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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420605/scalable-passive-sleep-monitoring-using-mobile-phones-opportunities-and-obstacles
#1
Sohrab Saeb, Thaddeus R Cybulski, Konrad P Kording, David C Mohr
BACKGROUND: Sleep is a critical aspect of people's well-being and as such assessing sleep is an important indicator of a person's health. Traditional methods of sleep assessment are either time- and resource-intensive or suffer from self-reporting biases. Recently, researchers have started to use mobile phones to passively assess sleep in individuals' daily lives. However, this work remains in its early stages, having only examined relatively small and homogeneous populations in carefully controlled contexts...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420131/work-characteristics-associated-with-physical-functioning-in-women
#2
Aimee J Palumbo, Anneclaire J De Roos, Carolyn Cannuscio, Lucy Robinson, Jana Mossey, Julie Weitlauf, Lorena Garcia, Robert Wallace, Yvonne Michael
Women make up almost half of the labor force with older women becoming a growing segment of the population. Work characteristics influence physical functioning and women are at particular risk for physical limitations. However, little research has explored the effects of work characteristics on women's physical functioning. U.S. women between the ages of 50 and 79 were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998. Women provided job titles and years worked at their three longest-held jobs (n = 79,147)...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406459/homesound-real-time-audio-event-detection-based-on-high-performance-computing-for-behaviour-and-surveillance-remote-monitoring
#3
Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Joan Navarro, Francesc Alías, Marcos Hervás
The consistent growth in human life expectancy during the recent years has driven governments and private organizations to increase the efforts in caring for the eldest segment of the population. These institutions have built hospitals and retirement homes that have been rapidly overfilled, making their associated maintenance and operating costs prohibitive. The latest advances in technology and communications envisage new ways to monitor those people with special needs at their own home, increasing their quality of life in a cost-affordable way...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404845/molecular-evolution-and-emergence-of-h5n6-avian-influenza-virus-in-central-china
#4
Yingying Du, Mingyue Chen, Jiayun Yang, Yane Jia, Shufang Han, Edward C Holmes, Jie Cui
H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) has posed a potential threat to public health since its emergence in China in 2013. To understand the evolution and emergence of H5N6 in the avian population we performed molecular surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) in Wugang prefecture, Hunan province, in central China during 2014-2015. Wugang prefecture is located on the Eastern Asian-Australian migratory bird flyway and a human death due to an H5N6 virus was reported in the prefecture on 21(th) November 2016. In total, we sampled and sequenced the complete genomes of 175 H5N6 AIVs...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385448/neoliberal-reforms-in-health-systems-and-the-construction-of-long-lasting-inequalities-in-health-care-a-case-study-from-chile
#5
Elena S Rotarou, Dikaios Sakellariou
The aim of this article is to discuss how neoliberal policies implemented in the Chilean health system during the Pinochet regime have a lingering effect on equal access to health care today. The two-tier health system - public and private - that was introduced in the early 1980s as a means to improve efficiency and lower health-related costs, has led instead to inequality of access and dehumanisation of health care. Health has changed from being a right to being a marketable need, thus creating a structural disadvantage for several parts of the population - particularly the poor, the elderly, and women - who cannot afford the better-quality services and timely attention of private health providers, and thus, are not adequately protected against health risks...
March 16, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384632/is-reperfusion-useful-in-ischaemic-stroke-patients-presenting-with-a-low-national-institutes-of-health-stroke-scale-and-a-proximal-large-vessel-occlusion-of-the-anterior-circulation
#6
Cyril Dargazanli, Arturo Consoli, Benjamin Gory, Raphaël Blanc, Julien Labreuche, Cristian Preda, Frédéric Bourdain, Jean-Pierre Decroix, Hocine Redjem, Gabriele Ciccio, Mikael Mazighi, Stanislas Smajda, Jean-Philippe Desilles, Roberto Riva, Paul-Emile Labeyrie, Oguzhan Coskun, Georges Rodesch, Francis Turjman, Michel Piotin, Bertrand Lapergue
BACKGROUND: In population-based studies, patients presenting with minor or mild stroke symptoms represent about two-thirds of stroke patients, and almost one-third of these patients are unable to ambulate independently at the time of discharge. Although mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has become the standard of care for acute ischaemic stroke with proximal large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation, the management of patients harbouring proximal occlusion and minor-to-mild stroke symptoms has not yet been determined by recent trials...
