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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209103/hiv-as-a-cause-of-immune-activation-and-immunosenescence
#1
REVIEW
T Sokoya, H C Steel, M Nieuwoudt, T M Rossouw
Systemic immune activation has emerged as an essential component of the immunopathogenesis of HIV. It not only leads to faster disease progression, but also to accelerated decline of overall immune competence. HIV-associated immune activation is characterized by an increase in proinflammatory mediators, dysfunctional T regulatory cells, and a pattern of T-cell-senescent phenotypes similar to those seen in the elderly. These changes predispose HIV-infected persons to comorbid conditions that have been linked to immunosenescence and inflamm-ageing, such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and cancer...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149706/exploring-the-impact-of-route-of-administration-on-medication-acceptance-in-hospitalized-patients-implications-for-venous-thromboembolism-prevention
#2
Victor O Popoola, Farrah Tavakoli, Brandyn D Lau, Matthew Lankiewicz, Patricia Ross, Peggy Kraus, Dauryne Shaffer, Deborah B Hobson, Jonathan K Aboagye, Norma A Farrow, Elliott R Haut, Michael B Streiff
BACKGROUND: Non-administration of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis contributes to preventable patient harm. We hypothesized that non-administration would be more common for parenteral VTE prophylaxis than oral infectious disease or cardiac prophylaxis or for treatment medications. The primary study goal was to determine if non-administration of parenteral VTE prophylaxis is more frequent than other prophylactic or treatment medications. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study of consecutive admissions we used descriptive statistics and risk ratios (RR) to compare the number of non-administered doses of VTE prophylaxis, oral infectious disease and cardiovascular prophylaxis and treatment medications...
October 21, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138182/disparities-in-the-quality-of-cardiovascular-care-between-hiv-infected-versus-hiv-uninfected-adults-in-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Joseph A Ladapo, Adam K Richards, Cassandra M DeWitt, Nina T Harawa, Steven Shoptaw, William E Cunningham, John N Mafi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV. We compared use of national guideline-recommended cardiovascular care during office visits among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients aged 40 to 79 years in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey/National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2006 to 2013...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067253/evidence-based-review-of-statin-use-in-patients-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Daniel B Chastain, Kayla R Stover, Daniel M Riche
INTRODUCTION: As a result of improved safe and effective therapeutic options for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), life expectancy of those living with HIV is increasing leading to new challenges (e.g., management of chronic diseases). Some chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease [CVD]), are up to two times more prevalent in patients with HIV. Statins are a mainstay of therapy for prevention of CVD; but, clinicians should be aware that not all statins are appropriate for use in the HIV population, especially those receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038899/the-use-of-primary-prevention-statin-therapy-in-those-predisposed-to-atherosclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Michael Garshick, James A Underberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many guidelines exist for the use of statins in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Few have focused on disease specific states that predispose to ASCVD. This review is intended to focus on the recommendations and evidence in inflammatory diseases that predispose to an increased risk of ASCVD beyond what conventional cardiac risk scores would predict. RECENT FINDINGS: Certain autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis have all been shown to increase the risk of ASCVD...
October 17, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832367/cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-north-america-and-europe
#7
Lauren Stone, Sara E Looby, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the epidemiology and mechanistic underpinnings of heightened cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in North America and Europe. RECENT FINDINGS: WLHIV in North America and Europe exhibit high CVD incidence rates, which are at par with those of compatriot men living with HIV. Compared with uninfected women, WLHIV in these regions face a 2-4-fold increased relative risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799997/epidemiology-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-hiv
#8
Virginia A Triant, Steven K Grinspoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and synthesize recent data on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV-infected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796027/heart-fat-in-hiv-marker-or-mediator-of-risk
#9
Jonathan Buggey, Chris T Longenecker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize the literature describing the clinical impact of cardiac fat depots in patients with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have accelerated rates of cardiovascular disease, and are prone to the development of ectopic fat deposition. Specifically, PLHIV have higher volumes of epicardial and intracardiac fat quantified by noninvasive imaging. Higher volumes of epicardial fat may be related to antiretroviral therapy duration and chronic inflammation, independently of other measures of body adiposity such as BMI...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793863/cardiovascular-risk-and-dyslipidemia-among-persons-living-with-hiv-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Maggi, Antonio Di Biagio, Stefano Rusconi, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
BACKGROUND: Aim of this review is to focus the attention on people living with HIV infection at risk of developing a cardiovascular event. What is or what would be the most suitable antiretroviral therapy? Which statin or fibrate to reduce the risk? How to influence behavior and lifestyles? DISCUSSION: Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains the first and essential step in a medical intervention on these patients. The lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and the education on healthy dietary practices are the main instruments...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540084/body-composition-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-lipodystrophy-different-subtypes-associated-with-hiv
#11
Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Sílvia Justina Papini
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503912/high-burden-of-metabolic-comorbidities-in-a-citywide-cohort-of-hiv-outpatients-evolving-health-care-needs-of-people-aging-with-hiv-in-washington-dc
#12
M E Levy, A E Greenberg, R Hart, L Powers Happ, C Hadigan, A Castel
OBJECTIVES: With the increasing impact of cardiovascular disease among populations aging with HIV, contemporary prevalence estimates for predisposing metabolic comorbidities will be important for guiding the provision of relevant lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. We estimated the citywide prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and obesity; examined differences by demographic subgroups; and assessed clinical correlates. METHODS: Utilizing an electronic medical record (EMR) database from the DC Cohort study - a multicentre prospective cohort study of HIV-infected outpatients - we assessed the period prevalence of metabolic comorbidities between 2011 and 2015 using composite definitions that incorporated diagnoses, pharmacy records, and clinical/laboratory results...
