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"Population segmentation"

Albert A Okunade, Rose M Rubin, Adeyinka K Okunade
Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMIs) to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) rates to the all-cause deaths rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid) from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage) provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Harshvardhan Chawla, Hassan M Ghomrawi, Jelle P van der List, Ashley A Eggman, Hendrik A Zuiderbaan, Andrew D Pearle
BACKGROUND: Improved survivorship has contributed to the increased use of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) as an alternative to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. However, heterogeneity among cost-effectiveness analysis studies comparing UKA to TKA has prevented the derivation of discrete implant survivorship targets. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the age-stratified annual revision rate (ARR) threshold for UKA to become consistently cost-effective for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Kheng Yong Ong, Li Li Chen, Jane Ai Wong, Jin Cheng Lim, Doris Bee Hoon Teo, Mui Chai Tan
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the safety and efficiency of, and acceptance by, patients for an express refill service (ERS). Design/methodology/approach A pilot uncontrolled, cross-sectional, single-centred study was conducted at the outpatient pharmacy of a tertiary acute care hospital. Under ERS, prescriptions were dispensed without clinical review and counselling for patients refilling prescription medications. Efficiency was assessed by comparing processing times of ERS prescriptions with regular prescriptions...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Huiting Liu, Lynne Lieberman, Elizabeth S Stevens, Randy P Auerbach, Stewart A Shankman
Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States; however, mental health within this population segment, particularly anxiety disorders, remains significantly understudied. Both the heterogeneity within the Asian American population and the multidimensional nature of anxiety contribute to difficulties in understanding anxiety in this population. The present paper reviewed two sources of heterogeneity within anxiety in Asian Americans: (1) cultural variables and (2) mechanisms or components of anxiety...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Maru Aregawi, Samuel J Smith, Musa Sillah-Kanu, John Seppeh, Anitta R Y Kamara, Ryan O Williams, John J Aponte, Andrea Bosman, Pedro Alonso
BACKGROUND: As emergency response to the Ebola epidemic, the Government of Sierra Leone and its partners implemented a large-scale Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) covering >2.7 million people in the districts hardest hit by Ebola during December 2014-January 2015. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) evaluated the impact of the MDA on malaria morbidity at health facilities and the number of Ebola alerts received at District Ebola Command Centres...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jeffrey D Clough, Gerald F Riley, Melissa Cohen, Sheila M Hanley, Darshak Sanghavi, Darren A DeWalt, Rahul Rajkumar, Patrick H Conway
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve the efficiency of care for the Medicare population commonly target high cost beneficiaries. We describe and evaluate a novel management approach, population segmentation, for identifying and managing high cost beneficiaries. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 6,919,439 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012. We defined and characterized eight distinct clinical population segments, and assessed heterogeneity in managing practitioners...
September 2016: Healthcare
E S Petherick, L Fairley, R C Parslow, R McEachan, D Tuffnell, K E Pickett, D Leon, D A Lawlor, J Wright
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time of optimal motivation for many women to make positive behavioural changes. We aim to describe pregnant women with similar patterns of self-reported health behaviours and examine associations with birth outcomes. METHODS: We examined the clustering of multiple health behaviours during pregnancy in the Born in Bradford cohort, including smoking physical inactivity, vitamin d supplementation and exposure to second-hand smoke.Latent class analysis was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of health behaviours separately for White British (WB) and Pakistani mothers...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Maaike J Bruins, Roland Kupka, Michael B Zimmermann, Georg Lietz, Reina Engle-Stone, Klaus Kraemer
Interventions to address micronutrient deficiencies have large potential to reduce the related disease and economic burden. However, the potential risks of excessive micronutrient intakes are often not well determined. During the Global Summit on Food Fortification, 9-11 September 2015, in Arusha, a symposium was organized on micronutrient risk-benefit assessments. Using case studies on folic acid, iodine and vitamin A, the presenters discussed how to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of intervention programs to address micronutrient malnutrition...
October 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Keith Feldman, Gregor Stiglic, Dipanwita Dasgupta, Mark Kricheff, Zoran Obradovic, Nitesh V Chawla
The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population...
2016: Scientific Reports
Helen Bailey, David H Secor
An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011...
