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Renal injury obesity

Wojciech Witkowski, Marek Kawecki, Agnieszka Surowiecka-Pastewka, Wojciech Klimm, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Stanisław Niemczyk
BACKGROUND This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h...
October 17, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Chengyuan Tang, Juan Cai, Zheng Dong
Lipid accumulation in renal cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Szeto et al. now unravel a central role of mitochondrial dysfunction in a high fat diet-induced glomerulopathy and proximal tubular injury. Moreover, they demonstrate the renoprotective effect of SS31, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, in related models. Targeting mitochondria may offer a novel strategy for the therapy of obesity-related kidney disease...
November 2016: Kidney International
Zhi Su, Deborah Widomski, Ji Ma, Marian Namovic, Arthur Nikkel, Laura Leys, Lauren Olson, Katherine Salte, Diana Donnelly-Roberts, Timothy Esbenshade, Steve McGaraughty
BACKGROUND: Obese ZSF-1 rats display many features of human type II diabetes including nephropathy (DN). The study aimed to further understand the relevance of this model to DN, for which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal fibrosis and several urinary/tissue biomarkers was followed over 24 weeks in ZSF-1 rats. METHODS: Intact/sham or uninephrectomized male and female ZSF-1 rats were studied. GFR was measured by transdermal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Babak Baban, Jun Yao Liu, Samuel Payne, Worku Abebe, Jack C Yu, Mahmood S Mozaffari
BACKGROUND: Recruitment of stem cells to sites of tissue injury constitutes an important mechanism aimed at tissue repair and regeneration. However, it is not clear how the diabetic milieu affects the viability of endogenous stem cells. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus is associated with increased apoptosis which, in turn, contributes to reduction in stem cells and the manifestation of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Sixteen-week-old male obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice, and their appropriate controls, were used for assessment of the status of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and hematopoetic stem cells (HSCs) in the peripheral blood and renal tissue using specific cell markers...
2016: EPMA Journal
Marije Smit, Maureen J M Werner, Annemieke Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Willem Dieperink, Jan G Zijlstra, Matijs van Meurs
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is frequently present in critically ill patients and is an independent predictor for mortality. Better recognition of clinically important thresholds is necessary. Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is associated with renal dysfunction, and renal failure is one of the most consistently described organ dysfunctions associated with IAH. Obesity is also associated with kidney injury. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Robert Zura, Ze Xiong, Thomas Einhorn, J Tracy Watson, Robert F Ostrum, Michael J Prayson, Gregory J Della Rocca, Samir Mehta, Todd McKinley, Zhe Wang, R Grant Steen
Importance: Failure of bone fracture healing occurs in 5% to 10% of all patients. Nonunion risk is associated with the severity of injury and with the surgical treatment technique, yet progression to nonunion is not fully explained by these risk factors. Objective: To test a hypothesis that fracture characteristics and patient-related risk factors assessable by the clinician at patient presentation can indicate the probability of fracture nonunion. Design, Setting, and Participants: An inception cohort study in a large payer database of patients with fracture in the United States was conducted using patient-level health claims for medical and drug expenses compiled for approximately 90...
September 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Meera Nair, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Albuminuria is a biomarker of renal injury commonly used to monitor progression of diabetic kidney disease. The appearance of excess albumin in the urine reflects alterations in the structure and permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. The present article summarizes the clinical evidence base for remission of albuminuria after bariatric surgery. It furthermore focuses on how beneficial impacts on glomerular podocyte structure and function may explain this phenomenon...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Emanuela Viviani, Anna Maria Giribono, Donatella Narese, Doriana Ferrara, Giuseppe Servillo, Luca Del Guercio, Umberto Marcello Bracale
Compartment syndrome (CS) is a pathological increase of the interstitial pressure within the closed osseous fascial compartments. Trauma is the most common cause, followed by embolization, burns, and iatrogenic injuries; it usually involves the limbs. The major issue when dealing with CS is the possibility to do an early diagnosis in order to intervene precociously, through a fasciotomy, reducing the risk of tissue, vascular and nervous damage. Although it is an infrequent condition, it is potentially life threatening...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Sarah J Glastras, Hui Chen, Rachel Teh, Rachel T McGrath, Jason Chen, Carol A Pollock, Muh Geot Wong, Sonia Saad
Multiple rodent models have been used to study diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The purpose of the present study was to compare models of diabetes and obesity-induced metabolic syndrome and determine differences in renal outcomes. C57BL/6 male mice were fed either normal chow or high fat diet (HFD). At postnatal week 8, chow-fed mice were randomly assigned to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day, five consecutive days) or vehicle control, whereas HFD-fed mice were given either one high-dose of STZ (100 mg/kg) or vehicle control...
2016: PloS One
Moritz Schanz, Dirk Pannes, Jürgen Dippon, Christoph Wasser, Mark Dominik Alscher, Martin Kimmel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a growing role for emergency departments (ED) in assessing acute kidney injury (AKI) for hospital admissions but there are few studies addressing acute kidney injury biomarkers and confounding factors in the ED. Cystatin C (CysC), a newer renal biomarker, is influenced by thyroid function, inflammation and obesity. This study aims to be the first study to address the impact of these parameters in the ED. METHODS: Admitted patients (n=397) were enrolled in the ED at Robert-Bosch-Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany...
