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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346115/mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-linked-to-air-pollution
#1
REVIEW
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341060/rationale-of-decreasing-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-below-70-mg-dl-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-retrospective-virtual-histology-intravascular-ultrasound-study
#2
Young Hoon Seo, Duck-Jun Seo, In Geol Song, Ki-Hong Kim, Taek-Geun Kwon, Jang-Ho Bae
BACKGROUND: The associations between statin and coronary plaque compositional changes were reported according to the use of high dose or not. An evaluation of the impact of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 70 mg/dL by using real world dosages of statin on coronary plaque composition was undertaken. METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 61 patients (mean 59.9 years old, 45 males) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, baseline and follow-up (F/U; mean 8...
January 17, 2018: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336478/apelin-13-treatment-enhances-the-stability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#3
Rodrigo Araujo Fraga-Silva, Hugo Seeman, Fabrizio Montecucco, Analina Raquel da Silva, Fabienne Burger, Fabiana Pereira Costa-Fraga, Léa Anguenot, François Mach, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
BACKGROUND: Apelin is an endogenous peptidergic system which modulates cardiovascular function. Recent studies pointed out a fundamental contribution of apelin on atherosclerosis development; however, such reports revealed contradictory data, and to date, it is difficult to accurately define a beneficial or deleterious role. To better understand apelin function on atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate apelin-13 treatment effects on atherosclerotic plaques composition. DESIGN: Apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice were fed on Western-type diet for 11 weeks...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330812/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-alogliptin-on-tissue-characteristics-of-the-carotid-wall-subanalysis-of-the-spead-a-trial
#4
Yoko Irie, Naoto Katakami, Tomoya Mita, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Masahiko Gosho, Hirotaka Watada, Iichiro Shimomura
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the carotid wall using gray-scale median (GSM) reflects its composition and low-GSM plaque is considered to be unstable. The present study evaluated the effect of alogliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on the longitudinal change in GSM, an index of the tissue characteristics of the carotid wall, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: This is a post hoc subanalysis using data obtained from the SPEAD-A trial, a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the beneficial effect of alogliptin treatment on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with T2DM with no past history of apparent cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329672/there-are-probably-no-differences-in-arrest-of-white-spot-lesions-and-plaque-composition-between-remineralizing-and-nonfluoridated-toothpastes
#5
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326316/fibronectin-containing-extra-domain-a-induces-plaque-destabilization-in-the-innominate-artery-of-aged-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#6
Prakash Doddapattar, Manish Jain, Nirav Dhanesha, Steven R Lentz, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: Fibronectin containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA) is an endogenous ligand of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) and is abundant in the extracellular matrix of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in human and mice. Irrespective of sex, deletion of Fn-EDA reduces early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. However, the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerosis remains poorly characterized. We determined the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aged (1-year-old) Apoe-/- mice...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322167/use-of-high-risk-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-detection-for-risk-stratification-of-patients-with-stable-chest-pain-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-promise-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Maros Ferencik, Thomas Mayrhofer, Daniel O Bittner, Hamed Emami, Stefan B Puchner, Michael T Lu, Nandini M Meyersohn, Alexander V Ivanov, Elizabeth C Adami, Manesh R Patel, Daniel B Mark, James E Udelson, Kerry L Lee, Pamela S Douglas, Udo Hoffmann
Importance: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (coronary CTA) can characterize coronary artery disease, including high-risk plaque. A noninvasive method of identifying high-risk plaque before major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) could provide practice-changing optimizations in coronary artery disease care. Objective: To determine whether high-risk plaque detected by coronary CTA was associated with incident MACE independently of significant stenosis (SS) and cardiovascular risk factors...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318812/detection-and-characterization-of-early-plaque-formations-by-raman-probe-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography-an-in-vivo-study-on-a-rabbit-model
#8
Christian Matthäus, Sebastian Dochow, Kokila D Egodage, Bernd F Romeike, Bernhard R Brehm, Jürgen Popp
Intravascular imaging techniques provide detailed specification about plaque appearance and morphology, but cannot deliver information about the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques. As the biochemical composition is related to the plaque type, important aspects such as the risk of a plaque rupture and treatment are still difficult to assess. Currently, various spectroscopic techniques are tested for potential applications for the chemical analysis of plaque depositions. Here, we employ Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the characterization of plaques on rabbits in vivo...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317346/protein-corona-and-phospholipase-activity-drive-selective-accumulation-of-nanomicelles-in-atherosclerotic-plaques
#9
Ana V Lechuga-Vieco, Hugo Groult, Juan Pellico, Jesús Mateo, Jose A Enríquez, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Fernando Herranz
ApoB-100 and Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) are important contributors to atherosclerosis development. ApoB-100 is the main structural protein of LDL, being directly associated with atherosclerosis plaque generation. PC-PLC is highly expressed in atherosclerosis lesions and contributes to their progression. We show how phosphatidylcholine-coated nanomicelles can be used for specific characterisation of atherosclerosis plaque. Results show that ApoB-100 in the protein corona of the nanomicelle targets the particles to atherosclerotic areas in apolipoprotein E-/- mice...
