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Mechanical ventilation, infectious diseases, intensive care unit,

Rama Bozorgmehr, Vanousheh Bahrani, Alireza Fatemi
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common hospital infections and a side effect of lengthy stay in intensive care unit (ICU). Considering the ever-changing pattern of common pathogens in infectious diseases and the raise in prevalence of hospital infections, the present study was designed aiming to determine the prevalence of VAP and its bacterial causes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the medical profiles of all the patients under mechanical ventilation, who had no symptoms of pneumonia at the time of intubation and developed new infiltration in chest radiography after 48 hours under mechanical ventilation along with at least 2 of the symptoms including fever, hypothermia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, or purulent discharge from the lungs, were evaluated...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Hülya Çaşkurlu, Rahman Nurmuhammedov, Zarni Htway
Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Ruslan Abdullayev, Filiz Cosku Saral, Omer Burak Kucukebe, Hakan Sezgin Sayiner, Cem Bayraktar, Sadik Akgun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many conditions such as bacterial and viral infectious diseases, mechanical obstruction due to air and calculi and drugs can cause parotitis. We present a case of unusual bilateral parotitis in a patient under non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in intensive care unit. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old patient was admitted to intensive care unit with the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Leonardo Duarte Sobreira Luna, Douglas de Sousa Soares, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Lara Raissa Cavalcante Malveira, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included...
July 11, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Voichița Lăzureanu, Mirela Poroșnicu, Ciprian Gândac, Teodora Moisil, Luminița Bădițoiu, Ruxandra Laza, Virgil Musta, Alexandru Crișan, Adelina-Raluca Marinescu
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in critical condition patients. The pathogen's ability to survive under a wide range of environment conditions and to persist for long periods of time on areas represents a frequent cause of endemic infection hotbeds especially in the Intensive Care Unit. The objectives of the study are: determining the 5-year incidence of A. baumannii infection in patients admitted in the ICU which needed mechanical ventilation; the analysis of these cases regarding pathological antecedents; processing the data regarding these cases; gradual analysis of the susceptibility/resistance of isolated A...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sanliay Sahin, Mutlu Uysal Yazici, Ganime Ayar, Zeynep Selen Karalok, Ebru Petek Arhan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the research is to determine the etiology and clinical features of seizures in critically ill children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A total of 203 children were admitted from June 2013 to November 2013; 45 patients were eligible. Age ranged from 2 months to 19 years. Seizures were organized as epileptic or acute symptomatic. Pediatric risk of mortality score III, Glasgow coma scale, risk factors, coexistent diagnosis, medications administered before admission, type and duration of seizures, drugs used, requirement and duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay and neuroimaging findings were collected as demographic data prospectively...
April 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Lukas Buendgens, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke
Stress-related mucosal disease is a typical complication of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). It poses a risk of clinically relevant upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Therefore, stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is recommended in high-risk patients, especially those mechanically ventilated > 48 h and those with a manifest coagulopathy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and, less effectively, histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) prevent GI bleeding in critically ill patients in the ICU...
February 4, 2016: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Xiao Yuan, Su-Yun Qian, Zheng Li, Zhe-Zhe Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease in infancy. Previous work shows controversial results on the benefit of zinc supplementation in patients with pneumonia. We conducted this study to investigate serum zinc status amongst infants with severe pneumonia and the clinical impact that zinc supplementation has on those patients with low serum zinc levels. METHODS: This study design was a non-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial...
May 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Brandon Swain Toney, Donna Lynch-Smith
The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) infections in mechanically ventilated patients has significantly affected how medical providers manage the severe acute pulmonary pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and implement medical interventions to prevent infectious transmission to these patients in the intensive care unit. Severe COPD is present in more than 65 million people worldwide, thereby placing these individuals at an increased risk of intensive care unit admission and VAP contraction...
January 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Kimmie K McLaurin, Archana Chatterjee, Doris Makari
INTRODUCTION: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases issued updated guidance on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in 2014. This report models the potential impact of the new guidance on RSV outcomes in preterm infants 29-34 weeks' gestational age (wGA) without chronic lung disease in the United States. METHODS: The number of preterm infants was estimated using 2012 natality data. Palivizumab utilization prior to the 2014 guidance update was estimated using 2013-2014 specialty pharmacy utilization data...
October 26, 2015: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Renata Waltrick, Dimitri Sauter Possamai, Fernanda Perito de Aguiar, Micheli Dadam, Valmir João de Souza Filho, Lucas Rocker Ramos, Renata da Silva Laurett, Kênia Fujiwara, Milton Caldeira Filho, Álvaro Koenig, Glauco Adrieno Westphal
OBJECTIVE: >To evaluate the agreement between a new epidemiological surveillance method of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the clinical pulmonary infection score for mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia detection. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study that evaluated patients in the intensive care units of two hospitals who were intubated for more than 48 hours between August 2013 and June 2014. Patients were evaluated daily by physical therapist using the clinical pulmonary infection score...