November 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484508/cohort-profile-the-complications-of-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-study-in-uganda-coltart-a-prospective-clinical-cohort
#13
Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473001/cohort-profile-the-complications-of-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-study-in-uganda-coltart-a-prospective-clinical-cohort
#14
Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
May 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409013/lay-beliefs-about-hypertension-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-kenya
#16
Tecla M Temu, Ehete Bahiru, Fredrick Bukachi, Gerald S Bloomfield, Peter Muiruri, Carey Farquhar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects 23% of Kenyans and is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, hypertension awareness and treatment adherence is very low. We conducted a qualitative study to explore lay beliefs about hypertension among HIV-infected adults to inform the development of culture sensitive hypertension prevention and control program. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were held for 53 HIV-infected adults at the HIV clinic in Kenya...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384660/association-between-hiv-infection-and-the-risk-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-results-from-the-veterans-aging-cohort-study
#17
Matthew S Freiberg, Chung-Chou H Chang, Melissa Skanderson, Olga V Patterson, Scott L DuVall, Cynthia A Brandt, Kaku A So-Armah, Ramachandran S Vasan, Kris Ann Oursler, John Gottdiener, Stephen Gottlieb, David Leaf, Maria Rodriguez-Barradas, Russell P Tracy, Cynthia L Gibert, David Rimland, Roger J Bedimo, Sheldon T Brown, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Alberta Warner, Kristina Crothers, Hilary A Tindle, Charles Alcorn, Justin M Bachmann, Amy C Justice, Adeel A Butt
Importance: With improved survival, heart failure (HF) has become a major complication for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is unclear if this risk extends to different types of HF in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Determining whether HIV infection is associated with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), or both is critical because HF types differ with respect to underlying mechanism, treatment, and prognosis...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379043/hiv-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-rationale-and-design-of-the-ndlovu-cohort-study
#18
Alinda Vos, Hugo Tempelman, Walter Devillé, Roos Barth, Annemarie Wensing, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Andy Hoepelman, Kiki Tesselaar, Sue Aitken, Mashudu Madzivhandila, Cuno Uiterwaal, Francois Venter, Roel Coutinho, Diederick E Grobbee
Background The largest proportion of people living with HIV resides in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Evidence from developed countries suggests that HIV infection increases the relative risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by up to 50%. Differences in lifestyle, gender distribution, routes of HIV transmission and HIV subtype preclude generalisation of data from Western countries to the SSA situation. The Ndlovu Cohort Study aims to provide insight into the burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, the mechanisms driving CVD risk and the contribution of HIV infection and its treatment to the development of CVD in a rural area of SSA...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290995/uses-of-polypills-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-evidence-to-date
#19
REVIEW
Mark D Huffman, Denis Xavier, Pablo Perel
Polypills have been approved in more than 30 countries, but worldwide experience with and availability of polypills remain limited, unlike fixed-dose combinations in other diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. In this Series review, we aim to propose a guide for the use of polypills in future research and clinical activities and to synthesise contemporary evidence supporting the use of polypills for prevention of atherosclerosis. Polypill uses can be categorised by population and indication, both of which influence the balance between benefits and risks...
March 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285796/cardiovascular-disease-in-women-with-hiv-1-infection
#20
Massimo Volpe, Alessia Uglietti, Antonella Castagna, Cristina Mussini, Giulia Marchetti, Rita Bellagamba, Teresa Bini, Daniela Mancusi, Roberta Termini
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in women, nevertheless it is often underestimated in female patients without overt risk factors. The chronic infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is clearly associated, along with the use of certain antiretroviral drugs and traditional risk factors, with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to review the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, primary and secondary prevention strategies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-negative and HIV-positive female subjects...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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