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resident memory

John M Hudson, Petra Mj Pollux
The Cognitive Daisy is an innovative assessment system created to provide healthcare staff with an instant snapshot of the cognitive status of older adults in residential care. The Cognitive Daisy comprises a flower head consisting of 15 colour coded petals depicting information about: visual-spatial perception, comprehension, communication, memory and attention. This study confirmed the practicality of the Cognitive Daisy protocol for assessing cognition in a sample of 33 older adults living in residential care and endorsed the use of the Cognitive Daisy as a tool for recognising the cognitive status of care home residents...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Haera Han, Hochang B Lee, Joseph J Gallo, Jin Hui Joo
OBJECTIVE: Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. METHODS: As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Daniel Hausmann, Cristina Zulian, Edouard Battegay, Lukas Zimmerli
BACKGROUND: Decision-making processes in a medical setting are complex, dynamic and under time pressure, often with serious consequences for a patient's condition. OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the present study was to trace and map the individual diagnostic process of real medical cases using a Decision Process Matrix [DPM]). METHODS: The naturalistic decision-making process of 11 residents and a total of 55 medical cases were recorded in an emergency department, and a DPM was drawn up according to a semi-structured technique following four steps: 1) observing and recording relevant information throughout the entire diagnostic process, 2) assessing options in terms of suspected diagnoses, 3) drawing up an initial version of the DPM, and 4) verifying the DPM, while adding the confidence ratings...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
M Giovanna Merli, Ashton Verdery, Ted Mouw, Jing Li
The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population...
July 2016: Migration Studies
Emma C Reilly, Kris Lambert-Emo, David J Topham
After disease resolution, a small subset of influenza specific CD8+ T cells can remain in the airways of the lung as a tissue resident memory population (TRM). These cells are critical for protection from subsequent infections with heterosubtypic influenza viruses. Although it is well established that expression of the collagen IV binding integrin alpha 1 is necessary for the retention and maintenance of TRM cells, other requirements allowing them to localize to the airways and persist are less well understood...
2016: PloS One
Michiel C van Aalderen, Ester B M Remmerswaal, Kirstin M Heutinck, Anja Ten Brinke, Mariet C W Feltkamp, Neelke C van der Weerd, Karlijn A M I van der Pant, Frederike J Bemelman, René A W van Lier, Ineke J M Ten Berge
Polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) frequently reactivates in immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and may lead to graft loss due to BKPyV-induced interstitial nephritis (BKVN). Little is known on the differentiation of CD8+ T cells targeting BKPyV in RTRs. Here we investigated whether BKPyV-specific CD8+ T cell differentiation differs in RTRs with varying degrees of BKPyV reactivation and/or BKVN. Using combinatorial encoding with tetramers carrying BKPyV major capsid protein (VP1) and large T antigen protein (LTAG) epitopes, we investigated CD8+ T cell responses to BKPyV in longitudinally obtained PBMC samples from 46 HLA-A02-positive RTRs and 20 healthy adults...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Siying Zhu, Barbara C McGrath, Yuting Bai, Xin Tang, Douglas R Cavener
PERK (EIF2AK3) is an ER-resident eIF2α kinase required for behavioral flexibility and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression via its translational control. Motivated by the recent discoveries that PERK regulates Ca(2+) dynamics in insulin-secreting β-cells underlying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and modulates Ca(2+) signals-dependent working memory, we explored the role of PERK in regulating Gq protein-coupled Ca(2+) dynamics in pyramidal neurons. We found that acute PERK inhibition by the use of a highly specific PERK inhibitor reduced the intracellular Ca(2+) rise stimulated by the activation of acetylcholine, metabotropic glutamate and bradykinin-2 receptors in primary cortical neurons...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Brain
René H M Raeven, Jolanda Brummelman, Larissa van der Maas, Wichard Tilstra, Jeroen L A Pennings, Wanda G H Han, Cécile A C M van Els, Elly van Riet, Gideon F A Kersten, Bernard Metz
Effective immunity against Bordetella pertussis is currently under discussion following the stacking evidence of pertussis resurgence in the vaccinated population. Natural immunity is more effective than vaccine-induced immunity indicating that knowledge on infection-induced responses may contribute to improve vaccination strategies. We applied a systems biology approach comprising microarray, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays to unravel the molecular and cellular signatures in unprotected mice and protected mice with infection-induced immunity, around a B...
2016: PloS One
Allison R Kaup, Carrie Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Joel H Kramer, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older Veterans. METHODS: Participants were 169 older Veterans [mean age=79.1 years (range, 51-97 years), 89% male, 92% Caucasian], 88 with lifetime TBI and 81 without TBI, living in Veterans' retirement homes in independent residence. TBI history was ascertained with the Ohio State TBI Identification Method structured interview. Cognition was assessed with neuropsychological tests: Raw scores were converted to Z-scores compared to age-corrected normative data and combined into five domain composite Z-scores (attention/working memory, learning/memory, language, processing speed, executive functioning)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Corinne J Smith, Michael Quinn, Christopher M Snyder
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that causes chronic infection and, thus, is one of the most common infectious complications of immune suppression. Adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells has emerged as an effective method to reduce the risk for HCMV infection and/or reactivation by restoring immunity in transplant recipients. However, the CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell response is comprised of a heterogenous mixture of subsets with distinct functions and localization, and it is not clear if current adoptive immunotherapy protocols can reconstitute the full spectrum of CD8(+) T cell immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Salvador Iborra, María Martínez-López, Sofía C Khouili, Michel Enamorado, Francisco J Cueto, Ruth Conde-Garrosa, Carlos Del Fresno, David Sancho
Despite the crucial role of tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells in protective immunity, their priming remains poorly understood. Here, we have shown differential priming requirements for Trm versus circulating memory CD8(+) T cells. In vaccinia cutaneous-infected mice, DNGR-1-mediated crosspresentation was required for optimal Trm cell priming but not for their skin differentiation or for circulating memory T cell generation. DNGR-1(+) dendritic cells (DCs) promoted T-bet transcription-factor induction and retention of CD8(+) T cells in the lymph nodes (LNs)...
