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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606259/-vancomycin-nephrotoxicity-frequency-and-mechanistic-aspects
#1
Yosu Luque, Laurent Mesnard
Vancomycin, discovered in 1953 and widely used today, has a nephrotoxic potential that has long been debated. The frequency of renal involvement is variable and can range from 5% to 30% depending concomitant risk factors: overdose, chronic kidney disease, obesity, hypovolemia, and use of other nephrotoxic drugs as aminoglycosides. Its association with piperacillin-tazobactam also appears to increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. This hypothesis should be confirmed experimentally. Vancomycin-induced oxidative stress in tubular cells and intraluminal cast formation are the two physiopathological mechanisms explaining its nephrotoxicity...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590132/glp-1-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-obesity-induced-chronic-kidney-injury-via-restoring-renal-metabolism-homeostasis
#2
Chengshi Wang, Ling Li, Shuyun Liu, Guangneng Liao, Lan Li, Younan Chen, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Jingping Liu
Increasing evidence indicates that obesity is highly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist has shown benefits on kidney diseases, but its direct role on kidney metabolism in obesity is still not clear. This study aims to investigate the protection and metabolic modulation role of liraglutide (Lira) on kidney of obesity. Rats were induced obese by high-fat diet (HFD), and renal function and metabolism changes were evaluated by metabolomic, biological and histological methods...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572114/renal-outcomes-with-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-in-obese-insulin-resistant-model
#3
Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, Laongdao Thongnak, Keerati Wanchai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity and insulin resistance contribute to the progression of renal disease. This study was performed to determine the effects of dapagliflozin, a novel sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, on renal and renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) functions in high-fat diet fed rats, a model of obese insulin-resistance. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal diet (ND) (n = 6) or a high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 18) for 16 weeks...
March 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559506/cross-talk-between-renal-lithogenesis-and-atherosclerosis-an-unveiled-link-between-kidney-stone-formation-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Asokan Devarajan
The prevalence of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing throughout the world. Both diseases are chronic and characterized by accumulation of oxidized proteins and lipids in the renal tissue and arterial wall, respectively. Emerging studies have revealed a positive association between nephrolithiasis and CVDs. Based on preclinical and clinical evidences, this review discusses: (i) stone forming risk factors, crystal nucleation, aggregation, injury-induced crystal retention, and stone formation, (ii) CVD risk factors such as dyslipidemia, perturbation of gut microbiome, obesity, free radical-induced lipoprotein oxidation, and retention in the arterial wall, subsequent foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis, (iii) mechanism by which stone forming risk factors such as oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and infection contribute toward CVDs, and (iv) how CVD risk factors, such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and uric acid, contribute to kidney stone formation are described...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550095/incidence-and-perioperative-risk-factors-for-early-acute-kidney-injury-after-radical-cystectomy-and-urinary-diversion
#5
Marc A Furrer, Marc P Schneider, Fiona C Burkhard, Patrick Y Wuethrich
BACKGROUND: Early postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following major surgery. Only few reports exist on postoperative AKI and specifically its risk factors after radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion (UD). We aimed to identify risk factors for AKI in patients undergoing RC and UD. METHODS: In an observational single-center cohort study, 912 consecutive bladder cancer patients undergoing RC and UD from 2000 to 2016 were evaluated for risk factors for AKI...
March 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516017/ischemic-renal-injury-complicating-intragastric-balloon-insertion
#6
Emad S Aljahdli
A 25-year-old obese woman experienced ischemic renal injury as a complication of intragastric balloon (IGB) insertion for weight reduction. Although IGB is associated with a low risk of renal injury in the form of acute renal failure, this presentation has never been reported. The patient responded well to treatment, with complete clinical and radiologic resolution after balloon removal. She did not have an apparent cause of renal ischemia other than a significant compression of the renal vessels by the balloon as seen on imaging...
