvement following MI training. Twenty participants were randomly distributed into the MI or control group. They actually performed, at pre- and post-test sessions, a revisited version of the Nine Hole Peg Test, a speed-accuracy trade-off task, commonly used in clinics. Between the tests, the MI group mentally trained on the task (5 blocks of 10 trials), while the control group watched a non-emotional documentary...
July 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732750/personality-predicts-the-vibrancy-of-colour-imagery-the-case-of-synaesthesia
#15
Shyla R Hossain, Julia Simner, Alberta Ipser
In this study we show that personality traits predict the physical qualities of mentally generated colours, using the case of synaesthesia. Developmental grapheme-colour synaesthetes have the automatic lifelong association of colours paired to letters or digits. Although these colours are internal mental constructs, they can be measured along physical dimensions such as saturation and luminance. The personality of synaesthetes can also be quantified using self-report questionnaires relating, for example, to the five major traits of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience...
July 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#16
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726462/allan-urho-paivio-1925-2016
#17
Albert Katz
Presents an obituary for Allan Urho Paivio, who passed away on June 19, 2016. One of his many accomplishments was the development of a dual-coding theory. Dual-coding theory, while very influential, has, unfortunately, been discussed all too often as a theory of mental imagery, and not within its larger context wherein mental imagery and verbal processes are separable but interconnected representational systems, an academic battle in clarification that Paivio waged much of his life. He published prodigiously, even in the decades after retirement...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#18
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716675/what-we-imagine-is-what-we-do-a-critical-overview-about-mental-imagery-as-a-strategy-to-study-human-defensive-responses
#19
REVIEW
Rosana Shuhama, D Caroline Blanchard, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711118/mental-imagery-training-increases-wanting-of-rewards-and-reward-sensitivity-and-reduces-depressive-symptoms
#20
Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa
High reward sensitivity and wanting of rewarding stimuli help to identify and motivate repetition of pleasant activities. This behavioral activation is thought to increase positive emotions. Therefore, both mechanisms are highly relevant for resilience against depressive symptoms. Yet, these mechanisms have not been targeted by psychotherapeutic interventions. In the present study, we tested a mental imagery training comprising eight 10-minute sessions every second day and delivered via the Internet to healthy volunteers (N = 30, 21 female, mean age of 23...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
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