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Infectious disease medical home

Stephanie Gee, Morten Skovdal
This article explores the homecoming experiences of international health care workers who responded to the 2014 to 2016 West African Ebola outbreak. Interviews with 11 frontline international medical staff were undertaken and data thematically analyzed. It was found that international health care workers faced an unforeseen risk of stigmatization upon their return home, related to others' fears of their infectious status. Media representations of the disease appear to have played a significant role in heightening societal perceptions of the risks associated with the returning health care workers, resulting in public hostility toward them...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Milad Parpouchi, Akm Moniruzzaman, Stefanie N Rezansoff, Angela Russolillo, Julian M Somers
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has important protective effects related to reduced illicit opioid use, infectious disease transmission, and overdose mortality. Adherence to MMT has not been examined among homeless people. We measured MMT adherence and reported relevant characteristics among homeless adults experiencing mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Material and methods: Homeless adults living with mental illness who had received MMT prior to the baseline interview of the Vancouver At Home study ( n = 78) were included in analyses...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Christoph D Spinner, Matthias C Müller, Berit Lange
Bedside laboratory procedures so called "point of care testing - POCT" plays an emerging role in clinical routine practice. While glucose or urine protein screening has been established since a while, newer lateral flow assays (LFID), mostly as rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), play and upcoming role, as well as nucleic amplification based and micro carrier based systems. Hereby an accurate and precise diagnostic allows clinical decisions; in infectious diseases as well as other disciplines in medicine. All test are limited by sensitivity and specifity...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Abhijin Adiga, Shuyu Chu, Stephen Eubank, Christopher J Kuhlman, Bryan Lewis, Achla Marathe, Madhav Marathe, Eric K Nordberg, Samarth Swarup, Anil Vullikanti, Mandy L Wilson
OBJECTIVES: This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. METHODS: We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Connie Wiskin, Michael Barrett, Birgit Fruhstorfer, Matthias L Schmid
INTRODUCTION: Many doctors, across grades and specialities, supervise or advise students and juniors undertaking elective placements. Electives form part of medical curricula on a worldwide scale. The Medical Schools Council (MSC) Electives Committee in the UK identified a gap in the current literature in relation to provision of comprehensive recommendations for the design and management of undergraduate elective programmes. Electives afford many known benefits for medical and other health care students, but the context, and risks (impacting potentially on patient, public and student well-being) are usually different from those associated with 'home' clinical placements...
January 2018: Medical Education
Maya Tickell-Painter, Nicola Maayan, Rachel Saunders, Cheryl Pace, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is one of four antimalarial agents commonly recommended for preventing malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic areas. Despite its high efficacy, there is controversy about its psychological side effects. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the efficacy and safety of mefloquine used as prophylaxis for malaria in travellers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase (OVID); TOXLINE (https://toxnet...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bvudzai P Magadzire, Kim Ward, Henry M J Leng, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers)...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Deborah Mills, Sarah Sheridan, Colleen Lau
Background: Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Methods: Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
Kristina M Angelo, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Edward T Ryan, Lin H Chen, Mark J Sotir
Introduction: As international travel increases, travellers may be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases not endemic in their home countries. Many journal articles and reference books related to travel medicine cite that between 22-64% of international travellers become ill during or after travel; however, this information is minimal, outdated and limited by poor generalizability. We aim to provide a current and more accurate estimate of the proportion of international travellers who acquire a travel-related illness...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
Nikolas Christensen, Jens Søndergaard, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Niels Fisker, Steffen Husby
BACKGROUND: Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Caesarean section as a potential risk factor for infection has recently gained interest. Delivery by caesarean section has increased greatly with non-medical reasons playing an increasing role. We aimed to analyze the association between mode of delivery and hospitalizations due to infection and symptoms of infection at home in early childhood. METHODS: A cohort study, based on the Odense Child Cohort, following infants from gestation until a mean age of 3...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ewelina Gowin, Jacek Wysocki, Michał Michalak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the causes of hospitalization in the course of varicella in children during the first year of life. METHODS: An analysis was performed of the medical documentation of 359 children hospitalized for varicella on the infectious diseases ward at the Children's Hospital in Poznan (Poland) between January 2007 and August 2015. RESULTS: Of the 359 children in the study group, 96 were younger than 1 year old...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Chunsong Hu
