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Mechanical ventilation, infectious diseases, intensive care unit,

Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Su Hyun Kim, Sangwook Kang, Mi-Kyung Song
AIM: To examine the intensity of care at the end of life among older adults in Korea and to identify the individual and institutional factors associated with care intensity. METHODS: This secondary data analysis included a sample of 6278 decedents aged 65 years or older who were identified from the 2009 to 2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort Claims data. We examined the medical care received by the cohort in the last 30 days of their lives...
January 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
Ahmet Deniz, Ömer Lütfi Erhan, Mustafa Kemal Bayar, Ümit Karatepe, İsmail Demirel
Objective: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of a restructured anaesthesia intensive care unit (ICU) on changes in infection rates and infections. Methods: Organisational restructuring was done in the anaesthesia ICU of Firat University Hospital after it was relocated on 14 March 2012. This study was designed to investigate the effect of restructuring on infection rates through a comparison of periods encompassing one year before relocation and one year after relocation...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Wesley R Campbell, Ping Li, Timothy J Whitman, Dana M Blyth, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Katrin Mende, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: The contribution of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli infections (MDRGN-I) in patients with trauma is not well described. We present characteristics of MDRGN-Is among military personnel with deployment-related trauma (2009-2014). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study were assessed for infectious outcomes and microbial recovery. Infections were classified using standardized definitions. Gram-negative bacilli were defined as multi-drug-resistant if they showed resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes or were producers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase or carbapenemases...
April 2017: Surgical Infections
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
October 2017: Infection
Xiling Wang, Hui Jiang, Peng Wu, Timothy M Uyeki, Luzhao Feng, Shengjie Lai, Lili Wang, Xiang Huo, Ke Xu, Enfu Chen, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jianfeng He, Min Kang, Renli Zhang, Jin Zhang, Jiabing Wu, Shixiong Hu, Hengjiao Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Weijie Fu, Jianming Ou, Shenggen Wu, Ying Qin, Zhijie Zhang, Yujing Shi, Juanjuan Zhang, Jean Artois, Vicky J Fang, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Marius Gilbert, Peter W Horby, Gabriel M Leung, George F Gao, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
BACKGROUND: The avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused infections in human beings in China since 2013. A large epidemic in 2016-17 prompted concerns that the epidemiology of the virus might have changed, increasing the threat of a pandemic. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical severity, and time-to-event distributions of patients infected with A H7N9 in the 2016-17 epidemic compared with previous epidemics. METHODS: In this epidemiological study, we obtained information about all laboratory-confirmed human cases of A H7N9 virus infection reported in mainland China as of Feb 23, 2017, from an integrated electronic database managed by the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and provincial CDCs...
August 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jay Gorman, Duane Funk, Sadeesh Srinathan, John Embil, Linda Girling, Stephen Kowalski
PURPOSE: An increasing number of thoracic decortications have been performed in Manitoba, from five in 2007 to 45 in 2014. The primary objective of this study was to define the epidemiology of decortications in Manitoba. The secondary objective was to compare patients who underwent decortication due to primary infectious vs non-infectious etiology with respect to their perioperative outcomes. METHODS: Data for this cohort study were extracted from consecutive charts of all adult patients who underwent a decortication in Manitoba from 2007-2014 inclusive...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Rama Bozorgmehr, Vanousheh Bahrani, Alireza Fatemi
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common hospital infections and a side effect of lengthy stay in intensive care unit (ICU). Considering the ever-changing pattern of common pathogens in infectious diseases and the raise in prevalence of hospital infections, the present study was designed aiming to determine the prevalence of VAP and its bacterial causes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the medical profiles of all the patients under mechanical ventilation, who had no symptoms of pneumonia at the time of intubation and developed new infiltration in chest radiography after 48 hours under mechanical ventilation along with at least 2 of the symptoms including fever, hypothermia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, or purulent discharge from the lungs, were evaluated...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Hülya Çaşkurlu, Rahman Nurmuhammedov, Zarni Htway
Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Ruslan Abdullayev, Filiz Cosku Saral, Omer Burak Kucukebe, Hakan Sezgin Sayiner, Cem Bayraktar, Sadik Akgun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many conditions such as bacterial and viral infectious diseases, mechanical obstruction due to air and calculi and drugs can cause parotitis. We present a case of unusual bilateral parotitis in a patient under non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in intensive care unit. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old patient was admitted to intensive care unit with the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Leonardo Duarte Sobreira Luna, Douglas de Sousa Soares, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Lara Raissa Cavalcante Malveira, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included...
