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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646160/loss-of-g%C3%AE-i-proteins-impairs-thymocyte-development-disrupts-t-cell-trafficking-and-leads-to-an-expanded-population-of-splenic-cd4-pd-1-cxcr5-t-cells
#1
Il-Young Hwang, Kathleen Harrison, Chung Park, John H Kehrl
Thymocyte and T cell trafficking relies on signals initiated by G-protein coupled receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins Gαi2 and Gαi3 in thymocyte and T cell function, we developed several mouse models. Gαi2 deficiency in hematopoietic progenitors led to a small thymus, a double negative (DN)1/DN2 thymocyte transition block, and an accumulation of mature single positive (SP) thymocytes. Loss at the double positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development caused an increase in mature cells within the thymus...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#2
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645234/the-long-arm-of-childhood-in-china-early-life-conditions-and-cognitive-function-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#3
Zhenmei Zhang, Jinyu Liu, Lydia Li, Hongwei Xu
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between childhood conditions and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. METHOD: We analyzed data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study ( N = 11,868). Cognitive function was measured by word recall, a test of episodic memory. We examined the association between childhood conditions and cognitive function among the middle-aged (45-59 years) and the older (60 years and older) adults separately, using multilevel linear regressions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639802/a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-test-of-memory-malingering-among-latin-american-spanish-speaking-adults
#4
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Diego Rivera, Barry Rosenfeld, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Cognitive efforts tests, such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1997), are widely used internationally, yet there is a dearth of research that has assessed the utility of these measures in different cultures, countries, and languages. This study evaluated the specificity of the TOMM Trial 2 among a sample of 3,590 Spanish-speaking adults residing in 8 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico). Trial 2 TOMM scores were negatively associated with participants' age and positively associated with level of education...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638514/internal-medicine-residents-ambulatory-management-of-core-geriatric-conditions
#5
Kathryn E Callahan, Lindsay A Wilson, Juliessa M Pavon, James F Lovato, Hal H Atkinson, Jan Busby-Whitehead, Thomas Dalton, Mitchell T Heflin, Patricia Iverson, Janice S Lawlor, Justin Marsden, William P Moran, Ellen Roberts, Jeff D Williamson
BACKGROUND: Adults aged 65 years and older account for more than 33% of annual visits to internal medicine (IM) generalists and specialists. Geriatrics experiences are not standardized for IM residents. Data are lacking on IM residents' continuity experiences with older adults and competencies relevant to their care. OBJECTIVE: To explore patient demographics and the prevalence of common geriatric conditions in IM residents' continuity clinics. METHODS: We collected data on age and sex for all IM residents' active clinic patients during 2011-2012...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628092/tissue-resident-memory-features-are-linked-to-the-magnitude-of-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-in-human-lung-cancer
#6
Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, James Clarke, Oliver Wood, Eva M Garrido-Martin, Serena J Chee, Toby Mellows, Daniela Samaniego-Castruita, Divya Singh, Grégory Seumois, Aiman Alzetani, Edwin Woo, Peter S Friedmann, Emma V King, Gareth J Thomas, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Christian H Ottensmeier
Therapies that boost the anti-tumor responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have shown promise; however, clinical responses to the immunotherapeutic agents currently available vary considerably, and the molecular basis of this is unclear. We performed transcriptomic profiling of tumor-infiltrating CTLs from treatment-naive patients with lung cancer to define the molecular features associated with the robustness of anti-tumor immune responses. We observed considerable heterogeneity in the expression of molecules associated with activation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and of immunological-checkpoint molecules such as 4-1BB, PD-1 and TIM-3...
