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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777219/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-at-the-center-of-immunity-to-solid-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Derk Amsen, Klaas P J M van Gisbergen, Pleun Hombrink, Rene A W van Lier
Immune responses in tissues are constrained by the physiological properties of the tissue involved. Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are a recently discovered lineage of T cells specialized for life and function within tissues. Emerging evidence has shown that TRM cells have a special role in the control of solid tumors. A high frequency of TRM cells in tumors correlates with favorable disease progression in patients with cancer, and studies of mice have shown that TRM cells are necessary for optimal immunological control of solid tumors...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776428/evidence-of-the-impact-of-systemic-inflammation-on-neuroinflammation-from-a-non-bacterial-endotoxin-animal-model
#3
Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without any pathogen, to characterize these changes and their responses to anti-inflammatory treatment in the intermediate term. METHODS: In a two-part experiment, wild-type C57BL/6N mice (male, 3 month old, 25 ± 2 g) were subjected to sevoflurane anesthesia alone or to a laparotomy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764193/time-and-personhood-across-early-and-late-stage-dementia
#4
Iben M Gjødsbøl, Mette N Svendsen
How do time and personhood become related when dementia sets in? This article brings together ethnographies from a memory clinic and a dementia nursing home in Copenhagen, Denmark, pursuing how personhood and time become intertwined across early and late-stage dementia. In the memory clinic, the dementia diagnosis is enacted and experienced simultaneously as an indispensable prophecy of discontinuity of personhood and life for the patients, and as a prognosis that renders the future indeterminate and open to intervention...
May 15, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758330/human-liver-infiltrating-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-composed-of-clonally-expanded-circulating-and-tissue-resident-populations
#5
Stuart Hunter, Carrie Willcox, Martin Davey, Sofya Kasatskaya, Hannah Jeffery, Dmitriy Chudakov, Ye Oo, Benjamin Willcox
BACKGROUND & AIM: γδ T-cells comprise a substantial proportion of tissue-associated lymphocytes. However, our current understanding of human γδ T-cells is primarily based on peripheral blood subsets, while the immunobiology of tissue-associated subsets remains largely unclear. METHODS: To address this, we characterised the TCR diversity, immunophenotype and function of human liver infiltrating γδ T-cells, focussing on the predominant tissue-associated Vδ2neg γδ subset, which is implicated in liver immunopathology...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755318/arc-3-utr-splicing-leads-to-dual-and-antagonistic-effects-in-fine-tuning-arc-expression-upon-bdnf-signaling
#6
Chiara Paolantoni, Simona Ricciardi, Veronica De Paolis, Chinenye Okenwa, Caterina Catalanotto, Maria T Ciotti, Antonino Cattaneo, Carlo Cogoni, Corinna Giorgi
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) is an immediate-early gene critically involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Arc mRNA is rapidly induced by synaptic activation and a portion is locally translated in dendrites where it modulates synaptic strength. Being an activity-dependent effector of homeostatic balance, regulation of Arc is uniquely tuned to result in short-lived bursts of expression. Cis -Acting elements that control its transitory expression post-transcriptionally reside primarily in Arc mRNA 3' UTR...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749428/accumulation-of-cd69-tissue%C3%A2-resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-nasal-polyps-of-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#7
Pascal Ickrath, Norbert Kleinsasser, Xin Ding, Christian Ginzkey, Niklas Beyersdorf, Rudolf Hagen, Thomas Kerkau, Stephan Hackenberg
In patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), a relative accumulation of cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells over CD4+ T cells occurs in nasal polyps compared with the peripheral blood. Nasal CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells predominantly present an effector memory phenotype. Immunological studies have reported that memory T cells recirculate from the tissues to the peripheral blood and a high percentage of these T cells persist within the tissue. The aim of the present study was to characterize CD69+ sphingosine‑1‑phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1)‑ tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) in the polyps of patients with CRSwNP...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746618/two-c-libraries-for-counting-trees-on-a-phylogenetic-terrace
#8
R Biczok, P Bozsoky, P Eisenmann, J Ernst, T Ribizel, F Scholz, A Trefzer, F Weber, M Hamann, A Stamatakis
Motivation: The presence of terraces in phylogenetic tree space, that is, a potentially large number of distinct tree topologies that have exactly the same analytical likelihood score, was first described by Sanderson et al. (2011). However, popular software tools for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference do not yet routinely report, if inferred phylogenies reside on a terrace, or not. We believe, this is due to the lack of an efficient library to (i) determine if a tree resides on a terrace, (ii) calculate how many trees reside on a terrace, and (iii) enumerate all trees on a terrace...