2016: Scientific Reports
Natalia Yavich, Ernesto Pablo Báscolo, Jeannie Haggerty
BACKGROUND: Most Latin American health systems are comprised of public (PubS), social security (SSS) and private (PrS) subsystems. These subsystems coexist, causing health care fragmentation and population segmentation. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of subsystem cross-coverage in a geographically bounded population (Rosario city) and to compare the subsystems' performance on primary health care (PHC) dimensions. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey to a representative sample (n = 822) of the Rosario population, we measured the percentage of cross-coverage (people with usual source of care in one subsystem but also covered by another subsystem) and the health services' performance by core PHC dimensions, as reported by each subsystem's usual users...
June 2016: Family Practice
Sandra Benavides-Vaello, Sharon A Brown
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore how low-income Hispanic women, with at least 10 years of having type 2 diabetes, successfully manage the disease within a sociocultural context, especially in relation to foodways. BACKGROUND: Managing type 2 diabetes is challenging, particularly for underserved populations such as low-income Hispanic women. This population segment has higher rates of type 2 diabetes, diabetes-related complications, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles than the general U...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Mark J Elzey, Sarah M Barden, Eric S Edwards
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose continues to be a significant and growing cause of preventable mortality and morbidity. Studies suggest that unintentional, non-fatal overdose from prescription opioid analgesics constitutes a large portion of total overdose events. The societal burden associated with these events is a frequently overlooked public health concern. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate unintentional, non-fatal prescription opioid overdoses, including the identification of risk factors, societal burden, and knowledge gaps where further study is warranted...
May 2016: Pain Physician
Kristy Wallmo, Daniel K Lew
It is generally acknowledged that willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for environmental goods exhibit some degree of spatial variation. In a policy context, spatial variation in threatened and endangered species values is important to understand, as the benefit stream from policies affecting threatened and endangered species may vary locally, regionally, or among certain population segments. In this paper we present WTP estimates for eight different threatened and endangered marine species estimated from a stated preference choice experiment...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Paul S Bergman, Gregg Schumer, Scott Blankenship, Elizabeth Campbell
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context...
2016: PloS One
A Weber, D Karch, U Thyen, A Rommel, R Schlack, H Hölling, R von Kries
Aim of the study: The use of physical therapy in German children and adolescents has so far solely been analyzed on the basis of health insurance data, which can neither consider case history nor social factors. Using the KiGGS-baseline survey it is possible to examine the use of physical therapy on the basis of parental reported health problems and social factors. Methodology: Identifiable determinants for the use of physical therapy in the last 12 months in the KiGGS-baseline survey were examined bivariate and multivariate in logistic regression models with mutual adjustment...
April 7, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
S J Whiting, W M Kohrt, M P Warren, M I Kraenzlin, J-P Bonjour
Food fortification can deliver essential micronutrients to large population segments without modifications in consumption pattern, suggesting that fortified foods may be formulated for populations at risk for fragility fractures. This scoping review determined the extent to which randomized controlled studies have been carried out to test the impact of fortified foods on bone outcomes, searching PubMed for all studies using the terms 'fortified AND bone', and 'fortification AND bone'. Studies were restricted to English language, published between 1996 and June 2015...
March 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kristecia S Estem, Joseph Catania, Jeffrey D Klausner
Oral HIV self-testing is an innovative and potentially high-impact means to increase HIV-case identification globally. As a screening test, oral HIV self-testing offers the potential for increased adoption through greater convenience and privacy, and the potential to increase the proportion of the population who test regularly. Research on how best to translate the innovation of oral self-testing to high-risk populations is underway. Currently only one oral HIV self-test kit is FDA-approved (OraQuick In-Home HIV Test) and available for retail sale...
April 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
J P Repo, I Barner-Rasmussen, R P Roine, H Sintonen, E J Tukiainen
BACKGROUND: Extensive compound tibial fractures present reconstructive challenges. The present study aimed to assess the outcomes of microvascular latissimus dorsi (LD) flap combined with the Ilizarov technique for extensive compound tibial fractures with bone loss and bone healing complications. METHODS: Patient records were reviewed retrospectively. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), the Disabilities of the Arm, Hand and Shoulder (DASH), and the 15D health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument were applied...
April 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Isabelle Agier, Antarou Ly, Kadidiatou Kadio, Seni Kouanda, Valéry Ridde
In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence...
February 2016: Social Science & Medicine
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