ABCDE strategy, mainly based on drugs or medications and the lifestyle modification (named as "main medical strategy"), is popular in the guideline for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in China and foreign countries. Here, the author recommends a non-invasive and non-pharmacologic "Zhongzi" rule, which includes 4 healthy elements: Sleep, emotion, exercise, and diet (SEED), and also called SEED intervention (SEEDi) strategy. It is the basic strategy for primary and secondary prevention of non-infectious diseases, especially for ASCVD...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Motoharu Fukushi, Yukishige Ishibashi, Naoki Nago
Past clinical data are not currently used to calculate pretest probabilities, as they have not been put into a database in clinical settings. This observational study was designed to determine the initial reasons for utilizing home visits or visits to an outpatient urban clinic in Japan.All family medical clinic outpatients and patients visited by the clinic (total = 11,688) over 1460 days were enrolled.We used a Bayes theorem-based clinical decision support system to analyze codes for initial reason-for-encounter (examination and final diagnosis: pretest probability) and final diagnosis of patients with fever (conditional pretest probability)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yeh Fong Tan, Cheong Lieng Teng, Kaw Bing Chua, Kenny Voon
INTRODUCTION: Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging zoonotic respiratory virus that has spilled over from bats to humans. Though initially found only in bats, further case studies have found viable virus in ill patients. METHODOLOGY: PubMed was queried with the keywords of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus OR Pteropine orthoreovirus OR Melaka orthoreovirus OR Kampar orthoreovirus, and returned 17 hits. RESULTS: Based on prevalence studies, the presence of PRV has been reported in Malaysia and Vietnam, both developing countries...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Noma Agbonifo, Beverly Hittle, Rassull Suarez, Kermit Davis
Population demographics in the United States are rapidly changing with increased dependence on home healthcare (HHC) by an aging population, patients suffering from chronic diseases, and inability to perform activities of daily living. Despite the occupational injury rates for HHC workers (HHCW) being higher than the national average, an understanding of the occupational safety and health experiences and exposures of HHCW is limited. The purpose of this study was to understand the health and safety risk factors for HHCW...
March 2017: Home Healthcare Now
Kaitlin Piper, Ada Youk, A Everette James, Supriya Kumar
Access to paid sick days (PSD) differs by workplace size, race/ethnicity, gender, and income in the United States. It is not known to what extent decisions to stay home from work when sick with infectious illnesses such as influenza depend on PSD access, and whether access impacts certain demographic groups more than others. We examined demographic and workplace characteristics (including access to PSD) associated with employees' decisions to stay home from work for their own or a child's illness. Linking the 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) consolidated data file to the medical conditions file, we used multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to identify factors associated with missed work for an employee's own or a child's illness/injury, influenza-like-illness (ILI), and influenza...
2017: PloS One
Thomas Meyer, Christian G Schüttler, Eberhard Straube, R Stefan Roß, Martin Stürmer, Klaus Jansen, Susanne Buder, Sigrid Nick, Hans-Jochen Hagedorn, Viviane Bremer, Norbert H Brockmeyer
On February 5th, 2016 an expert meeting on rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for sexually transmitted infections (STI) was held in Berlin at the Robert-Koch-Institute. The aim of the conference was to update a former evaluation of RDTs for diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV, T. pallidum, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in low-threshold counseling services for STI that had been published after the previous meeting in 2012. According to the strategy to control HIV, hepatitis B and C and other STI, recently adopted by the German Government, there is a lack of test capabilities and a demand for more testing services as well as improved access to testing...
February 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Martin Kolditz, Dionne Braeken, Santiago Ewig, Gernot Rohde
Severity assessment is a crucial step in the initial management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). While approximately half of patients are at low risk of death and can be safely treated as outpatients, around 20% are at increased risk. While CURB-65 (confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, urea) and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores are equally useful as an adjunct to clinical judgment to identify patients at low risk, the so-called minor American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria are predictive of patients in need of intensified treatment (i...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Diana Feldstein, Philip D Sloane, David Weber, Kimberly Ward, David Reed, Sheryl Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic stewardship has been called for across all sites of health care, including nursing homes (NHs). Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the third most common indication for antibiotics in the NH, and so should be a focus of stewardship. This study audited medical records to identify signs and symptoms of SSTIs treated with antibiotics in relation to the McGeer criteria for surveillance, the Loeb minimum criteria for antibiotic initiation, and prescribing recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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