July 11, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Voichița Lăzureanu, Mirela Poroșnicu, Ciprian Gândac, Teodora Moisil, Luminița Bădițoiu, Ruxandra Laza, Virgil Musta, Alexandru Crișan, Adelina-Raluca Marinescu
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in critical condition patients. The pathogen's ability to survive under a wide range of environment conditions and to persist for long periods of time on areas represents a frequent cause of endemic infection hotbeds especially in the Intensive Care Unit. The objectives of the study are: determining the 5-year incidence of A. baumannii infection in patients admitted in the ICU which needed mechanical ventilation; the analysis of these cases regarding pathological antecedents; processing the data regarding these cases; gradual analysis of the susceptibility/resistance of isolated A...
March 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sanliay Sahin, Mutlu Uysal Yazici, Ganime Ayar, Zeynep Selen Karalok, Ebru Petek Arhan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the research is to determine the etiology and clinical features of seizures in critically ill children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A total of 203 children were admitted from June 2013 to November 2013; 45 patients were eligible. Age ranged from 2 months to 19 years. Seizures were organized as epileptic or acute symptomatic. Pediatric risk of mortality score III, Glasgow coma scale, risk factors, coexistent diagnosis, medications administered before admission, type and duration of seizures, drugs used, requirement and duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay and neuroimaging findings were collected as demographic data prospectively...
April 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Lukas Buendgens, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke
Stress-related mucosal disease is a typical complication of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). It poses a risk of clinically relevant upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Therefore, stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is recommended in high-risk patients, especially those mechanically ventilated > 48 h and those with a manifest coagulopathy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and, less effectively, histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) prevent GI bleeding in critically ill patients in the ICU...
February 4, 2016: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Xiao Yuan, Su-Yun Qian, Zheng Li, Zhe-Zhe Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease in infancy. Previous work shows controversial results on the benefit of zinc supplementation in patients with pneumonia. We conducted this study to investigate serum zinc status amongst infants with severe pneumonia and the clinical impact that zinc supplementation has on those patients with low serum zinc levels. METHODS: This study design was a non-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial...
May 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Brandon Swain Toney, Donna Lynch-Smith
The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) infections in mechanically ventilated patients has significantly affected how medical providers manage the severe acute pulmonary pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and implement medical interventions to prevent infectious transmission to these patients in the intensive care unit. Severe COPD is present in more than 65 million people worldwide, thereby placing these individuals at an increased risk of intensive care unit admission and VAP contraction...
January 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Kimmie K McLaurin, Archana Chatterjee, Doris Makari
INTRODUCTION: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases issued updated guidance on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in 2014. This report models the potential impact of the new guidance on RSV outcomes in preterm infants 29-34 weeks' gestational age (wGA) without chronic lung disease in the United States. METHODS: The number of preterm infants was estimated using 2012 natality data. Palivizumab utilization prior to the 2014 guidance update was estimated using 2013-2014 specialty pharmacy utilization data...
October 26, 2015: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Renata Waltrick, Dimitri Sauter Possamai, Fernanda Perito de Aguiar, Micheli Dadam, Valmir João de Souza Filho, Lucas Rocker Ramos, Renata da Silva Laurett, Kênia Fujiwara, Milton Caldeira Filho, Álvaro Koenig, Glauco Adrieno Westphal
OBJECTIVE: >To evaluate the agreement between a new epidemiological surveillance method of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the clinical pulmonary infection score for mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia detection. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study that evaluated patients in the intensive care units of two hospitals who were intubated for more than 48 hours between August 2013 and June 2014. Patients were evaluated daily by physical therapist using the clinical pulmonary infection score...
July 2015: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Shikha Garg, Seema Jain, Fatimah S Dawood, Michael Jhung, Alejandro Pérez, Tiffany D'Mello, Arthur Reingold, Ken Gershman, James Meek, Kathryn E Arnold, Monica M Farley, Patricia Ryan, Ruth Lynfield, Craig Morin, Joan Baumbach, Emily B Hancock, Shelley Zansky, Nancy Bennett, Ann Thomas, William Schaffner, Lyn Finelli
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumonia combined are the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases in the United States. We describe factors associated with pneumonia among adults hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: Through the Emerging Infections Program, we identified adults ≥ 18 years, who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during October 2005 through April 2008, and had a chest radiograph (CXR) performed. Pneumonia was defined as the presence of a CXR infiltrate and either an ICD-9-CM code or discharge summary diagnosis of pneumonia...
August 26, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
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