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"Population segmentation"

Rebecca Scopa Kelso
OBJECTIVES: Human subadult skeletal remains can provide a unique perspective into biosocial aspects of Mississippian period population interactions within and between the Middle Cumberland (MCR) and Eastern Tennessee Regions (ETR). The majority of previous studies have concentrated on adult skeletal remains, leaving out a large and extremely important population segment. METHODS: Skeletal indicators of disease, growth, body proportions, and metabolic stress were collected from subadult remains from five archaeological sites over several temporal periods...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Mark A Ricca, Peter S Coates, K Benjamin Gustafson, Brianne E Brussee, Jeanne C Chambers, Shawn P Espinosa, Scott C Gardner, Sherri Lisius, Pilar Ziegler, David J Delehanty, Michael L Casazza
Managers require quantitative yet tractable tools that can identify areas for restoration yielding effective benefits for targeted wildlife species and the ecosystems they inhabit. As a contemporary example of high national significance for conservation, the persistence of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter 'sage-grouse') in the Great Basin ecoregion is compromised, in part, by strongly interacting stressors of conifer encroachment, annual grass invasion, and larger and more frequent wildfires occurring in sagebrush ecosystems...
February 14, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Alessia Cavaliere, Elisa De Marchi, Alessandro Banterle
The reduction of diet-related diseases and the improvement of environmental sustainability represent two of the major 21st century food policy challenges. Sustainable diets could significantly contribute to achieving both of these goals, improving consumer health and reducing the environmental impact of food production and consumption. The Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an excellent example of sustainable diet, however recent evidence indicates that such a dietary pattern is now progressively disappearing in Mediterranean countries...
January 28, 2018: Nutrients
Norbert Mundorf, Colleen A Redding, Andrea L Paiva
Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Altan Onat, Aysem Kaya, Evin Ademoglu
Lipoproteins and the apolipoproteins (apo) that they carry are major determinants of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as metabolic, renal and inflammatory chronic disorders either directly or through mediation of risk factors. The notion that elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apoB levels are related to the acquisition of CVD and, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I indicate protection against CVD has been challenged in the past decade. Advanced age, adiposity, ethnicity or impaired glucose intolerance rendered autoimmune activation in an environment of pro-inflammatory state/oxidative stress and may disrupt the linear risk association between lipoproteins...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Jason Baumsteiger, Peter B Moyle, Andres Aguilar, Sean M O'Rourke, Michael R Miller
Efforts to taxonomically delineate species are often confounded with conflicting information and subjective interpretation. Advances in genomic methods have resulted in a new approach to taxonomic identification that stands to greatly reduce much of this conflict. This approach is ideal for species complexes, where divergence times are recent (evolutionarily) and lineages less well defined. The California Roach/Hitch fish species complex is an excellent example, experiencing a convoluted geologic history, diverse habitats, conflicting species designations and potential admixture between species...
2017: PloS One
Rodrigue Deleens, Gisèle Pickering, Yacine Hadjiat
Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with the pain experience. This deterioration regarding several cognitive domains such as attention, speed of information processing, memory, learning and executive functions, represents a major obstacle to daily activities and mobility especially in the elderly for whom a decrease in mobility is a significant risk factor for death and disability. Regarding the demographic rising in the elderly population expected by 2050 (the proportion of persons aged 60 and above is expected to double according to ONU estimate) and the high prevalence of pain in this age reaching 80% in nursing homes, clinicians should be better aware of the links between pain and cognition in this population's segment so that they offer each patient an appropriate treatment...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Foteini Giannou, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Katerina Pantavou, Vassiliki Benetou, Maria Kantzanou, Vana Sypsa, Leslie D Williams, Samuel R Friedman, Angelos Hatzakis
BACKGROUND: Despite great improvements in prevention over the last years, much has to be done to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Substantial evidence shows that the six-month period of recent HIV infection contributes disproportionately to HIV transmission. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate knowledge, normative beliefs, and attitudes of people who inject drugs (PWID) regarding recent HIV infection. METHODS: People who inject drugs in Athens, Greece were recruited in the fifth round of a respondent- driven sampling program (ARISTOTLE)...
2017: Current HIV Research
Lian Leng Low, Yu Heng Kwan, Nan Liu, Xuan Jing, Edwin Cheng Tee Low, Julian Thumboo
BACKGROUND: Segmenting the population into groups that are relatively homogeneous in healthcare characteristics or needs is crucial to facilitate integrated care and resource planning. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of segmenting the population into discrete, non-overlapping groups using a practical expert and literature driven approach. We hypothesized that this approach is feasible utilizing the electronic health record (EHR) in SingHealth. METHODS: In addition to well-defined segments of "Mostly healthy", "Serious acute illness but curable" and "End of life" segments that are also present in the Ministry of Health Singapore framework, patients with chronic diseases were segmented into "Stable chronic disease", "Complex chronic diseases without frequent hospital admissions", and "Complex chronic diseases with frequent hospital admissions"...
November 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Francesca Cecchi, Silvia Pancani, Federica Vannetti, Roberta Boni, Chiara Castagnoli, Anita Paperini, Guido Pasquini, Francesco Sofi, Raffaele Molino-Lova, Claudio Macchi
People aged 90 and older represent a fast-growing population segment who deserve specific attention and research. Aging is associated with a progressive decrease in hemoglobin concentration, which predicts adverse outcome, such as mortality, morbidity, frailty and disability. Whether this association is independent from increased prevalence of comorbidity, causing both anemia and reduced physical function is yet under debate. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and self-reported disability and reduced physical performance in a community dwelling population of nonagenarians...