May 8, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743372/-breadth-and-functionality-of-varicella-zoster-virus-glycoprotein-specific-antibodies-identified-after-zostavax-vaccination-in-humans
#9
Nicole L Sullivan, Morgan A Reuter-Monslow, Janet Sei, Eberhard Durr, Carl W Davis, Cathy Chang, Megan McCausland, Andreas Wieland, David Krah, Nadine Rouphael, Aneesh K Mehta, Mark J Mulligan, Bali Pulendran, Rafi Ahmed, Kalpit A Vora
Herpes zoster (HZ/shingles) is the clinical manifestation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. HZ typically develops as people age due to decreased cell-mediated immunity. However, the importance of antibodies for immunity against HZ prevention remains to be understood. The goal of this study was to examine the breadth and functionality of VZV-specific antibodies after vaccination with a live attenuated HZ vaccine (Zostavax). Direct enumeration of VZV-specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) via ELISPOT showed that Zostavax can induce both IgG and IgA ASCs seven days after vaccination, but not IgM ASCs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740028/novel-antibiofilm-chemotherapies-target-nitrogen-from-glutamate-and-glutamine
#10
Tal Hassanov, Iris Karunker, Nitai Steinberg, Ayelet Erez, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Bacteria in nature often reside in differentiated communities termed biofilms, which are an active interphase between uni-cellular and multicellular life states for bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the development of B. subtilis biofilms is dependent on the use of glutamine or glutamate as a nitrogen source. We show a differential metabolic requirement within the biofilm; while glutamine is necessary for the dividing cells at the edges, the inner cell mass utilizes lactic acid. Our results indicate that biofilm cells preserve a short-term memory of glutamate metabolism...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738851/intranasally-delivered-small-interfering-rna-mediated-suppression-of-scavenger-receptor-mac-1-attenuates-microglial-phenotype-switching-and-working-memory-impairment-following-hypoxia
#11
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Brain, being the highest consumer of oxygen, is prone to increased risk of hypoxia-induced neurological insults. In response to hypoxia, microglia, the major resident immune cells of brain switches to an activated phenotype and promote inflammatory responses leading to tissue damage and loss of cognitive functions including working memory impairment. Till date, no proven clinical therapeutics is available to retard the progression of neurodegenerative memory impairment. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of intranasal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced working memory impairment using microglial receptor, Mac-1 as a target gene...
May 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737095/-prevalence-and-determinants-of-depressive-symptoms-in-middle-and-senior-aged-populations-with-visual-impairment
#12
Zhan Yang, Yin Liu, Wen-Jie Zhang, Ning-Xiu Li
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms in visually impaired mid- and old-aged populations. METHODS: Data were extracted from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study database. A total of 1 462 mid- and old-aged respondents reported visual problems. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731754/the-emerging-complexity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-cells
#13
REVIEW
Duncan R McKenzie, Iain Comerford, Bruno Silva-Santos, Shaun R McColl
Preprogrammed IL-17-producing γδ T cells constitute a poorly understood class of lymphocytes that express rearranged antigen receptors but appear to make little use of them. γδT17 cells were first characterized as tissue-resident sentinels with innate effector function. However, ongoing research continues to reveal unexpected complexity to this unusual subset, including phenotypic plasticity, memory-like activity and unique migratory behavior. Despite these advances, at the core of γδT17 cell biology remain fundamental gaps in knowledge: Are γδT17 cells truly innate or has the importance of the T cell receptor been overlooked? How unique are they among IL-17-producing lymphocytes? How similar are these cells between mice and humans? We speculate that answering these unresolved questions is key to successful manipulation of γδ T cells in clinical settings...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731007/chemokines-critical-regulators-of-memory-t-cell-development-maintenance-and-function
#14
Rod A Rahimi, Andrew D Luster
Memory T cells are central to orchestrating antigen-specific recall responses in vivo. Compared to naïve T cells, memory T cells respond more quickly to cognate peptide:MHC with a shorter lag time for entering the cell cycle and exerting effector functions. However, it is now well established that this enhanced responsiveness is not the only mechanism whereby memory T cells are better equipped than naïve T cells to rapidly and robustly induce inflammation. In contrast to naïve T cells, memory T cells are composed of distinct subsets with unique trafficking patterns and localizations...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729109/stroma-the-forgotten-cells-of-innate-immune-memory
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Crowley, Christopher D Buckley, Andrew R Clark
All organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of infectious and injurious stimuli. These induce inflammatory responses tailored to the threat posed. Whilst the innate immune system is the front line of response to each stimulant, it has been traditionally considered to lack memory, acting in a generic fashion until the adaptive immune arm can take over. This outmoded simplification of the roles of innate and acquired arms of the immune system has been challenged by evidence of myeloid cells altering their response to subsequent encounters based on earlier exposure...
