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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437659/the-relationship-between-maternal-education-and-the-neural-substrates-of-phoneme-perception-in-children-interactions-between-socioeconomic-status-and-proficiency-level
#1
Lisa L Conant, Einat Liebenthal, Anjali Desai, Jeffrey R Binder
Relationships between maternal education (ME) and both behavioral performances and brain activation during the discrimination of phonemic and nonphonemic sounds were examined using fMRI in children with different levels of phoneme categorization proficiency (CP). Significant relationships were found between ME and intellectual functioning and vocabulary, with a trend for phonological awareness. A significant interaction between CP and ME was seen for nonverbal reasoning abilities. In addition, fMRI analyses revealed a significant interaction between CP and ME for phonemic discrimination in left prefrontal cortex...
April 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437658/how-does-first-language-l1-influence-second-language-l2-reading-in-the-brain-evidence-from-korean-english-and-chinese-english-bilinguals
#2
Say Young Kim, Li Liu, Fan Cao
To examine how L1 influences L2 reading in the brain, two late bilingual groups, Korean-English (KE) and Chinese-English (CE), performed a visual word rhyming judgment task in their L2 (English) and were compared to L1 control groups (i.e., KK and CC). The results indicated that the L2 activation is similar to the L1 activation for both KE and CE language groups. In addition, conjunction analyses revealed that the right inferior frontal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus were more activated in KK and KE than CC and CE, suggesting that these regions are more involved in Korean speakers than Chinese speakers for both L1 and L2...
April 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437614/engineering-highly-interconnected-neuronal-networks-on-nanowire-scaffolds
#3
Vini Gautam, Shagufta Naureen, Naeem Shahid, Qian Gao, Yi Wang, David R Nisbet, Chennupati Jagadish, Vincent R Daria
Identifying the specific role of physical guidance cues in the growth of neurons is crucial for understanding the fundamental biology of brain development and for designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we investigate the structural significance of nanoscale topographies as physical cues for neurite outgrowth and circuit formation by growing neurons on semiconductor nanowires. We monitored neurite growth using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and evaluated the spontaneous neuronal network activity using functional calcium imaging...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437454/age-associated-increase-of-the-active-zone-protein-bruchpilot-within-the-honeybee-mushroom-body
#4
Katrin B Gehring, Karin Heufelder, Harald Depner, Isabella Kersting, Stephan J Sigrist, Dorothea Eisenhardt
In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437426/representational-models-a-common-framework-for-understanding-encoding-pattern-component-and-representational-similarity-analysis
#5
Jörn Diedrichsen, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Representational models specify how activity patterns in populations of neurons (or, more generally, in multivariate brain-activity measurements) relate to sensory stimuli, motor responses, or cognitive processes. In an experimental context, representational models can be defined as hypotheses about the distribution of activity profiles across experimental conditions. Currently, three different methods are being used to test such hypotheses: encoding analysis, pattern component modeling (PCM), and representational similarity analysis (RSA)...
April 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#6
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437225/neck-collar-with-mild-jugular-vein-compression-ameliorates-brain-activation-changes-during-a-working-memory-task-after-a-season-of-high-school-football
#7
Weihong Yuan, James Leach, Thomas Maloney, Mekibib Altaye, David Smith, Paul Gubanich, Kim Barber-Foss, Staci Thomas, Christopher DiCesare, Adam Kiefer, Gregory D Myer
Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurologic deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on fMRI of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through slosh mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436837/passive-bci-in-operational-environments-insights-recent-advances-and-future-trends
#8
Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Alfredo Colosimo, Fabio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: this mini-review aims to highlight recent important aspects to consider and evaluate when passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems would be developed and used in operational environments, and remarks future directions of their applications. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG)-based pBCI has become an important tool for real-time analysis of brain activity, since it could potentially provide, covertly - without distracting the user from the main task - and objectively - not affected by the subjective judgement of an observer or the user itself - information about the operator cognitive state...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436836/enhancing-detection-of-ssveps-for-a-high-speed-brain-speller-using-task-related-component-analysis
#9
Masaki Nakanishi, Yijun Wang, Xiaogang Chen, Yu-Te Wang, Xiaorong Gao, Tzyy-Ping Jung
OBJECTIVE: This study proposes and evaluates a novel data-driven spatial filtering approach for enhancing steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) detection towards a high-speed brain-computer interface (BCI) speller. METHODS: Task-related component analysis (TRCA), which can enhance reproducibility of SSVEPs across multiple trials, was employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEP signals by removing background electroencephalographic (EEG) activities...