April 7, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379281/regression-of-established-cardiac-fibrosis-in-hypertensive-heart-disease
#7
Karl T Weber, Yao Sun, Ivan C Gerling, Ramareddy V Guntaka
Established cardiac fibrosis (ECF) with symptomatic heart failure preserved ejection fraction represents an ever-increasing segment of the hypertensive population. The regression of ECF with attendant improvement in myocardial stiffness and symptomatic failure represents an unmet health care need. Is the regression of ECF in hypertensive heart disease feasible and will stiffness and symptomatic failure be improved? What is the cellular/molecular signaling involved in its regression? What incremental knowledge is needed to proceed effectively? These issues are addressed in this Review...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376091/participant-referral-rate-in-the-national-eye-health-survey-nehs
#8
Stuart Keel, Pei Ying Lee, Joshua Foreman, Peter van Wijngaarden, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
PURPOSE: To present the rates of referral of participants in the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) for further eye care. MATERIALS & METHODS: A national sample of 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50-98 and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40-92 years living in 30 randomly selected sites was recruited using a door-to-door approach. Participants completed a general questionnaire and a series of eye tests, including vision and anterior segment assessment, intra-ocular pressure measurement, visual field testing and fundus photography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356433/circulating-vitamin-k-is-inversely-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-those-treated-for-hypertension-in-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study-health-abc
#9
M Kyla Shea, Sarah L Booth, Daniel E Weiner, Tina E Brinkley, Alka M Kanaya, Rachel A Murphy, Eleanor M Simonsick, Christina L Wassel, Cees Vermeer, Stephen B Kritchevsky
Background: A role for vitamin K in coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been proposed because vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP), are present in vascular tissue. Observational studies found that low circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) was associated with increased CAC progression, especially in persons treated for hypertension. It is unknown whether hypertension treatment modifies this putative role of vitamin K in clinical CVD risk...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346038/recruitment-and-testing-protocol-in-the-national-eye-health-survey-a-population-based-eye-study-in-australia
#10
Joshua Foreman, Stuart Keel, Peter van Wijngaarden, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
PURPOSE: To present the recruitment and testing methodology of the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS), a population-based study that aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. METHODS: Non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older were recruited using a door-to-door approach from 30 randomly selected geographical areas, stratified by remoteness. Participants underwent a vision examination, anterior segment assessment, intraocular pressure testing, perimetry, and fundus photography...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#11
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331085/heterologous-packaging-signals-on-ha-but-not-na-or-ns-limit-influenza-a-virus-reassortment
#12
Maria C White, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Influenza A virus (IAV) RNA packaging signals serve to direct the incorporation of IAV gene segments into virus particles, and this process is thought to be mediated by segment-segment interactions. These packaging signals are segment- and strain-specific, and as such, they have the potential to impact reassortment outcomes between different IAV strains. Our study aimed to quantify the impact of packaging signal mismatch on IAV reassortment using the human seasonal influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) and pandemic influenza A/Netherlands/602/2009 (H1N1) viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331081/multiple-sources-of-genetic-diversity-of-influenza-a-viruses-during-the-hajj
#13
Joanna C A Cobbin, Mohammad Alfelali, Osamah Barasheed, Janette Taylor, Dominic E Dwyer, Jen Kok, Robert Booy, Edward C Holmes, Harunor Rashid
Outbreaks of respiratory virus infection at mass gatherings pose significant health risks to attendants, host communities and ultimately the global population if they help facilitate viral emergence. However, little is known about the genetic diversity, evolution and patterns of viral transmission during mass gatherings, particularly how much diversity is generated by in situ transmission compared to that imported from other locations. Here we describe the genomic-scale evolution of influenza A viruses sampled from the Hajj at Makkah during 2013-2015...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329250/sudden-cardiac-arrest-risk-assessment-population-science-and-the-individual-risk-mandate
#14
Robert J Myerburg, Jeffrey J Goldberger
Importance: High-resolution stratification of risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in individual patients is a tool that is necessary for achieving effective and efficient application of data generated by population-based research. This concept is at the core of initiatives for merging cost effectiveness with maximized clinical efficiency and individual patient treatment. Observations: For this review, we analyzed data on sudden cardiac death and SCA available from population studies that included large longitudinal and cross-sectional databases, observational cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328002/endovascular-treatment-of-middle-cerebral-artery-m2-occlusion-strokes-clinical-and-procedural-predictors-of-outcomes
#15
Maxim Mokin, Christopher T Primiani, Zeguang Ren, Peter Kan, Edward Duckworth, Raymond D Turner, Aquilla S Turk, Kyle M Fargen, Guilherme Dabus, Italo Linfante, Travis M Dumont, Leonardo B C Brasiliense, Hussain Shallwani, Kenneth V Snyder, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy
BACKGROUND: Patients with strokes from M2 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion have been underrepresented in recent randomized trials of endovascular therapy. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the clinical, imaging, and procedural predictors of successful recanalization and clinical outcomes in this population of patients. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute MCA M2 segment occlusion who underwent thrombectomy with stent retrievers or primary aspiration thrombectomy (including A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique approach)...