May 5, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720281/latent-class-analysis-of-the-multivariate-delirium-index-in-long-term-care-settings
#16
Antonio Ciampi, Chun Bai, Alina Dyachenko, Jane McCusker, Martin G Cole, Eric Belzile
ABSTRACTBackground:A few studies examine the time evolution of delirium in long-term care (LTC) settings. In this work, we analyze the multivariate Delirium Index (DI) time evolution in LTC settings. METHODS: The multivariate DI was measured weekly for six months in seven LTC facilities, located in Montreal and Quebec City. Data were analyzed using a hidden Markov chain/latent class model (HMC/LC). RESULTS: The analysis sample included 276 LTC residents. Four ordered latent classes were identified: fairly healthy (low "disorientation" and "memory impairment," negligible other DI symptoms), moderately ill (low "inattention" and "disorientation," medium "memory impairment"), clearly sick (low "disorganized thinking" and "altered level of consciousness," medium "inattention," "disorientation," "memory impairment" and "hypoactivity"), and very sick (low "hypoactivity," medium "altered level of consciousness," high "inattention," "disorganized thinking," "disorientation" and "memory impairment")...
May 3, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715007/quantitative-observation-of-threshold-defect-behavior-in-memristive-devices-with-operando-x-ray-microscopy
#17
Huajun Liu, Yongqi Dong, Mathew J Cherukara, Kiran Sasikumar, Badri Narayanan, Zhonghou Cai, Barry Lai, Liliana Stan, Seungbum Hong, Maria K Y Chan, Subramanian Krs Sankaranarayanan, Hua Zhou, Dillon D Fong
Memristive devices are an emerging technology that enables both rich interdisciplinary science and novel device functionalities, such as non-volatile memories and nanoionics-based synaptic electronics. Recent work has shown that the reproducibility and variability of the devices depend sensitively on the defect structures created during electroforming as well as their continued evolution under dynamic electric fields. However, a fundamental principle guiding the material design of defect structures is still lacking, due to the difficulty in understanding dynamic defect behavior under different resistance states...
May 1, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703861/comparison-of-heterosubtypic-protection-in-ferrets-and-pigs-induced-by-a-single-cycle-influenza-vaccine
#18
Barbara Holzer, Sophie B Morgan, Yumi Matsuoka, Matthew Edmans, Francisco J Salguero, Helen Everett, Sharon M Brookes, Emily Porter, Ronan MacLoughlin, Bryan Charleston, Kanta Subbarao, Alain Townsend, Elma Tchilian
Influenza is a major health threat, and a broadly protective influenza vaccine would be a significant advance. Signal Minus FLU (S-FLU) is a candidate broadly protective influenza vaccine that is limited to a single cycle of replication, which induces a strong cross-reactive T cell response but a minimal Ab response to hemagglutinin after intranasal or aerosol administration. We tested whether an H3N2 S-FLU can protect pigs and ferrets from heterosubtypic H1N1 influenza challenge. Aerosol administration of S-FLU to pigs induced lung tissue-resident memory T cells and reduced lung pathology but not the viral load...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702466/adp-ribosylating-enterotoxins-as-vaccine-adjuvants
#19
REVIEW
Nils Lycke, Cristina Lebrero-Fernández
Most infections are caused by pathogens that access the body at mucosal sites. Hence, development of mucosal vaccines to prevent local infection or invasion of pathogens appears highly warranted, especially since only mucosal immunization will stimulate strong local IgA responses and tissue resident memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. The most significant obstacle to developing such vaccines is the lack of approved adjuvants that can effectively and safely enhance relevant mucosal and systemic immune responses. The most potent mucosal adjuvants known today are the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylating bacterial enterotoxins cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxins (LTs)...
April 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700265/interregional-synaptic-maps-among-engram-cells-underlie-memory-formation
#20
Jun-Hyeok Choi, Su-Eon Sim, Ji-Il Kim, Dong Il Choi, Jihae Oh, Sanghyun Ye, Jaehyun Lee, TaeHyun Kim, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Chae-Seok Lim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Memory resides in engram cells distributed across the brain. However, the site-specific substrate within these engram cells remains theoretical, even though it is generally accepted that synaptic plasticity encodes memories. We developed the dual-eGRASP (green fluorescent protein reconstitution across synaptic partners) technique to examine synapses between engram cells to identify the specific neuronal site for memory storage. We found an increased number and size of spines on CA1 engram cells receiving input from CA3 engram cells...
April 27, 2018: Science
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