July 2015: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Shikha Garg, Seema Jain, Fatimah S Dawood, Michael Jhung, Alejandro Pérez, Tiffany D'Mello, Arthur Reingold, Ken Gershman, James Meek, Kathryn E Arnold, Monica M Farley, Patricia Ryan, Ruth Lynfield, Craig Morin, Joan Baumbach, Emily B Hancock, Shelley Zansky, Nancy Bennett, Ann Thomas, William Schaffner, Lyn Finelli
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumonia combined are the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases in the United States. We describe factors associated with pneumonia among adults hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: Through the Emerging Infections Program, we identified adults ≥ 18 years, who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during October 2005 through April 2008, and had a chest radiograph (CXR) performed. Pneumonia was defined as the presence of a CXR infiltrate and either an ICD-9-CM code or discharge summary diagnosis of pneumonia...
August 26, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tanja Brünnler, Miriam Susewind, Ute Hoffmann, Felix Rockmann, Boris Ehrenstein, Martin Fleck
OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes in a large cohort of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases admitted to the ICU of a tertiary university medical center. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis was performed in 108 patients suffering from various rheumatic diseases and the outcomes, including morbidity and mortality, were assessed in relation to the underlying diseases, treatments and complications. RESULTS: Overall, 48 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, five patients with spondyloarthritis, 14 patients with vasculitis, 30 patients with connective tissue diseases and 11 patients suffering from other rheumatologic conditions were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
2015: Internal Medicine
Luke W Van Alstine, Paul W Gunn, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Eric J Sorenson, David P Martin
BACKGROUND: Poliomyelitis is a viral infectious disease caused by 1 of the 3 strains of poliovirus. The World Health Organization launched an eradication campaign in 1988. Although the number of cases of poliomyelitis has drastically declined, eradication has not yet been achieved, and there are a substantial number of survivors of the disease. Survivors of poliomyelitis present a unique set of challenges to the anesthesiologist. The scientific literature regarding the anesthetic management of survivors of poliomyelitis, however, is limited and primarily experiential in nature...
June 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Anant Mohan, Prajowl Shrestha, Randeep Guleria, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Naveet Wig
BACKGROUND: Although sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in hospitalized patients, information regarding early predictive factors for mortality and morbidity is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients fulfilling the Infectious Disease Society of America criteria of sepsis within the medical intensive care unit (ICU) were included over two years. Apart from baseline hematological, biochemical, and metabolic parameters, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and III (SAPS II and SAPS III), and Sequential Organ Function Assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated on day 1 of admission...
July 2015: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
S S Krajčinović, A Doronjski, N Barišić, V Stojanović
BACKGROUND: False-positive blood cultures findings may lead to a falsely increased morbidity and increased hospital costs. METHOD: The survey was conducted as retrospective - prospective study and included 239 preterm infants (born before 37 weeks of gestation) who were treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina during one year (January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2012). The retrospective part of the study focused on examination of incidence of neonatal sepsis and determination of risk factors...
March 2015: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
I Suárez, B Böll, A Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, G Michels, M von Bergwelt-Baildon, M Kochanek
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia remains one of the most common reasons for hospital admission of patients with underlying oncologic disease. These patients have an up to 10-fold increased risk of developing sepsis, which often leads to these patients being transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). The survival of neutropenic patients with sepsis in particular has improved in recent years, due to advanced therapy in intensive care (surviving sepsis campaign); however few large international studies of neutropenic cancer patients in the ICU are available...
March 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Heather C Yun, Amy C Weintrob, Nicholas G Conger, Ping Li, Dan Lu, David R Tribble, Clinton K Murray
Although there is literature evaluating infectious complications associated with combat-related injuries from Iraq and Afghanistan, none have evaluated pneumonia specifically. Therefore, we assessed a series of pneumonia cases among wounded military personnel admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, and then evacuated further to participating U.S. military hospitals. Of the 423 casualties evacuated to the United States, 36 developed pneumonia (8.5%) and 30 of these (83.3%) were ventilator-associated. Restricting to 162 subjects admitted to intensive care, 30 patients had pneumonia (18...
January 2015: Military Medicine
Li-Ting Kao, Shih-Ping Liu, Herng-Ching Lin, Hsin-Chien Lee, Ming-Chieh Tsai, Shiu-Dong Chung
BACKGROUND: Some studies suggested that psychological stress may be associated with the severity and duration of infectious diseases. In this population-based study, we investigated associations between depressive disorder (DD) and pneumonia outcomes in Taiwan with a large-scale database from the National Health Insurance. METHODS: Our study defined 112,198 patients who were hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia. We defined their admission date for treatment of pneumonia as the index date...
2014: PloS One
Antonio M Esquinas, S Egbert Pravinkumar, Raffaele Scala, Peter Gay, Arie Soroksky, Christophe Girault, Fang Han, David S Hui, Peter J Papadakos, Nicolino Ambrosino
The aim of this article was to review the role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in acute pulmonary infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 and tuberculosis, and to assess the risk of disease transmission with the use of NIV from patients to healthcare workers. We performed a clinical review by searching Medline and EMBASE. These databases were searched for articles on "clinical trials" and "randomised controlled trials". The keywords selected were non-invasive ventilation pulmonary infections, influenza-A (H1N1), SARS and tuberculosis...
December 2014: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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