2018: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512306/preventing-muscle-wasting-by-osteoporosis-drug-alendronate-in-vitro-and-in-myopathy-models-via-sirtuin-3-down-regulation
#7
Hsien-Chun Chiu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUND: A global consensus on the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans refers as sarcopenia and cachexia including diabetes, obesity, renal failure, and osteoporosis. Despite a current improvement of sarcopenia or cachexia with exercise training and supportive therapies, alternative and specific managements are needed to discover for whom are unable or unwilling to embark on these treatments. Alendronate is a widely used drug for osteoporosis in the elderly and postmenopausal women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507597/a-low-protein-diet-exerts-a-beneficial-effect-on-diabetic-status-and-prevents-diabetic-nephropathy-in-wistar-fatty-rats-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity
#8
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Taeko Suzuki, Itaru Monno, Keizo Kanasaki, Ai Watanabe, Daisuke Koya
Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a low-protein diet (LPD) starting from a young age on diabetic status and renal injury in a rat model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Methods: Diabetic male Wistar fatty ( fa/fa ) rats (WFRs) were fed a standard diet (23.84% protein) or an LPD (5.77% protein) for 24 weeks beginning at 6 weeks of age. We investigated the effects of the LPD on total body weight (BW); fat weight (FW); lower-limb muscle weight (MW); several measures of diabetic status, including fasting/random glucose levels, HOMA-IR and the IPITT; and renal injuries, including renal hypertrophy, albuminuria and histological changes...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499280/lipoxin-a4-may-attenuate-the-progression-of-obesity-related-glomerulopathy-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-erk-p38-mapk-dependent-inflammation
#9
Yan-Ping Guo, Hong-Kun Jiang, Hong Jiang, Hong-Yu Tian, Lei Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) on inflammatory responses in obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) mouse model and its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal, model, LXA4, and LXA4/Boc-2 groups (n = 8). Mice in LXA4 group were intraperitoneally injected with LXA4 (40 ng/kg) once daily for 3 days following 12 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. LXA4 receptor antagonist, Boc-2, was administered in LXA4/Boc-2 group prior to LXA4 treatment to block the effects of LXA4...
February 27, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483238/prebiotic-prevents-impaired-kidney-and-renal-oat3-functions-in-obese-rats
#10
Keerati Wanchai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Wannipa Tunapong, Titikorn Chunchai, Parameth Thiennimitr, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Siriporn Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
Obesity is health issue worldwide, which can lead to kidney dysfunction. Prebiotics are non-digestible foods that have beneficial effects on health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on renal function, renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) and the mechanisms involved. High-fat diet was provided for 12 weeks in male Wistar rats. After that, the rats were divided into normal diet (ND); normal diet treated with XOS (NDX); high-fat diet (HF) and high-fat diet treated with XOS (HFX)...
April 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456224/alport-s-syndrome-with-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-lesion-pattern-to-recognize
#11
Afnan A Alsahli, Sara I Alshahwan, Amal O Alotaibi, Khaled O Alsaad, Nourah Aloudah, Mahfooz Farooqui, Abdullah A Al Sayyari
The association between Alport's syndrome (AS) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in the same patient is complex and rarely reported. We report a case of a 42-year-old male presenting with proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, elevated serum creatinine and hypertension with unremarkable physical examination apart from obesity. The renal biopsy showed well-established FSGS pattern of injury with mild interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, while the electron microscopic examination demonstrated glomerular basement membranes (GBM) changes compatible with AS...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432202/plasma-midregional-proadrenomedullin-mr-proadm-concentrations-and-their-biological-determinants-in-a-reference-population
#12
Magdalena Krintus, Marek Kozinski, Federica Braga, Jacek Kubica, Grazyna Sypniewska, Mauro Panteghini
BACKGROUND: Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is emerging as a prognostic biomarker for detecting the failure of multiple organs. Establishment of scientifically robust reference intervals facilitates interpretation of laboratory test results. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish reliable reference intervals for plasma MR-proADM using a commercially available automated fluoroimmunoassay in apparently healthy individuals, and (ii) to identify biological determinants of MR-proADM concentrations...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428203/outcomes-of-obese-and-morbidly-obese-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#13
Elizabeth D Paratz, Luke E Wilkinson, Andrew I MacIsaac
BACKGROUND: The risks of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in obese and particularly morbidly obese patients remain uncertain. METHODS: 1082 consecutive patients were categorised as non-obese (NO, body mass index (BMI) <30kg/m2, n=688), obese (O, BMI 30-40kg/m2, n=354) or morbidly obese (MO, BMI ≥40kg/m2, n=40). Demographic and procedural information was collated. Monte Carlo simulations modelled radiation dosimetric data. RESULTS: Obese and morbidly obese patients were younger (p=0...