September 24, 2016: Immunity
Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, Wei Yi Ng, Lauren E Holz, Joel Z Ma, Ali Zaid, Yik Chun Wong, Lei Shong Lau, Vanessa Mollard, Anton Cozijnsen, Nicholas Collins, Jessica Li, Gayle M Davey, Yu Kato, Sapna Devi, Roghieh Skandari, Michael Pauley, Jonathan H Manton, Dale I Godfrey, Asolina Braun, Szun Szun Tay, Peck Szee Tan, David G Bowen, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Björn Rissiek, Francis R Carbone, Brendan S Crabb, Mireille Lahoud, Ian A Cockburn, Scott N Mueller, Patrick Bertolino, Geoffrey I McFadden, Irina Caminschi, William R Heath
In recent years, various intervention strategies have reduced malaria morbidity and mortality, but further improvements probably depend upon development of a broadly protective vaccine. To better understand immune requirement for protection, we examined liver-stage immunity after vaccination with irradiated sporozoites, an effective though logistically difficult vaccine. We identified a population of memory CD8(+) T cells that expressed the gene signature of tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells and remained permanently within the liver, where they patrolled the sinusoids...
September 17, 2016: Immunity
Suleman Khan Afridi, Farhat Rehana Malik, Muhammad Hammad Khan, Syed Hasnain Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead level in young children visiting tertiary care hospitals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2015 at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Kuwait Teaching Hospital and Siffat Ghayoor Memorial Children's Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised children aged1-10 years. Purposive sampling technique (non-probability) was used. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Charts were made in Microsoft Excel 2007...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Luhua H Zhang, June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
A tissue-resident population of natural killer cells (NK cells) in the liver has recently been described to have the unique capacity to confer immunological memory in the form of hapten-specific contact hypersensitivity independent of T and B cells. Factors regulating the development and maintenance of these liver-resident NK cells are poorly understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor modulated by exogenous and endogenous ligands that is important in the homeostasis of immune cells at barrier sites, such as the skin and gut...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Vishal Jain
Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Fenne L Komdeur, Maartje C A Wouters, Hagma H Workel, Aline M Tijans, Anouk L J Terwindt, Kim L Brunekreeft, Annechien Plat, Harry G Klip, Florine A Eggink, Ninke Leffers, Wijnand Helfrich, Douwe F Samplonius, Edwin Bremer, G Bea A Wisman, Toos Daemen, Evelien W Duiker, Harry Hollema, Hans W Nijman, Marco de Bruyn
CD103+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have been linked to specific epithelial infiltration and a prolonged survival in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSC). However, whether these cells are induced as part of an ongoing anti-HGSC immune response or represent non-specifically expanded resident or mucosal lymphocytes remains largely unknown. In this study, we first confirmed that CD103+ TIL from HGSC were predominantly localized in the cancer epithelium and were strongly correlated with an improved prognosis...
September 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Katherine Penny, Alex Barron, Ann-Marie Higgins, Susan Gee, Matthew Croucher, Gary Cheung
AIMS: Depression Rating Scale (DRS) is one of the clinical outcome measures of the International Resident Assessment Instrument (interRAI) assessment. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity of the 3-day assessment window version of the DRS. METHODS: The performance of DRS was compared with a gold standard clinical diagnosis of depression in 92 patients (age ≥65) who had interRAI version 9.1 Home Care assessment completed within 30 days of discharge from psychogeriatric inpatient care or memory clinic assessment...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Isaak Quast, Benjamin Peschke, Jan D Lünemann
Immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies are key effector proteins of the immune system. They recognize antigens with high specificity and are indispensable for immunological memory following pathogen exposure or vaccination. The constant, crystallizable fragment (Fc) of IgG molecules mediates antibody effector functions such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis. These functions are regulated by a single N-linked, biantennary glycan of the heavy chain, which resides just below the hinge region, and the presence of specific sugar moieties on the glycan has profound implications on IgG effector functions...
September 17, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Tiago R Matos, Tsui C Ling, Vaneeta Sheth
Psoriasis is a chronic and common disease mediated by resident memory T cells that negatively affects a broad range of people worldwide. One of the oldest and most commonly used treatments is phototherapy. We reviewed the existing literature on the four main ultraviolet B (UVB) modalities of phototherapy in the management of psoriasis: heliotherapy, broadband UVB, narrowband UVB, and excimer laser and lamp. Despite the many studies done on these therapies, there is significant variation in their prescription and use...
September 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Takeshi Matsutani, Tsutomu Nomura, Nobutoshi Hagiwara, Akihisa Matsuda, Yoshimune Takao, Eiji Uchida
Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh). Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia), and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair...
2016: Surgery Research and Practice
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