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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786763/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-targeting-dact1-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#2
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into neuronal lineages and gliocytes. NSCs have the ability to generate and regenerate the brain, indicating the possibility of cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. miR-124 has been demonstrated as a modulator in the survival, expansion, and differentiation of NSCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in NSC development are still far from being understood. The expressions of miR-124, dishevelled binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β-catenin, cyclinD1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined by qRT-PCR or western blot...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786737/anti-amyloidogenic-properties-of-an-ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-actinidia-arguta-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-icr-mice
#3
Jeong Su Ha, Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Sung-Gil Choi, Ho Jin Heo
This study aimed to investigate the ameliorating effect of an ethyl acetate fraction from the fruit Actinidia arguta (EFAA) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive deficits in ICR mice. EFAA showed potent protective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), 2',3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the assay medium. EFAA treatment reduced the intracellular ROS level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the mitochondria, and increased cell viability in Aβ-induced neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells...
May 22, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786653/role-for-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-cse-in-an-ethanol-e-induced-lesion-in-fetal-brain-gsh-homeostasis
#4
Dhyanesh Patel, Marylatha Rathinam, Courtney Jarvis, Lenin Mahimainathan, George Henderson, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan
Earlier, we reported that gestational ethanol (E) can dysregulate neuron glutathione (GSH) homeostasis partially via impairing the EAAC1-mediated inward transport of Cysteine (Cys) and this can affect fetal brain development. In this study, we investigated if there is a role for the transulfuration pathway (TSP), a critical bio-synthetic point to supply Cys in E-induced dysregulation of GSH homeostasis. These studies utilized an in utero E binge model where the pregnant Sprague⁻Dawley (SD) rat dams received five doses of E at 3...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786595/-genetically-determined-abnormal-electrical-activity-of-the-brain-and-the-heart
#5
Iwona Mańka-Gaca, Beata Łabuz-Roszak, Agnieszka Machowska-Majchrzak
Mutations leading to disorders within ion (mainly potassium and sodium) channels, have different degrees of expression in the brain and in the heart, which can cause simultaneous occurrence of disorders in both organs. This is manifested by the occurrence of epileptic seizures and cardiac electrical disturbances, further exacerbated by stimulation of autonomic structures within the central nervous system. In all patients with unclear paroxysmal disorders, and in those with unexplained sudden cardiac death, consideration should be given to the possibility of occurrence of genetically determined disorders in the ion channels...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786461/gender-and-diagnostic-impact-on-everyday-technology-use-a-differential-item-functioning-dif-analysis-of-the-everyday-technology-use-questionnaire-etuq
#6
Anders Kottorp, Camilla Malinowsky, Maria Larsson-Lund, Louise Nygård
BACKGROUND: As the use of everyday technology is increasingly important for participation in daily activities, more in-depth knowledge of everyday technology use in relation to diagnosis and gender is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of the perceived challenge of a variety of everyday technologies across different samples of varying diagnoses including both males and females. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used 643 data records from clinical and research samples, including persons with dementia or related disorders, acquired brain injury, intellectual disability, various mental or medical disorders, and adults without known diagnoses...
May 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786451/annexin-a2-is-a-robo4-ligand-that-modulates-arf6-activation-associated-cerebral-trans-endothelial-permeability
#7
Wenlu Li, Zhigang Chen, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Chongjie Cheng, Qiuchen Zhao, Lena Huang, Katherine A Hajjar, Zhong Chen, Eng H Lo, Haibin Dai, Xiaoying Wang
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in neurological disorders remains an intractable problem with limited therapeutic options. Here, we investigate whether the endothelial cell membrane protein annexin A2 (ANXA2) may play a role in reducing trans-endothelial permeability and maintaining cerebrovascular integrity after injury. Compared with wild-type mice, the expression of cerebral endothelial junctional proteins was reduced in E15.5 and adult ANXA2 knockout mice, along with increased leakage of small molecule tracers...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#8
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786109/engulfment-of-platelets-delays-endothelial-cell-aging-via-girdin-and-its-phosphorylation
#9
Yong Lan, Yongjun Li, Dajun Li, Peng Li, Jiyang Wang, Yongpeng Diao, Guodong Ye, Yangfang Li
Endothelial cells are critical in angiogenesis and maintain the homeostasis of the blood‑brain barrier (BBB). Platelets (PLTs) are essential in vascular biology, including angiogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of PLTs on the aging of endothelial cells. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and human astrocytes were co‑cultured to mimic the BBB. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the engulfment of PLTs. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the co‑localization of PLTs, girders of actin filament (girdin) and phosphorylated (p‑)girdin...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786075/tp53-gain-of-function-mutation-promotes-inflammation-in-glioblastoma
#10
Seok Won Ham, Hee-Young Jeon, Xiong Jin, Eun-Jung Kim, Jun-Kyum Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Yeri Lee, Se Hoon Kim, Seon Yong Lee, Sunyoung Seo, Min Gi Park, Hye-Mi Kim, Do-Hyun Nam, Hyunggee Kim
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most severe and common brain tumor in adults, is characterized by multiple somatic mutations and aberrant activation of inflammatory responses. Immune cell infiltration and subsequent inflammation cause tumor growth and resistance to therapy. Somatic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) are frequently observed in various cancers. However, numerous studies suggest that TP53 regulates malignant phenotypes by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786072/mptp-driven-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-plays-a-central-role-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#11
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786067/disrupting-reconsolidation-memory-erasure-or-blunting-of-emotional-motivational-value
#12
Elizabeth S Cogan, Mark A Shapses, Terry E Robinson, Natalie C Tronson
When memories are retrieved they become labile, and subject to alteration by a process known as reconsolidation. Disruption of memory reconsolidation decreases the performance of learned responses, which is often attributed to erasure of the memory; in the case of Pavlovian learning, to a loss of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). However, an alternative interpretation is that disrupting reconsolidation does not erase memories, but blunts their emotional/motivational impact...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786066/repeated-social-defeat-induced-neuroinflammation-anxiety-like-behavior-and-resistance-to-fear-extinction-were-attenuated-by-the-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-win55-212-2
#13
Sabrina Francesca Lisboa, Anzela Niraula, Leonardo Barbosa Resstel, Francisco Silveira Guimaraes, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Psychosocial stress contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that causes a release of inflammatory monocytes into circulation. Moreover, RSD-induced anxiety-like behavior is dependent on the recruitment of these monocytes to the brain. Activation of the endocannabinoid (ECB) system may modulate both neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses mediated by stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that a cannabinoid receptor agonist would attenuate RSD-induced inflammation, anxiety, and stress sensitization...