September 18, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415663/the-impact-of-disease-severity-on-paradoxical-association-between-body-mass-index-and-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-undergoing-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#14
Hyoungnae Kim, Hyunwook Kim, Misol Lee, Min-Uk Cha, Ki Heon Nam, Seong Yeong An, Su-Young Jung, Jong Hyun Jhee, Seohyun Park, Hae-Ryong Yun, Youn Kyung Kee, Hyung Jung Oh, Jung Tak Park, Tae Ik Chang, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Seung Hyeok Han
BACKGROUND: Association between high body mass index (BMI) and survival benefit is confounded by comorbid conditions such as nutritional status and inflammation. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), particularly those receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), are highly catabolic and more susceptible to loss of energy. Herein, we evaluated whether disease severity can modify the relationship between BMI and mortality. METHODS: We conducted an observational study in 1144 patients who had undergone CRRT owing to various causes of AKI between 2010 and 2014...
February 7, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408400/bariatric-surgery-prior-to-elective-posterior-lumbar-fusion-is-associated-with-reduced-medical-complications-and-infection
#15
Deeptee Jain, Sigurd Berven, John Carter, Alan L Zhang, Vedat Deviren
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Severely obese patients with operative spinal pathology present a challenge to the spine surgeon, given the increased complication risk. PURPOSE: Determine the impact of bariatric surgery on perioperative complications of posterior lumbar fusion. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery in the State Inpatient Databases (SID) of New York, Florida, North Carolina, Nebraska, Utah, and California...
February 2, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389945/intermittent-hypoxia-causes-histological-kidney-damage-and-increases-growth-factor-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Bisher Abuyassin, Mohammad Badran, Najib T Ayas, Ismail Laher
Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and accelerated loss of kidney function. It is unclear whether the decline in function is due to OSA per se or to other confounding factors such as obesity. In addition, the structural kidney abnormalities associated with OSA are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH), a key pathological feature of OSA, induces renal histopathological damage using a mouse model. Ten 8-week old wild-type male CB57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either IH or intermittent air (IA) for 60 days...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374876/-solitary-kidney-is-it-too-little
#17
REVIEW
Roxana Cleper
Solitary functioning kidney (SFK) occurs with unilateral renal agenesis (URA) in 1/2000 live births - or after uninephrectomy for tumor, trauma, uncontrolled infections or hypertension and post-kidney donation. URA-associated states include urological, cardiac, gastrointestinal and skeletal anomalies or it might be a component of a genetic syndrome. In 10% of cases of URA another family member is affected. In any case of SFK a compensatory process is triggered consisting of glomerular hypertension with hyperfiltration which achieves 75% of two kidneys' function...
January 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374293/effects-of-the-sglt2-inhibitor-ipragliflozin-on-various-diabetic-symptoms-and-progression-of-overt-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#18
Atsuo Tahara, Toshiyuki Takasu
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and is associated with high-cardiovascular risk and significant morbidity and mortality. The recent development of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors offers a new antidiabetic therapy via enhanced glucose excretion; however, the beneficial effect of these drugs on the development of type 2 diabetic overt nephropathy is still largely unclear. We examined the therapeutic effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin on various diabetic symptoms and the progression of nephropathy in uninephrectomized type 2 diabetic mice, which exhibit not only typical diabetic symptoms, such as impaired insulin secretion, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and obesity, but also overt nephropathy with decline in renal function...
April 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358013/perioperative-care-of-the-obese-cardiac-surgical-patient
#19
REVIEW
M Megan Chacon, Sreekanth R Cheruku, Peter J Neuburger, Laeben Lester, Sasha K Shillcutt
Morbid obesity is associated with impairment of cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and renal physiology with significant perioperative consequences and has been linked with higher morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgery patients have a higher incidence of difficult airway and difficult laryngoscopy than general surgery patients do, and obesity is associated with difficult mask ventilation and direct laryngoscopy. Positioning injuries occur more frequently because obese patients are at greater risk of pressure injury, such as rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346138/obesity-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Edward Nehus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment of obesity-related kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed that obesity is associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). This risk extends to those who are metabolically healthy, indicating that obesity per se contributes to CKD independent of the metabolic syndrome. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of obesity-related kidney disease indicate that chronic inflammation and abnormal lipid metabolism contribute to kidney cell injury...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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