June 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620836/sox2-immunity-and-tissue-resident-memory-in-children-and-young-adults-with-glioma
#7
Juan C Vasquez, Anita Huttner, Lin Zhang, Asher Marks, Amy Chan, Joachim M Baehring, Kristopher T Kahle, Kavita M Dhodapkar
Therapies targeting immune checkpoints are effective in tumors with a high mutation burden that express multiple neo-antigens. However, glial tumors including those seen in children carry fewer mutations and there is an unmet need to identify new antigenic targets of anti-tumor immunity. SOX2 is an embryonal stem cell antigen implicated in the biology of glioma initiating cells. Expression of SOX2 by pediatric glial tumors and the capacity of the immune system in these patients to recognize SOX2 has not been previously studied...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614800/robust-memory-responses-against-influenza-vaccination-in-pemphigus-patients-previously-treated-with-rituximab
#8
Alice Cho, Bridget Bradley, Robert Kauffman, Lalita Priyamvada, Yevgeniy Kovalenkov, Ron Feldman, Jens Wrammert
Rituximab is a therapeutic anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody widely used to treat B cell lymphoma and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases (AIBD). While rituximab fully depletes peripheral blood B cells, it remains unclear whether some preexisting B cell memory to pathogens or vaccines may survive depletion, especially in lymphoid tissues, and if these memory B cells can undergo homeostatic expansion during recovery from depletion...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604801/high-blood-levels-of-lead-in-children-aged-6-36-months-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study-of-associated-factors
#9
Meghnath Dhimal, Khem Bahadur Karki, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Bimala Dhimal, Hari Datt Joshi, Sajan Puri, Achyut Raj Pandey, Purushotam Dhakal, Arun Kumar Sharma, Ganendra Bhakta Raya, Imran Ansari, David A Groneberg, Ruth Müller, Ulrich Kuch
Young children are at greatest risk of exposure to lead and its effects. Although lead is one of the most widely used elements with known health hazard, there is little data on the blood lead level (BLL) of children in the Kathmandu Valley. Thus, this study aimed to assess factors associated with high BLL in children who were 6-36 months of age and resided in the Kathmandu Valley. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study 6-36 month-old children visiting the Paediatrics Outpatient Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Patan Hospital, and Siddhi Memorial Hospital were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603852/unusual-neuropathological-features-and-increased-brain-aluminium-in-a-resident-of-camelford-uk
#10
Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Miren Aizpurua, Ambreen Mirza, Angela Hodges, Safa Al-Sarraj, Christopher Exley
The possible role of aluminium in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hotly debated over the past few decades. Whereas the so-called "aluminium hypothesis" was popular in the 1970s and 1980s it has gradually fallen out of favour in the past few years possibly following a number of inconclusive and contradictory human environmental/clinical studies. Nevertheless, there have from time to time been reminders in the media of environmental accidents; these have prevented the topic from disappearing completely from public memory...
June 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599078/non-lesional-atopic-dermatitis-skin-shares-similar-t-cell-clones-with-lesional-tissues
#11
Patrick M Brunner, Ryan O Emerson, Christopher Tipton, Sandra Garcet, Saakshi Khattri, Israel Coats, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by robust immune activation. Various T-cell subsets, including Th2/Th22 cells, are increased in lesional and non-lesional skin. However, there is conflicting literature on the diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in lesional AD, and its relation to non-lesional skin remains unclear. METHODS: We performed high-throughput deep sequencing of the β-TCR repertoire in 29 lesional and 19 non-lesional AD biopsies, compared to 6 healthy control and 6 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) samples from previously published cohorts...
June 9, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598844/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-in-key-brain-target-cells-and-organelles-in-young-urbanites-culprit-hidden-in-plain-sight-in-alzheimer-s-disease-development
#12
Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Partha S Mukherjee, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
Millions of children and young adults are exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Mexico City (MC) children exhibit systemic and brain inflammation, low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1-42, breakdown of nasal, olfactory, alveolar-capillary, duodenal, and blood-brain barriers, volumetric and metabolic brain changes, attention and short-term memory deficits, and hallmarks of AD and Parkinson's disease. Airborne iron-rich strongly magnetic combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) are present in young urbanites' brains...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595055/the-body-model-theory-of-somatosensory-cortex
#13
REVIEW
Michael Brecht
I outline a microcircuit theory of somatosensory cortex as a body model serving both for body representation and "body simulation." A modular model of innervated and non-innervated body parts resides in somatosensory cortical layer 4. This body model is continuously updated and compares to an avatar (an animatable puppet) rather than a mere sensory map. Superficial layers provide context and store sensory memories, whereas layer 5 provides motor output and stores motor memories. I predict that layer-6-to-layer-4 inputs initiate body simulations allowing rehearsal and risk assessment of difficult actions, such as jumps...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586655/short-term-social-memory-deficits-in-adult-female-mice-exposed-to-tannery-effluent-and-possible-mechanism-of-action
#14
Fernanda Neves Estrela, Letícia Martins Rabelo, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Denys Ribeiro de Oliveira Costa, Igor Pereira, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
The accumulated organic residues in tannery-plant courtyards are an eating attraction to small rodents; however, the contact of these animals with these residues may change their social behavior. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether the exposure to tannery effluent (TE) can damage the social recognition memory of female Swiss mice, as well as to assess whether vitamin C supplementation could provide information about how TE constituents can damage these animals' memory. We have observed that resident females exposed to TE (without vitamin supplementation) did not explore the anogenital region, their body or chased intruding females for shorter time or with lower frequency during the retest session of the social recognition test, fact that indicates social recognition memory deficit in these animals...
