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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545252/cpg-and-non-cpg-methylation-in-epigenetic-gene-regulation-and-brain-function
#1
REVIEW
Hyun Sik Jang, Woo Jung Shin, Jeong Eon Lee, Jeong Tae Do
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark with important roles in genetic regulation. Methylated cytosines are found primarily at CpG dinucleotides, but are also found at non-CpG sites (CpA, CpT, and CpC). The general functions of CpG and non-CpG methylation include gene silencing or activation depending on the methylated regions. CpG and non-CpG methylation are found throughout the whole genome, including repetitive sequences, enhancers, promoters, and gene bodies. Interestingly, however, non-CpG methylation is restricted to specific cell types, such as pluripotent stem cells, oocytes, neurons, and glial cells...
May 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545186/gallium-nanoparticle-mediated-reduction-of-brain-specific-serine-protease-4-in-an-experimental-metastatic-cancer-model
#2
Enas M Moustafa, Marwa Abdelhameed Mohamed, Noura M Thabet
Purpose: Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are being made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Gallium (Ga) is the second most common metal ion, after platinum, used in cancer treatment. Its activities are numerous and various. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ga on brain metastasis arising from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Forty experimental rats (divided into 4 groups) received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at a dose (20 mg/kg...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545161/classic-galactosemia-study-on-the-late-prenatal-development-of-galt-specific-activity-in-a-sheep-model
#3
Ana I Coelho, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Lindhout, Jelle Achten, Boris W Kramer, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo
BACKGROUND: Classic galactosemia results from deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), a key enzyme of galactose metabolism. Despite early diagnosis and early postnatal therapeutic intervention, patients still develop neurologic and fertility impairments. Prenatal developmental toxicity has been hypothesized as a determinant factor of disease. In order to shed light on the importance of prenatal GALT activity, several studies have examined GALT activity throughout development...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#4
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#5
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#6
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545048/a-distribution-model-of-functional-connectome-based-on-criticality-and-energy-constraints
#7
Kosuke Takagi
The analysis of the network structure of the functional connectivity data constructed from fMRI images provides basic information about functions and features of the brain activity. We focus on the two features which are considered as relevant to the brain activity, the criticality and the constraint regarding energy consumptions. Within a wide variety of complex systems, the critical state occurs associated with a phase transition between distinct phases, random one and order one. Although the hypothesis that human brain activity is also in a state of criticality is supported by some experimental results, it still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545006/cognitive-control-and-reward-loss-processing-in-internet-gaming-disorder-results-from-a-comparison-with-recreational-internet-game-users
#8
G Dong, H Li, L Wang, M N Potenza
Although playing of Internet games may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most game-users do not develop problems and only a relatively small subset experiences IGD. Game playing may have positive health associations, whereas IGD has been repeatedly associated with negative health measures, and it is thus important to understand differences between individuals with IGD, recreational (non-problematic) game use (RGU) and non-/low-frequency game use (NLFGU). Individuals with IGD have shown differences in neural activations from non-gamers, yet few studies have examined neural differences between individuals with IGD, RGU and NLFGU...
March 30, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544947/measuring-cortical-motor-hemodynamics-during-assisted-stepping-an-fnirs-feasibility-study-of-using-a-walker
#9
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Guilherme A Zimeo Morais, Joana Bisol Balardin, Daniel Boari Coelho, Nametala Maia Azzi, Luis Augusto Teixeira, João Ricardo Sato
Walkers are commonly prescribed worldwide to individuals unable to walk independently. Walker usage leads to improved postural control and voluntary movement during step. In the present study, we aimed to provide a concept-proof on the feasibility of an event-related protocol integrating the analyses of biomechanical variables of step initiation and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) while using a walker. Healthy young participants were tested while stepping with versus without the use of the walker...
May 17, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544941/time-based-expectations-entail-preparatory-motor-activity
#10
Gregor Volberg, Roland Thomaschke
Human behavior is guided by expectations that facilitate perception of upcoming events or reaction to them. In natural settings expectations are often implicitly based on time, e.g., when making a phone call one would expect to hear either a person answering (earlier) or a voicemail greeting (later). We investigated how time-based expectations can improve performance in the absence of explicit prior information on the pending stimulus or the associated response. Visual stimuli were presented after a characteristic short or long foreperiod, and a forced-choice categorization using either the left or the right hand was required...
May 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544904/decreased-prefrontal-functional-brain-response-during-memory-testing-in-women-with-cushing-s-syndrome-in-remission
#11
Oskar Ragnarsson, Andreas Stomby, Per Dahlqvist, Johan A Evang, Mats Ryberg, Tommy Olsson, Jens Bollerslev, Lars Nyberg, Gudmundur Johannsson
Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks...
May 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544903/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-deficiency-impairs-bdnf-5-ht2a-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-of-female-brain-a-possible-mechanism-for-menopausal-depression
#12
Anindit Chhibber, Sarah K Woody, M A Karim Rumi, Michael J Soares, Liqin Zhao
Depression currently affects 350 million people worldwide and 19 million Americans each year. Women are 2.5 times more likely to experience major depression than men, with some women appearing to be at a heightened risk during the menopausal transition. Estrogen signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the role of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, in the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HT) signaling was investigated; two pathways that have been hypothesized to be interrelated in the etiology of depression...