March 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322060/malnutrition-or-frailty-overlap-and-evidence-gaps-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-frailty-and-malnutrition
#16
Celia V Laur, Tara McNicholl, Renata Valaitis, Heather H Keller
There is increasing awareness of the detrimental health impact of frailty on older adults and of the high prevalence of malnutrition in this segment of the population. Experts in these 2 arenas need to be cognizant of the overlap in constructs, diagnosis, and treatment of frailty and malnutrition. There is a lack of consensus regarding the definition of malnutrition and how it should be assessed. While there is consensus on the definition of frailty, there is no agreement on how it should be measured. Separate assessment tools exist for both malnutrition and frailty; however, there is intersection between concepts and measures...
May 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290932/primary-care-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-u-s-military-in-the-post-don-t-ask-don-t-tell-era-a-review-of-recent-progress-health-needs-and-challenges
#17
Wesley R Campbell, Mojgan Jahan, Mary F Bavaro, Robert J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: With repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT) in 2011 and the Supreme Court decision regarding Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 2013, military providers are now able to openly address unique health needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) service members and their same-sex spouse beneficiaries. These federal laws created health care barriers, either real or perceived, between providers and patients and often limited medical research involving LGB patients in the Military Health System (MHS)...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264943/innovative-home-visit-models-associated-with-reductions-in-costs-hospitalizations-and-emergency-department-use
#18
Sarah Ruiz, Lynne Page Snyder, Christina Rotondo, Caitlin Cross-Barnet, Erin Murphy Colligan, Katherine Giuriceo
While studies of home-based care delivered by teams led by primary care providers have shown cost savings, little is known about outcomes when practice-extender teams-that is, teams led by registered nurses or lay health workers-provide home visits with similar components (for example, care coordination and education). We evaluated findings from five models funded by Health Care Innovation Awards of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Each model used a mix of different components to strengthen connections to primary care among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions; these connections included practice-extender home visits...
March 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259218/race-ethnicity-concordance-between-patients-and-physicians
#19
Pedro A Poma
The growth of our population, especially the older than 65 segment, require more health providers. Moreover, compared to whites, persons of racial/ethnic minorities have less favorable clinical outcomes and this may be related to access to health care. Racial/ethnic concordance between physicians and patients improve outcomes and satisfaction with medical care. New medical schools have been opened, some schools have increased the size of the entering class, and there is the general desire to increase the enrollment and graduation of minority groups' physicians...
April 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256777/utility-of-the-cumulative-stress-and-mismatch-hypotheses-in-understanding-the-neurobiological-impacts-of-childhood-abuse-and-recent-stress-in-youth-with-emerging-mental-disorder
#20
Casey Paquola, Maxwell R Bennett, Sean N Hatton, Daniel F Hermens, Jim Lagopoulos
Childhood abuse has an enduring impact on the brain's stress system. Whether the effects of childhood abuse and adulthood stress are additive (cumulative stress hypothesis) or interactive (mismatch hypothesis) is widely disputed, however. The primary aim of this study was to test the utility of the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses in understanding brain and behaviour. We recruited 64 individuals (aged 14-26) from a specialised clinic for assessment and early intervention of mental health problems in young people...
March 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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