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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441128/early-career-work-location-of-memorial-university-medical-graduates-why-the-decline-in-rural-practice
#1
Maria Mathews, Dana Ryan, Asoka Samarasena
INTRODUCTION: In a previous study, we found a decline in the proportion of Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN) medical alumni practising in rural areas, particularly in Newfoundland and Labrador. The current study focused on the work location of recent graduates and examined the predictors of working in rural Canada and in rural Newfoundland and Labrador within the first 15 years following graduation. METHODS: We linked data from graduating class lists and the alumni and postgraduate databases with Scott's Medical Database to create a record of all graduates from 1973 to 2008, including their work location...
2017: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436184/delaying-cognitive-and-physical-decline-through-multidomain-interventions-for-residents-with-mild-to-moderate-dementia-in-dementia-care-units-in-taiwan-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Chih-Kuang Liang, Ming-Yueh Chou, Liang-Yu Chen, Kuei-Yu Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Liang-Kung Chen, Yu-Te Lin, Tsung-Yun Liu, Ching-Hui Loh
AIM: To develop experimental multi-domain interventions for older people with mild-to-moderate dementia, and to evaluate the effect of delaying cognitive and physical decline, and improvement or prevention of geriatric syndromes during 1-year follow up. METHODS: Participants aged 65 years and older with mild-to-moderate dementia (clinical dementia rating [CDR] 1 or 2) were grouped as intervention in Jia-Li Veterans Home and usual care model in the community (Memory clinic)...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435674/the-three-rs-recruitment-retention-and-residence-of-leukocytes-in-the-liver
#3
REVIEW
Hayley A McNamara, Ian A Cockburn
The composition of leukocytes in the liver is highly distinct from that of the blood and lymphoid organs. In particular, the liver is highly enriched in non-conventional T cells such as natural killer T (NKT) cells, γδ T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells. In addition, there are significant populations of tissue-resident NK cells (or innate lymphoid cells (ILC1)) and memory CD8(+) T cells. These cells are joined in conditions of inflammation by neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. In recent years a multitude of studies have generated insights into how these cells arrest, move and remain resident in the liver...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428403/resident-memory-responses-to-cancer
#4
EDITORIAL
Angela Colmone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#5
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424687/cd103-cd8-t-cells-in-the-toxoplasma-infected-brain-exhibit-a-tissue-resident-memory-transcriptional-profile
#6
Tyler A Landrith, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Rivera, Jessica C Jang, Maham Rais, Meera G Nair, Ilhem Messaoudi, Emma H Wilson
During chronic infection, memory T cells acquire a unique phenotype and become dependent on different survival signals than those needed for memory T cells generated during an acute infection. The distinction between the role of effector and memory T cells in an environment of persistent antigen remains unclear. Here, in the context of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, we demonstrate that a population of CD8 T cells exhibiting a tissue-resident memory (TRM) phenotype accumulates within the brain. We show that this population is distributed throughout the brain in both parenchymal and extraparenchymal spaces...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419151/skin-resident-cd4-t-cells-protect-against-leishmania-major-by-recruiting-and-activating-inflammatory-monocytes
#7
Nelson D Glennie, Susan W Volk, Phillip Scott
Tissue-resident memory T cells are required for establishing protective immunity against a variety of different pathogens, although the mechanisms mediating protection by CD4+ resident memory T cells are still being defined. In this study we addressed this issue with a population of protective skin-resident, IFNγ-producing CD4+ memory T cells generated following Leishmania major infection. We previously found that resident memory T cells recruit circulating effector T cells to enhance immunity. Here we show that resident memory CD4+ T cells mediate the delayed-hypersensitivity response observed in immune mice and provide protection without circulating T cells...
April 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418771/persistence-in-temporary-lung-niches-a-survival-strategy-of-lung-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#8
Shiki Takamura
Respiratory virus infections, such as those mediated by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in children and older adults. Furthermore, the potential emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus poses a significant public health threat. Thus, the development of vaccines capable of eliciting long-lasting protective immunity to those pathogens is a major public health priority...
April 18, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#9
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410427/tcr-stimulation-strength-is-inversely-associated-with-establishment-of-functional-brain-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-during-persistent-viral-infection
#10
Saumya Maru, Ge Jin, Todd D Schell, Aron E Lukacher
Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407806/development-and-validation-of-classifiers-and-variable-subsets-for-predicting-nursing-home-admission
#11
Mikko Nuutinen, Riikka-Leena Leskelä, Ella Suojalehto, Anniina Tirronen, Vesa Komssi
BACKGROUND: In previous years a substantial number of studies have identified statistically important predictors of nursing home admission (NHA). However, as far as we know, the analyses have been done at the population-level. No prior research has analysed the prediction accuracy of a NHA model for individuals. METHODS: This study is an analysis of 3056 longer-term home care customers in the city of Tampere, Finland. Data were collected from the records of social and health service usage and RAI-HC (Resident Assessment Instrument - Home Care) assessment system during January 2011 and September 2015...
