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Pulp biology

Long Chen, Yifeng Jiang, Zhen Du
Although previous studies have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from mature and immature teeth exhibit potential for multi-directional differentiation, the molecular and biological difference between the DPSCs from mature and immature permanent teeth has not been fully investigated. In the present study, 500 differentially expressed genes from dental pulp cells (DPCs) in mature and immature permanent teeth were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus online database. Based on bioinformatics analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, these genes were divided into a number of subgroups associated with immunity, inflammation and cell signaling...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Takahiko Niwa, Yasuo Yamakoshi, Hajime Yamazaki, Takeo Karakida, Risako Chiba, Jan C-C Hu, Takatoshi Nagano, Ryuji Yamamoto, James P Simmer, Henry C Margolis, Kazuhiro Gomi
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Huihui Wang, Qi Zhong, Tianshu Yang, Ying Qi, Mengchen Fu, Xi Yang, Lu Qiao, Qi Ling, Shangfeng Liu, Yumei Zhao
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are types of human dental tissue‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These cells possess a capacity for self‑renewal, multilineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory functions. Previous studies have reported that DPSCs and SHED may be beneficial in regenerative treatments and immunotherapy. The substantial expansion of cells in vitro is a prerequisite to obtaining adequate cell numbers required for cell‑based therapy...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gunng-Shinng Chen, Shiao-Pieng Lee, Shu-Fu Huang, Shih-Chi Chao, Chung-Yi Chang, Gwo-Jang Wu, Chung-Hsing Li, Shih-Hurng Loh
OBJECTIVE: Homeostasis of intracellular pH (pHi ) plays vital roles in many cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and metastasis. Thus far, Na+ -H+ exchanger (NHE), Na+ -HCO3 - co-transporter (NBC), Cl- /HCO3 - exchanger (AE) and Cl- /OH- exchanger (CHE) have been identified to co-regulate pHi homeostasis. However, functional and biological pHi -regulators in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have yet to be identified. DESIGN: Microspectrofluorimetry technique with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF, was used to detect pHi changes...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
P Montero-Miralles, J Martín-González, O Alonso-Ezpeleta, M C Jiménez-Sánchez, E Velasco-Ortega, J J Segura-Egea
Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are biologically based procedures planned to replace damaged tissues, including dentinee and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp-dentine complex. Effective sterilization of the root canal is essential in REPs, and antibiotics have been widely used to disinfect root canals. The aim of this paper was to review the scientific literature on 1) Effectiveness of antibiotics used in REPs against bacteria implicated in endodontic disease; 2) Scientific evidence supporting the use of topical antibiotics in REPs; 3) Clinical implications of the use of antibiotics in REPs and the possible side effects; 4) Effect of antibiotics on dental pulp stem cells; and 5) Ongoing research on the use of antibiotics in REPs...
February 26, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Alyne Lizane Cardoso, Sheyla de Liz, Débora Kurrle Rieger, Ana Carolina Aguiar Farah, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi Vieira, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Patricia Faria Di Pietro
The palm tree Euterpe edulis , known as juçara, produces spherical and purple fruits, similar to those of the Euterpe oleracea and Euterpe precatoria palm trees, from which the common name açaí originates. Juçara fruit has been gaining prominence in the scientific world for its interesting nutritional composition, which is rich in antioxidants, and for its sustainable production model. Recently, relevant biological activities have been associated with the juçara fruit, and its use in alimentation has become an important nutritional, environmental, and economic alternative...
February 21, 2018: Planta Medica
Xiaoqian Chen, Chuanling Si, Pedram Fatehi
In this work, pulp mill wastewater was treated with a novel polymer flocculant, which was synthesized through polymerizing (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and xylan. Xylan-DMC polymer removed 94.5% of turbidity, 61.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 45.0% of lignin, 65.7% of sugar and 73.5% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) from the wastewater at the polymer concentration of 500 mg/L. The flocculation mechanism was fundamentally assessed with determining hydrodynamic size and chord length of flocs in the wastewater at different dosages of xylan-DMC polymer in the system...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiaosong Yi, Wei Wang, Qiufei Xie
Purinergic signaling regulates various biological processes through the activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) and P2 receptors. ATP induces the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) via P2 receptors. However, there is no information available about the roles of ARs in HDPC odontoblastic differentiation induced by ATP. Here, we found that HDPCs treated with ATP showed higher activity of ADORA1 (A1 R), ADORA2B (A2B R), and ADORA3 (A3 R). Inhibition of A1 R and A2B R attenuated ATP-induced odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs, whereas activation of the two receptors enhanced the odontoblastic differentiation induced by ATP...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sandra Gonçalves, Joana Medronho, Elsa Moreira, Clara Grosso, Paula B Andrade, Patrícia Valentão, Anabela Romano
In this work we evaluated methanolic extracts from different parts (leaves, seeds, fruit peel and pulp) of Chamaerops humilis L. for antioxidant activity and the ability to inhibit enzymes linked with neurodegenerative diseases: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase (TYR). The total content of phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins was also determined. The antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the extracts varied significantly according to the tissue. Seed extracts showed the greatest ability to scavenge DPPH (IC50 = 81...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Saeed Asgary, Raheleh Hassanizadeh, Hassan Torabzadeh, Mohammad Jafar Eghbal
INTRODUCTION: Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a biological approach to minimally invasive endodontics. This randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate and compare clinical and radiographic success of 4 VPTs (indirect pulp capping [IPC], direct pulp capping [DPC], miniature pulpotomy [MP], and full pulpotomy [FP]) using calcium-enriched mixture cement for deep caries management of mature permanent molars including teeth with clinical signs of irreversible pulpitis and the presence of apical periodontitis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Adriana Fernandes Da Silva, Marcelo Rocha Marques, Wellington Luiz De Oliveira Da Rosa, Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Silvana Pereira Barros
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to evaluate a model of slow caries progression and to investigate the performance of a self-etch adhesive system for partial caries removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat molars were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 culture. Different time points were analyzed: days 78, 85, and 95 (± 2). After this, the samples were processed for morphological analysis. Additionally, the first molars were restored with zinc oxide and eugenol (IRM™; Dentsply; Brazil) or adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond™; Kuraray Medical; Japan) 78 days after caries induction...