January 6, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311033/lesion-specific-and-vessel-related-determinants-of-fractional-flow-reserve-beyond-coronary-artery-stenosis
#10
Amir Ahmadi, Jonathon Leipsic, Kristian A Øvrehus, Sara Gaur, Emilia Bagiella, Brian Ko, Damini Dey, Gina LaRocca, Jesper M Jensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Stephan Achenbach, Bernard De Bruyne, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Jagat Narula
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were: 1) to investigate the contribution of the extent of luminal stenosis and other lesion composition-related factors in predicting invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR); and 2) to explore the distribution of various combinations of morphological characteristics and the severity of stenosis among lesions demonstrating normal and abnormal FFR. BACKGROUND: In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, FFR-guided revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone, is reported to improve outcomes...
January 2, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284609/dkk3-dickkopf-3-alters-atherosclerotic-plaque-phenotype-involving-vascular-progenitor-and-fibroblast-differentiation-into-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Eirini Karamariti, Chungang Zhai, Baoqi Yu, Qiao Lei, Zhihong Wang, Claire M F Potter, Mei Mei Wong, Russell M L Simpson, Zhongyi Zhang, Xiaocong Wang, Ivan Del Barco Barrantes, Christof Niehrs, Deling Kong, Qiang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Yanhua Hu, Cheng Zhang, Qingbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: DKK3 (dickkopf 3), a 36-kD secreted glycoprotein, has been shown to be involved in the differentiation of partially reprogrammed cells and embryonic stem cells to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but little is known about its involvement in vascular disease. This study aims to assess the effects of DKK3 on atherosclerotic plaque composition. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the present study, we used a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) in conjunction with DKK3-/- and performed tandem stenosis of the carotid artery to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque development...
December 28, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284608/melanocortin-1-receptor-deficiency-promotes-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-mice
#12
Petteri Rinne, James J Kadiri, Mauricio Velasco-Delgado, Salla Nuutinen, Miro Viitala, Maija Hollmén, Martina Rami, Eriika Savontaus, Sabine Steffens
OBJECTIVE: The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis...
December 28, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279527/impact-of-water-and-lipid-soluble-statins-on-nonculprit-lesions-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#13
Yu Ishikawa, Tomonori Itoh, Mamoru Satoh, Tetsuya Fusazaki, Shoma Sugawara, Satoshi Nakajima, Motoyuki Nakamura, Yoshihiro Morino
Statins can be differentiated into two types, based on their solubility, which have potentially differing effects on the coronary artery wall. However, suspected differences in statins' effects on plaque composition have not been systemically investigated.Sixty-seven patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were randomly assigned to either atorvastatin (10 mg/day) or rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/day). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and integrated backscatter (IB)-IVUS, an established tool to quantify each plaque's components, were performed immediately after emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
December 27, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258444/evaluation-of-a-field-deployable-reverse-transcription-insulated-isothermal-pcr-for-rapid-and-sensitive-on-site-detection-of-zika-virus
#14
Mariano Carossino, Yanqiu Li, Pei-Yu A Lee, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Dennis Williams, Ashley Skillman, R Frank Cook, Grayson Brown, Hsiao-Fen G Chang, Hwa-Tang T Wang, Udeni B R Balasuriya
BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and its precipitous expansion throughout the Americas has highlighted the urgent need for a rapid and reliable on-site diagnostic assay suitable for viral detection. Such point-of-need (PON), low-cost diagnostics are essential for ZIKV control in vulnerable areas with limited resources. METHODS: We developed and evaluated a ZIKV-specific field-deployable RT-iiPCR reagent set targeting the E gene for rapid detection of ZIKV in ZIKV-spiked human and mosquito specimens, and compared its performance to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) RT-qPCR assays targeting the E and NS2B genes, respectively...