April 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785731/semantic-future-thinking-and-executive-functions-at-age-4-the-moderating-role-of-frontal-brain-electrical-activity
#14
Tashauna L Blankenship, Alleyne P R Broomell, Martha Ann Bell
Previous studies provide conflicting results regarding the relation between future thinking and executive functioning during early childhood. Furthermore, little is known of the neural mechanisms involved in future thinking during early childhood. We examined the moderating role of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity on the relation between executive functioning and semantic future thinking performance in a sample of 4-year-old children. Our results suggest that frontal EEG moderates the relation between executive functioning and semantic future thinking performance, but only for medium to high levels of frontal EEG power values...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785578/transport-of-the-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-implications-for-migraine
#16
Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Winther Schytz
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is widely distributed in the nervous system and is involved in migraine pathophysiology. Understanding the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in relation to PACAP is important to the understand the mechanisms behind PACAP-induced migraine attacks, but also to develop antimigraine drugs targeting the PACAP receptors Here, we aim to review the transport ability of PACAP across the BBB. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed to identify studies reporting original data on PACAP and BBB...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785198/effects-of-walking-in-bamboo-forest-and-city-environments-on-brainwave-activity-in-young-adults
#17
Ahmad Hassan, Jiang Tao, Guo Li, Mingyan Jiang, Liu Aii, Jiang Zhihui, Liu Zongfang, Chen Qibing
Background . In Japan, "Shinrin-yoku" or forest bathing (spending time in forests) is a major practice used for relaxation. However, its effects on promoting human mental health are still under consideration. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological relaxation effects of forest walking on adults. Sixty participants (50% males; 50% females) were trained to walk 15-minute predetermined courses in a bamboo forest and a city area (control). The length of the courses was the same to allow comparison of the effects of both environments...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785110/prefrontoparietal-dysfunction-during-emotion-regulation-in-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#18
Hai-Yang Wang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Cui-Ping Si, Yang Xu, Qian Liu, He-Tao Bian, Bing-Wei Zhang, Xue-Lin Li, Zhong-Rui Yan
Objective: Impairments in emotion regulation, and more specifically in cognitive reappraisal, are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, the available evidence on such deficits is inconsistent. To further illustrate the neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety disorder, the present meta-analysis summarizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings for cognitive reappraisal tasks and investigates related brain areas. Methods: We performed a comprehensive series of meta-analyses of cognitive reappraisal fMRI studies contrasting patients with anxiety disorder with healthy control (HC) subjects, employing an anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping approach...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785047/rationally-designed-aav2-and-aavrh8r-capsids-provide-improved-transduction-in-the-retina-and-brain
#19
Jennifer A Sullivan, Lisa M Stanek, Michael J Lukason, Jie Bu, Shayla R Osmond, Elizabeth A Barry, Catherine R O'Riordan, Lamya S Shihabuddin, Seng H Cheng, Abraham Scaria
The successful application of adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery vectors as a therapeutic paradigm will require efficient gene delivery to the appropriate cells in affected organs. In this study, we utilized a rational design approach to introduce modifications to the AAV2 and AAVrh8R capsids and the resulting variants were evaluated for transduction activity in the retina and brain. The modifications disrupted either capsid/receptor binding or altered capsid surface charge. Specifically, we mutated AAV2 amino acids R585A and R588A, which are required for binding to its receptor, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, to generate a variant referred to as AAV2-HBKO...
May 22, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785037/assessing-the-utility-of-frequency-tagging-for-tracking-memory-based-reactivation-of-word-representations
#20
Ashley Glen Lewis, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Reinstatement of memory-related neural activity measured with high temporal precision potentially provides a useful index for real-time monitoring of the timing of activation of memory content during cognitive processing. The utility of such an index extends to any situation where one is interested in the (relative) timing of activation of different sources of information in memory, a paradigm case of which is tracking lexical activation during language processing. Essential for this approach is that memory reinstatement effects are robust, so that their absence (in the average) definitively indicates that no lexical activation is present...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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