January 29, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Thiago Henrique Scarabello Stape, Leo Tjäderhane, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay, Wagner Gomes Da Silva, Alan Roger Dos Santos Silva, Wander José da Silva, Marcelo Rocha Marques
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as gelatinases are differentially expressed in human tissues. These enzymes cleave specific substrates involved in cell signaling, tissue development and remodeling and tissue breakdown. Recent evidences show that gelatinases are crucial for normal dentin development and their activity is maintained throughout the entire tooth function in the oral cavity. Due to the lack of information about the exact location and activity of gelatinases in mature human dentin, the present study was designed to examine gelatinolytic levels in sound dentin...
January 16, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Ludwig Stanislas Loison-Robert, Mathilde Tassin, Eric Bonte, Tsouria Berbar, Juliane Isaac, Ariane Berdal, Stéphane Simon, Benjamin P J Fournier
BACKGROUND: Calcium silicate-based cements are biomaterials with calcium oxide and carbonate filler additives. Their properties are close to those of dentin, making them useful in restorative dentistry and endodontics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro biological effects of two such calcium silicate cements, Biodentine (BD) and Bioroot (BR), on dental stem cells in both direct and indirect contact models. The two models used aimed to mimic reparative dentin formation (direct contact) and reactionary dentin formation (indirect contact)...
2018: PloS One
Tijana Milićević, Mira Aničić Urošević, Dubravka Relić, Gordana Vuković, Sandra Škrivanj, Aleksandar Popović
Monitoring of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil represents the first measure of caution regarding food safety, while research into element bioavailability should be a step forward in understanding the element transportation chain. This study was conducted in the grapevine growing area ("Oplenac Wine Route") for investigating element bioavailability in the soil-grapevine system accompanied by an assessment of the ecological implications and human health risk. Single extraction procedures (CH3COOH, Na2EDTA, CaCl2, NH4NO3 and deionised H2O) and digestion were performed to estimate the bioavailability of 22 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) from the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) to the grapevine parts (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) and wine...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Louis M Lin, Sahng G Kim, Gabriela Martin, Bill Kahler
Three immature permanent teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were treated with regenerative endodontic therapy (RET), which included root canal disinfection with sodium hypochlorite irrigation, intra-canal medication with calcium hydroxide paste, 17% EDTA rinse, induction of periapical bleeding into the canal, collagen matrix and MTA coronal seal, and composite resin restoration of access cavities. After different periods of follow-up, it was observed that continued root maturation, especially apical closure occurred despite persistent apical periodontitis of immature permanent teeth after failed RET...
January 16, 2018: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
D Torun, Z Ö Torun, K Demirkaya, M Sarper, M P Elçi, F Avcu
OBJECTIVE: Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is an important resin monomer commonly used in the structure of dental restorative materials. Recent studies have shown that unpolymerized resin monomers may be released into the oral environment and cause harmful biological effects. We investigated changes in the gene expression profiles of TEGDMA-treated human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) following short- (1-day) and long-term (7-days) exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HDPCs were exposed to a noncytotoxic concentration of TEGDMA, and gene expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis...
November 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Prasanna Neelakantan, Khadija Khan, Geoffrey Pak Hei Ng, Chui Ying Yip, ChengFei Zhang, Gary Shun Pan Cheung
INTRODUCTION: Despite the increasing reports on mechanical aspects of contracted endodontic access cavities (CECs), we believe that the biological aspects (debridement) have not been adequately investigated. This study examined if 1 type of CEC (orifice-directed dentin conservation [DDC] access) was able to debride the pulp chamber, root canals, and isthmus of mesial roots of mandibular molars similar to a traditional endodontic access cavity (TEC). METHODS: Mandibular molars (N = 32) were selected and divided randomly into 2 experimental groups (n = 12) after micro-computed tomographic scanning (group 1: TEC and group 2: DDC) and histologic controls (n = 8)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
Takazumi Yasui, Yo Mabuchi, Satoru Morikawa, Katsuhiro Onizawa, Chihiro Akazawa, Taneaki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Okano, Yumi Matsuzaki
Dental pulp stem cells/progenitor cells (DPSCs) can be easily obtained and can have excellent proliferative and mineralization potentials. Therefore, many studies have investigated the isolation and bone formation of DPSCs. In most previous reports, human DPSCs were traditionally isolated by exploiting their ability to adhere to plastic tissue culture dishes. DPSCs isolated by plastic adherence are frequently contaminated by other cells, which limits the ability to investigate their basic biology and regenerative properties...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
Azadeh Zakerzadeh, Ehsan Esnaashari, Sonia Dadfar
Introduction: Direct pulp capping (DPC) is a treatment for maintaining pulp vitality and its biological function. Ideally, pulp capping agents are expected to induce pulp cells to form hard tissue. This in vitro study assessed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three vital pulp capping (VPC) agents naming Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA) and TheraCal LC (Bisco Inc, Schamburg, IL, USA) on human dental pulp fibroblasts...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
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