April 13, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407741/the-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-promotes-development-of-brain-resident-memory-t-cells-following-acute-viral-encephalitis
#12
Sujata Prasad, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Priyanka Chauhan, Amar Singh, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that during acute viral brain infection, glial cells modulate antiviral T cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation. Here, we evaluated the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway in development of brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM) following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. METHODS: Flow cytometric analysis of immune cells was performed at 7, 14, and 30 days post-infection (dpi) to assess the shift of brain-infiltrating CD8(+) T cell populations from short-lived effector cells (SLEC) to memory precursor effector cells (MPEC), as well as generation of bTRMs...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405016/influenza-induced-lung-trm-not-all-memories-last-forever
#13
REVIEW
Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, John T Harty
In the light of new findings that lung tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells (Trm) represent major mediators of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza virus, it is of utmost importance to understand the basic biological mechanisms behind induction, formation and maintenance of this cell population. Addressing these important knowledge gaps will potentially inform development of superior, broadly-protective influenza vaccines and new immunization strategies.Immunology and Cell Biology accepted article preview online, 13 April 2017...
April 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402421/changes-over-time-in-the-health-and-functioning-of-older-people-moving-into-care-homes-analysis-of-data-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#14
Isabel Green, Daniel Stow, Fiona E Matthews, Barbara Hanratty
Background: the number of people requiring care home support is projected to rise in future years, but little information is available on the needs of new care home residents. Objective: to measure the health and functioning of people moving into care homes and how they have changed between 2002 and 2015. Setting: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants: two hundred fifty-four of the 313 (1.99%) individuals who moved from the community into a care home, and were interviewed in the survey wave prior to entry...
April 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400222/self-reported-health-and-safety-awareness-improves-prediction-of-level-of-care-needs-in-veterans-discharged-from-a-post-acute-unit
#15
Julija Stelmokas, Linas A Bieliauskas, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Robert Hogikyan, Neil B Alexander
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the differential value of a self-reported health and safety awareness measure relative to other medical, psychosocial, and cognitive factors in predicting level of care (LOC) needs following hospital discharge. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Community Living Center Post-Acute Care (CLC-PAC) unit at a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 175 Veterans admitted to the VA hospital or directly to the CLC-PAC from home...
April 8, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380351/local-inflammatory-cues-regulate-differentiation-and-persistence-of-cd8-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells
#16
Tessa Bergsbaken, Michael J Bevan, Pamela J Fink
Many pathogens initiate infection at mucosal surfaces, and tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells play an important role in protective immunity, yet the tissue-specific signals that regulate Trm differentiation are poorly defined. During Yersinia infection, CD8(+) T cell recruitment to areas of inflammation within the intestine is required for differentiation of the CD103(-)CD69(+) Trm subset. Intestinal proinflammatory microenvironments have elevated interferon (IFN)-β and interleukin-12 (IL-12), which regulated Trm markers, including CD103...
April 4, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371365/a-memory-b-cell-crossmatch-assay-for-quantification-of-donor-specific-memory-b-cells-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-hla-immunized-individuals
#17
G E Karahan, Y J H de Vaal, J Krop, C Wehmeier, D L Roelen, F H J Claas, S Heidt
Humoral responses against mismatched donor HLA are routinely measured as serum HLA antibodies, which are mainly produced by bone-marrow residing plasma cells. Individuals with a history of alloimmunization but lacking serum antibodies may harbor circulating dormant memory B cells, which may rapidly become plasma cells upon antigen re-encounter. Currently available methods to detect HLA-specific memory B cells are scarce and insufficient in quantifying the complete donor-specific memory B cell response due to their dependence on synthetic HLA molecules...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363675/effect-of-ongoing-assessment-of-resident-operative-autonomy-on-the-operating-room-environment
#18
Jonathan P Fryer, Ezra N Teitelbaum, Brian C George, Mary C Schuller, Shari L Meyerson, Christina M Theodorou, Joseph Kang, Amy Yang, Lihui Zhao, Debra A DaRosa
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility and validity of a smartphone-based system called Procedural Autonomy and Supervision System (PASS), which uses the Zwisch autonomy scale to facilitate assessment of the operative performances of surgical residents and promote progressive autonomy. To determine whether the use of PASS in a general surgery residency program is associated with any negative consequences, we tested the null hypothesis that PASS implementation at our institution would not negatively affect resident or faculty satisfaction in the operating room (OR) nor increase mean OR times for cases performed together by residents and faculty...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361896/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-live-off-the-fat-of-the-land
#19
J Michael Stolley, David Masopust
The consumption of exogenous free fatty acids by tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells is critical for their long-term survival and antiviral function, and appears to be a conserved feature of Trm cells in both mouse and man, a recent paper published in Nature demonstrates.
March 31, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353391/validity-of-self-reported-concentration-and-memory-problems-relationship-with-neuropsychological-assessment-and-depression
#20
Rosemarie M Bowler, Shane W Adams, Ralf Schwarzer, Vihra V Gocheva, Harry A Roels, Yangho Kim, Catherine L Kircos, Chris W Wright, Michelle Colledge, George Bollweg, Danelle T Lobdell
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). METHOD: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was compared to neuropsychological assessment (Trails A&B; Digit Span; Digit Symbol; Similarities; Auditory Consonant Trigrams, ACT; NAB Memory; Rey-Osterrieth, Rey-O, Delayed). Participants included 146 residents from Ohio exposed to air-Mn, with a modeled average concentration of 0...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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