May 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544790/roles-of-autophagy-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-secondary-brain-injury-in%C3%A2-rats
#13
Xiao-Chun Duan, Wei Wang, Dong-Xia Feng, Jia Yin, Gang Zuo, Dong-Dong Chen, Zhou-Qing Chen, Hai-Ying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the roles of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) in rats. METHODS: Autophagy inducer (rapamycin) and inhibitor (3-methyladenine), as well as ER stress activator (tunicamycin, TM) and inhibitor (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, TUDCA), were used. Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, was used to assess autophagic flux. RESULTS: Autophagy and ER stress were enhanced in the week after ICH...
May 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544619/design-and-synthesis-of-some-acridine-piperazine-hybrids-for-the-improvement-of-cognitive-dysfunction
#14
Anuradha Sharma, Poonam Piplani
A novel series of hybrid molecules (5a-5m) was designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors against cognitive dysfunction. Heterocyclic moieties acridine and piperazine were conjugated with suitable linkers in a single scaffold and the structures of the target compounds were confirmed by IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR and LC-MS analysis. The pharmacological activity of synthesized compounds was evaluated using behavioral models of amnesia viz. step down passive avoidance and elevated plus maze at a dose 0...
May 25, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544456/the-experience-of-beauty-derived-from-sorrow
#15
Tomohiro Ishizu, Semir Zeki
We studied the neural mechanisms that are engaged during the experience of beauty derived from sorrow and from joy, two experiences that share a common denominator (beauty) but are linked to opposite emotional valences. Twenty subjects viewed and rerated, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner, 120 images which each had classified into the following four categories: beautiful and sad; beautiful and joyful; neutral; ugly. The medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC) was active during the experience of both types of beauty...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544426/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158met-genotype-modulates-working-memory-related-dorsolateral-prefrontal-response-and-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
K W Miskowiak, H L Kjaerstad, M M Støttrup, A M Svendsen, K M Demant, L K Hoeffding, T M Werge, K E Burdick, K Domschke, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, M Vinberg, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, J Macoveanu
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD...
May 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544313/neuropeptide-y-npy-inhibits-spontaneous-contraction-of-the-mouse-atrium-by-possible-activation-of-the-npy1-receptor
#17
Y Oki, H Teraoka, T Kitazawa
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes various central and peripheral actions through activation of G-protein-coupled NPY receptors. Although a species-dependent difference in cardiac actions of NPY has been reported, the responses to NPY have not been examined in mice, widely used experimental animals. This study aimed to clarify the responses to NPY and the receptor subtype involved in the responses in mouse atrium. Neuropeptide Y caused negative inotropic and negative chronotropic actions in spontaneous beating right atria...
March 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544168/presurgical-language-fmri-mapping-of-six-critical-regions
#18
Christopher F Benjamin, Patricia D Walshaw, Kayleigh Hale, William D Gaillard, Leslie C Baxter, Madison M Berl, Monika Polczynska, Stephanie Noble, Rafeed Alkawadri, Lawrence J Hirsch, Todd C Constable, Susan Y Bookheimer
Language mapping is a key goal in neurosurgical planning. fMRI mapping typically proceeds with a focus on Broca's and Wernicke's areas, although multiple other language-critical areas are now well-known. We evaluated whether clinicians could use a novel approach, including clinician-driven individualized thresholding, to reliably identify six language regions, including Broca's Area, Wernicke's Area (inferior, superior), Exner's Area, Supplementary Speech Area, Angular Gyrus, and Basal Temporal Language Area...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544159/simultaneous-measurement-of-t1-b1-and-pharmacokinetic-model-parameters-using-active-contrast-encoding-ace-mri
#19
Jin Zhang, Kerryanne Winters, Olivier Reynaud, Sungheon Gene Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of combining dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with the measurement of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit field B1 and pre-contrast longitudinal relaxation time T10 . A novel approach has been proposed to simultaneously estimate B1 and T10 from a modified DCE-MRI scan that actively encodes the washout phase of the curve with different amounts of T1 and B1 weighting using multiple flip angles and repetition times, hence referred to as active contrast encoding (ACE)-MRI...
May 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544029/learned-control-over-spinal-nociception-in-patients-with-chronic-back-pain
#20
S Krafft, H-D Göhmann, J Sommer, A Straube, R Ruscheweyh
BACKGROUND: Descending pain inhibition suppresses spinal nociception, reducing nociceptive input to the brain. It is modulated by cognitive and emotional processes. In subjects with chronic pain, it is impaired, possibly contributing to pain persistence. A previously developed feedback method trains subjects to activate their descending inhibition. Participants are trained to use cognitive-emotional strategies to reduce their spinal nociception, as quantified by the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex), under visual feedback about their RIII reflex size...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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