December 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248662/coronary-plaque-microstructure-and-composition-modify-optical-polarization-a-new-endogenous-contrast-mechanism-for-optical-frequency-domain-imaging
#15
Martin Villiger, Kenichiro Otsuka, Antonios Karanasos, Pallavi Doradla, Jian Ren, Norman Lippok, Milen Shishkov, Joost Daemen, Roberto Diletti, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Felix Zijlstra, Gijs van Soest, Peter Libby, Evelyn Regar, Seemantini K Nadkarni, Brett E Bouma
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate whether polarimetry, performed using a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system, can improve the assessment of histological features relevant to characterizing human coronary atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND: The microscopic structure and organization of the arterial wall influence the polarization of the infrared light used by OFDI. Modification of the OFDI apparatus, along with recently developed image reconstruction methods, permits polarimetric measurements simultaneously with conventional OFDI cross-sectional imaging through standard intravascular imaging catheters...
December 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245903/deep-sequencing-of-the-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-repertoire-reveals-signature-patterns-and-clonal-drift-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-and-patients
#16
Zongwei Lin, Shao Qian, Yan Gong, Jianwei Ren, Lixia Zhao, Dongxiao Wang, Xiaowei Wang, Yun Zhang, Zhe Wang, Qunye Zhang
The T cell receptor (TCR) β repertoire directly reflects the status of T cell function. Meanwhile, the immune/inflammatory responses regulated by T cells are the critical determinants of atherosclerosis development. However, due to technical limitations, the composition and molecular characteristics of the TCR repertoire in atherosclerotic patients have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we use powerful immune repertoire sequencing technology to study this issue. Results show that the utilization of V and/or J genes and the diversity of TCRβ repertoire in atherosclerotic plaques are significantly reduced compared to those in the peripheral blood of normal subjects and atherosclerotic patients...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243285/cholesterol-embolization-syndrome-an-under-recognized-entity-in-cardiovascular-interventions
#17
Akanksha Agrawal, Mary Rodriguez Ziccardi, Christian Witzke, Igor Palacios, Janani Rangaswami
Cholesterol embolization syndrome (CES) is a multi-systemic disease caused by embolization of atherosclerotic plaque contents from proximal large-caliber artery to distal small to medium arteries, occurring spontaneously or more commonly after vascular intervention. This report is a comprehensive review of the reported cases of CES found in our literature search. We discuss the risk factors, clinical manifestations, management, and prognosis of CES. The major predisposing factors for CES include older age, male sex, atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors, anticoagulation, and femoral access route...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239099/double-layered-stents-for-carotid-angioplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-available-clinical-data
#18
Anna Sannino, Giuseppe Giugliano, Evelina Toscano, Gabriele G Schiattarella, Anna Franzone, Tullio Tesorio, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni Esposito, Eugenio Stabile
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate clinical efficacy of double layered mesh covered carotid stent systems in the clinical practice. BACKGROUND: The need for an increase plaque coverage to decrease the risk of debris dislodgement through the stent struts, following carotid artery stenting (CAS), has brought to the design of a new generation of double layered carotid stents. Several small sized clinical studies evaluating two different devices have been recently published, unfortunately these are not sufficiently powered to test for device related and clinical endpoints and no comparison, between the two available devices, has been reported yet...
December 14, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234857/high-frequency-and-wide-range-of-human-kidney-papillary-crystalline-plugs
#19
Léa Huguet, Marine Le Dudal, Marine Livrozet, Dominique Bazin, Vincent Frochot, Joëlle Perez, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Isabelle Brocheriou, Michel Daudon, Emmanuel Letavernier
Most of kidney stones are supposed to originate from Randall's plaque at the tip of the papilla or from papillary tubular plugs. Nevertheless, the frequency and the composition of crystalline plugs remain only partly described. The objective was to assess the frequency, the composition and the topography of papillary plugs in human kidneys. A total of 76 papillae from 25 kidneys removed for cancer and without stones were analysed by immunohistochemistry combined with Yasue staining, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared micro-spectroscopy...
December 12, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230812/the-gut-microbiota-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Stefanie Ascher, Christoph Reinhardt
Commensal gut microbiota have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerotic plaque formation depends on the colonization status of the host. In addition to host nutrition and the related microbiota-dependent metabolic changes, activation of innate immune pathways triggers the development of atherosclerosis and supports arterial thrombosis. Gnotobiotic mouse models have uncovered that activation of Toll-like receptor-2 by gut microbial ligands supports von Willebrand factor-integrin mediated platelet deposition to the site of vascular injury...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
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