May 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579518/cognitive-impairment-in-agricultural-workers-and-nearby-residents-exposed-to-pesticides-in-the-coquimbo-region-of-chile
#15
Sebastián A Corral, Valeria de Angel, Natalia Salas, Liliana Zúñiga-Venegas, Pablo A Gaspar, Floria Pancetti
Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is a worldwide public health concern associated with several psychiatric disorders and dementia. Most existing studies on the effects of pesticides only evaluate agricultural workers. Therefore, this study sought to establish if individuals indirectly exposed to pesticides, such as residents in agricultural areas, also suffer cognitive impairments. Neuropsychological evaluations were carried out on three groups (n=102): agricultural workers directly exposed to pesticides (n=32), individuals living in agricultural areas indirectly (i...
June 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573340/photonic-potential-of-haloarchaeal-pigment-bacteriorhodopsin-for-future-electronics-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Ravi Ashwini, S Vijayanand, J Hemapriya
Haloarchaea are known for its adaptation in extreme saline environment. Halophilic archaea produces carotenoid pigments and proton pumps to protect them from extremes of salinity. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump that resides in the membrane of haloarchaea Halobacterium salinarum. The photocycle of Bacteriorhodopsin passes through several states from K to O, finally liberating ATP for host's survival. Extensive studies on Bacteriorhodopsin photocycle has provided in depth knowledge on their sequential mechanism of converting solar energy into chemical energy inside the cell...
June 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562153/increased-frequencies-of-circulating-and-tumor-resident-v%C3%AE-1-t-cells-in-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
Emilie Reboursiere, Anne-Claire Gac, Anthony Garnier, Véronique Salaun, Oumedaly Reman, Anne-Dominique Pham, Quentin Cabrera, Kathy Khoy, Jean-Pierre Vilque, Christophe Fruchart, Sylvain Chantepie, Hyacinthe Johnson-Ansah, Margaret Macro, Stéphane Cheze, Khaled Benabed, Jean-Baptiste Mear, Xavier Troussard, Gandhi Damaj, Brigitte Le Mauff, Olivier Toutirais
Gamma-delta (γδ) T cells contribute to the innate immune response against cancer. In samples of 20 patients upon DLBCL diagnosis, we found that Vδ1(+) T cells were the major γδ T cell subset in tumors and PBMCs of patients, while Vδ2 T cells were preponderant in PBMCs of healthy subjects. Interestingly, the germinal center (GC) subtype was associated with an increase in Vδ1(+) T cells in tumors, whereas the non-GC subtype was associated with a lower frequency of γδ T cells. While circulating Vδ1(+) T cells of patients or HSs mostly exhibited a naïve phenotype, the majority of tumor Vδ1(+) T cells showed a central memory phenotype...
May 31, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553215/eeg-cortical-connectivity-analysis-of-working-memory-reveals-topological-reorganization-in-theta-and-alpha-bands
#18
Zhongxiang Dai, Joshua de Souza, Julian Lim, Paul M Ho, Yu Chen, Junhua Li, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos, Yu Sun
Numerous studies have revealed various working memory (WM)-related brain activities that originate from various cortical regions and oscillate at different frequencies. However, multi-frequency band analysis of the brain network in WM in the cortical space remains largely unexplored. In this study, we employed a graph theoretical framework to characterize the topological properties of the brain functional network in the theta and alpha frequency bands during WM tasks. Twenty-eight subjects performed visual n-back tasks at two difficulty levels, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547588/neurocognition-in-individuals-with-incidentally-identified-meningioma
#19
Alissa M Butts, Stephen Weigand, Paul D Brown, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Mary M Machulda, Jane H Cerhan
Meningiomas are primary intracranial tumors that are often asymptomatic. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to describe neurocognitive function in patients with incidentally-discovered meningioma. We utilized the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA), which is a population-based sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota residents that includes neuropsychological testing and brain MRI approximately every 15 months. Using a text search of radiologists' notes of 2402 MCSA individuals (mean age 77 years, scanned between 2004 and 2014) we identified 48 eligible subjects (2%) who had at least one meningioma...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542787/understanding-the-reconstitution-of-the-b-cell-compartment-in-bone-marrow-and-blood-after-treatment-for-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#20
Prisca M J Theunissen, Anouk van den Branden, Alita Van Der Sluijs-Gelling, Valerie De Haas, Auke Beishuizen, Jacques J M van Dongen, Vincent H J Van Der Velden
A better understanding of the reconstitution of the B-cell compartment during and after treatment in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) will help to assess the immunological status and needs of post-treatment BCP-ALL patients. Using 8-colour flow cytometry and proliferation-assays, we studied the composition and proliferation of both the B-cell precursor (BCP) population in the bone marrow (BM) and mature B-cell population in peripheral blood (PB) during and after BCP-ALL therapy. We found a normal BCP differentiation pattern and a delayed formation of classical CD38(dim) -naive mature B-cells, natural effector B-cells and memory B-cells in patients after chemotherapy...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
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