December 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Yi Zhou, Lianshui Li, Lei Hu
Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM10) is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO₂, NO₂, PM10, annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI)...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Blake E Feist, Eric R Buhle, David H Baldwin, Julann A Spromberg, Steven E Damm, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Urbanization poses a global challenge to species conservation. This is primarily understood in terms of physical habitat loss, as agricultural and forested lands are replaced with urban infrastructure. However, aquatic habitats are also chemically degraded by urban development, often in the form of toxic stormwater runoff. Here we assess threats of urbanization to coho salmon throughout developed areas of the Puget Sound Basin in Washington, USA. Puget Sound coho are a sentinel species for freshwater communities and also a species of concern under the U...
December 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Chun W Yap, Yee G Ang, Timothy P L Quek, Bee H Heng, Daniel E K Chew
BACKGROUND: One of the laboratory tests recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to screen for diabetes mellitus (DM) is HbA1c, and it is particularly suitable for segments of the population that cannot or are unwilling to fast for a screening test. The aim of this study was to determine whether HbA1c would be a useful tool to screen for DM in a real-world setting if ADA guidelines for repeat testing to confirm the diagnosis of DM are strictly adhered to. METHODS: A retrospective database study was performed by extracting demographic and laboratory data from a chronic disease registry that collects data on adults from three tertiary hospitals and nine large primary care clinics in Singapore...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
Michelle I Jongenelis, Maree Scully, Belinda Morley, Iain S Pratt, Terry Slevin
Adolescence is a critical time for disengagement from physical activity making young people a priority group for interventions. To determine whether existing initiatives are working in this population segment and help inform future programs, the present study sought to (i) examine prevalences and trends in physical activity and screen-based recreation among Australian adolescents and (ii) identify the barriers to adolescents meeting recommended guidelines. Two cross-sectional representative samples of Western Australian secondary school students aged 12 to 17years were surveyed in 2009-2010 (n=1505) and 2012-2013 (n=1406)...
October 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Leslie L Roos, Roxana Dragan, Robert J Schroth
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the socio-economic gradient in utilization and the risk factors associated with hospitalization for four pediatric ambulatory care sensitive conditions (dental conditions, asthma, gastroenteritis, and bacterial pneumonia). Dental conditions, where much care is provided by dentists and insurance coverage varies among different population segments, present special issues. METHODS: A population registry, provider registry, physician ambulatory claims, and hospital discharge abstracts from 28 398 children born in 2003-2006 in urban centres in Manitoba, Canada were the main data sources...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Jia Loon Chong, David B Matchar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Aline Diniz Rodrigues Caldas, Ricardo Ventura Santos, Gabriel Mendes Borges, Joaquim Gonçalves Valente, Margareth Crisóstomo Portela, Gerson Luiz Marinho
The aim of this study was to investigate infant mortality data according to color or race in Brazil with a focus on indigenous individuals, based on data from the 2010 Population Census and the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) and Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC). In both sources, the infant mortality rate (IMR) for indigenous individuals was the highest of all the various population segments. Although the census data indicate inequalities by color or race, the infant mortality rates for indigenous and black individuals were lower than those based on data from SIM/SINASC...
August 7, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Meghan Winters, Ralph Buehler, Thomas Götschi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While many levels of government recognize that walking and cycling (active travel) are critical to healthy cities, a continued challenge is to identify and prioritize strategies that will increase walking and cycling for transportation. We review evidence on policies that can increase active travel. RECENT FINDINGS: The reviews included here conclude that policies related to active travel may operate at various levels of the socio-ecological framework, including society, cities, routes or individuals...
September 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Linda Stein Gold, William P Werschler, Jennifer Mohawk
<p>BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris affects a diverse group of people, and there is an increasingly wide variety of acne treatments. Because of the many options, clinicians have a better ability to individualize treatment; however, achieving optimal results relies on understanding how various agents perform in specific population segments. Fixed-combination adapalene plus benzoyl peroxide (A/BPO) is a first-line recommended acne therapy and is available in two adapalene concentrations (0.1% and 0.3%) combined with BPO 2...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Dimosthenis Kyriazis, Serge Autexier, Iván Brondino, Michael Boniface, Lucas Donat, Vegard Engen, Rafael Fernandez, Ricardo Jimenez-Peris, Blanca Jordan, Gregor Jurak, Athanasios Kiourtis, Thanos Kosmidis, Mitja Lustrek, Ilias Maglogiannis, John Mantas, Antonio Martinez, Argyro Mavrogiorgou, Andreas Menychtas, Lydia Montandon, Cosmin-Septimiu Nechifor, Sokratis Nifakos, Alexandra Papageorgiou, Marta Patino-Martinez, Manuel Perez, Vassilis Plagianakos, Dalibor Stanimirovic, Gregor Starc, Tanja Tomson, Francesco Torelli, Vicente Traver-Salcedo, George Vassilacopoulos, Usman Wajid
Today's rich digital information environment is characterized by the multitude of data sources providing information that has not yet reached its full potential in eHealth. The aim of the presented approach, namely CrowdHEALTH, is to introduce a new paradigm of Holistic Health Records (HHRs) that include all health determinants. HHRs are transformed into HHRs clusters capturing the clinical, social and human context of population segments and as a result collective knowledge for different factors. The proposed approach also seamlessly integrates big data technologies across the complete data path, providing of Data as a Service (DaaS) to the health ecosystem stakeholders, as well as to policy makers towards a "health in all policies" approach...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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