September 1, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Andrea Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Sabiha S Chowdhury, Virginie Lecomte, Jonathan H Erlich, Christopher A Maloney, Margaret J Morris
Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13-14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating...
2016: Nutrients
Zhihui Zhang, Kan Yang, Lixiong Zeng, Xiaoyan Wang, Fenglin Jiang, Shan Tu, Qishun Liang, Zhijie Shen
This study aimed to investigate the effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) on blood pressure, renal function, and renal tissue pathological changes in obesity-induced hypertensive dogs. Thirty-two beagle dogs (10-12 months) were randomized to the control (n=10) and model groups (n=22). High-fat diet (HFD) was used to establish the obesity-induced hypertensive model. After 3 months of HFD, 20 animals with successfully induced hypertension were randomized to the RDN (n=10) and sham groups (n=10). Renal artery angiography, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood and urine biochemistry were determined 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery...
August 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jinn-Yang Chen, Deng-Yuan Jian, Chih-Chan Lien, Yu-Ting Lin, Ching-Heng Ting, Luen-Kui Chen, Ting-Chia Hsu, Hsuan-Min Huang, Yu-Ting Wu, Tse-Ting Kuan, Yu-Wen Chao, Liang-Yi Wu, Seng-Wong Huang, Chi-Chang Juan
Obesity is a risk factor that promotes progressive kidney disease. Studies have shown that an adipocytokine imbalance contributes to impaired renal function in humans and animals, but the underlying interplay between adipocytokines and renal injury remains to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms linking obesity to chronic kidney disease. We assessed renal function in high-fat diet (HF)-fed and normal diet-fed rats, and the effects of preadipocyte- and adipocyte-conditioned medium on cultured podocytes...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Hazel H Szeto, Shaoyi Liu, Yi Soong, Nazia Alam, Glen T Prusky, Surya V Seshan
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease, even independent of its association with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The primary pathologic finding of obesity-related kidney disease is glomerulopathy, with glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Proposed mechanisms leading to renal pathology include abnormal lipid metabolism, lipotoxicity, inhibition of AMP kinase, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Here we report dramatic changes in mitochondrial structure in glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and proximal tubular epithelial cells after 28 weeks of a high-fat diet in C57BL/6 mice...
November 2016: Kidney International
Quaisar Ali, Isha Dhande, Preethi Samuel, Tahir Hussain
INTRODUCTION: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components exert diverse physiological functions and have been sub-grouped into deleterious angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and protective ACE2/angiotensin (1-7) (Ang-(1-7))/Mas receptor (MasR) axes. We have reported that chronic activation of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) alters RAS components and provides protection against obesity-related kidney injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized AT2R knockout (AT2KO) mice in this study and evaluated the renal expression of various RAS components and examined the renal injury after placing these mice on high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Istvan Arany, Samuel Hall, Dustin K Reed, Mehul Dixit
Nicotine (NIC) exposure augments free fatty acid (FFA) deposition and oxidative stress, with a concomitant increase in the expression of the pro-oxidant p66shc. In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been observed in the kidneys of mice fed a high‑fat diet. The present study aimed to determine whether the pro‑oxidant p66shc mediates NIC‑dependent increases in renal oxidative stress by augmenting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing the FFA‑induced antioxidant response in cultured NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kasi C McPherson, Lateia Taylor, Ashley C Johnson, Sean P Didion, Aron M Geurts, Michael R Garrett, Jan M Williams
The current study examined the effect of obesity on the development of renal injury within the genetic background of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat with a dysfunctional leptin receptor derived from zinc-finger nucleases (SS(LepR)mutant strain). At 6 wk of age, body weight was 35% higher in the SS(LepR)mutant strain compared with SSWT rats and remained elevated throughout the entire study. The SS(LepR)mutant strain exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and increased plasma insulin levels at 6 wk of age, suggesting insulin resistance while SSWT rats did not...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Dongdong Wu, Biao Gao, Mengling Li, Ling Yao, Shuaiwei Wang, Mingliang Chen, Hui Li, Chunyan Ma, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for the development and progression of kidney disease. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in renal physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, whether H2S is able to mitigate kidney injury induced by obesity in mice remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of lipids in the kidneys of high fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. The results of hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome staining showed that H2S ameliorated the kidney structure, decreased the extent of interstitial injury, and reduced the degree of kidney fibrosis in HFD-induced obese mice...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yuji Ishibashi, Takanori Matsui, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi
OBJECTIVE: Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 ameliorate hyperglycaemia in diabetes by increasing urinary glucose excretion. However, the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy are not fully elucidated. We examined whether tofogliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, suppressed renal damage in KKAy/Ta mice, obese and type 2 diabetic animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male 8-week-old KKAy/Ta mice or control C57BL/6J mice were kept on a standard diet with or without 0...
November 2016: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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