April 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436834/active-auditory-experience-in-infancy-promotes-brain-plasticity-in-theta-and-gamma-oscillations
#10
Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A Benasich
Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC)...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436832/ventral-striatal-activity-links-adversity-and-reward-processing-in-children
#11
Niki H Kamkar, Daniel J Lewis, Wouter van den Bos, J Bruce Morton
Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436624/-mechanisms-of-histamine-ameliorating-memory-impairment-induced-by-pentylenetetrazole-kindling-epilepsy-in-rats
#12
Lisan Zhang, Guanfeng Chen, Jiefang Chen, Xudong He, Xingyue Hu
Objective: To investigate the effects of neuronal histamine on spatial memory acquisition impairment in rats with pentylenetetrazole-kindling epilepsy, and to explore its mechanisms. Methods: A subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected in rats every 48 h to induce chemical kindling until fully kindled. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial memory acquisition of the rats one week after fully pentylenetetrazole-kindled, and the histamine contents in different brain areas were measured spectrofluorometrically...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436443/curcumol-allosterically-modulates-gaba-a-receptors-in-a-manner-distinct-from-benzodiazepines
#13
Yan-Mei Liu, Hui-Ran Fan, Jing Ding, Chen Huang, Shining Deng, Tailin Zhu, Tian-Le Xu, Wei-Hong Ge, Wei-Guang Li, Fei Li
Inhibitory A type γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) play a pivotal role in orchestrating various brain functions and represent an important molecular target in neurological and psychiatric diseases, necessitating the need for the discovery and development of novel modulators. Here, we show that a natural compound curcumol, acts as an allosteric enhancer of GABAARs in a manner distinct from benzodiazepines. Curcumol markedly facilitated GABA-activated currents and shifted the GABA concentration-response curve to the left in cultured hippocampal neurons...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436428/neuronal-ifn-beta-induced-pi3k-akt-foxa1-signalling-is-essential-for-generation-of-foxa1-treg-cells
#14
Yawei Liu, Andrea Marin, Patrick Ejlerskov, Louise Munk Rasmussen, Marco Prinz, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas
Neurons reprogramme encephalitogenic T cells (Tenc) to regulatory T cells (Tregs), either FoxP3(+)Tregs or FoxA1(+)Tregs. We reported previously that neuronal ability to generate FoxA1(+)Tregs was central to preventing neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice lacking interferon (IFN)-β were defective in generating FoxA1(+)Tregs in the brain. Here we show that lack of neuronal IFNβ signalling is associated with the absence of programme death ligand-1 (PDL1), which prevents their ability to reprogramme Tenc cells to FoxA1(+)Tregs...
April 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436319/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-in-vivo-hypolipidemic-effects-of-the-king-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-eryngii-var-ferulae-ddl01-agaricomycetes-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-and-hyperlipidemia
#16
Jun-Hui Choi, Dae-Won Kim, Seung Kim, Sung-Jun Kim
We investigated the effect of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae DDL01 on oxidative damage in the liver and brain and a high-fat/high-cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic model. In in vitro studies, the water extracts of the fruiting bodies showed strong scavenging activities of DPPH (139.46 ± 3.2 μg) and hydroxyl (139.46 ± 3.2 μg) radicals. Moreover, the extracts showed Fe2+ chelating and reducing abilities, as well as a large amount of polyphenols and an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation in the liver and brain tissues...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436257/brain-temperature-but-not-core-temperature-increases-during-spreading-depolarizations-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Alois J Schiefecker, Mario Kofler, Max Gaasch, Ronny Beer, Iris Unterberger, Bettina Pfausler, Gregor Broessner, Peter Lackner, Paul Rhomberg, Elke Gizewski, Werner O Hackl, Miriam Mulino, Martin Ortler, Claudius Thome, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are highly active metabolic events, commonly occur in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and may be triggered by fever. We investigated the dynamics of brain-temperature (Tbrain) and core-temperature (Tcore) relative to the occurrence of SDs. Twenty consecutive comatose ICH patients with multimodal electrocorticograpy (ECoG) and Tbrain monitoring of the perihematomal area were prospectively enrolled. Clusters of SDs were defined as ≥2 SDs/h. Generalized estimating equations were used for statistical calculations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436234/comparison-of-hemodynamic-responses-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-according-to-differences-in-self-efficacy
#18
Kazuki Hirao
Although self-efficacy has been used extensively in the field of nursing (e.g., as an outcome measure of nursing interventions), its underlying nature is poorly understood. Investigation of the relationship between self-efficacy and brain activation will help explain the fundamental nature of self-efficacy. In this study, we compared prefrontal activation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) across 89 undergraduate students categorized into three groups based on their General Self-Efficacy Scale scores: low self-efficacy ( n = 59), moderate self-efficacy ( n = 17), and high self-efficacy ( n = 13)...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436201/brain-responses-to-mechanical-rectal-stimuli-in-patients-with-faecal-incontinence-an-fmri-study
#19
Naseem Mirbagheri, Sean Hatton, Kheng-Seong Ng, Jim Lagopoulos, Marc A Gladman
AIM: Continence is dependent on anorectal/brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimuli in patients with FI using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHOD: A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients (4 male, mean [SD] age 62 [15] years)...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436106/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-as-part-of-multimodal-treatment-of-acquired-hemophilia-in-a-patient-with-concurrent-acute-intracerebral-bleed-and-pulmonary-embolism
#20
Geoffrey D Wool, David Chapel, Angela Treml, Jonathan L Miller
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against Factor VIII (FVIII) define the rare but life-threatening bleeding disorder acquired hemophilia A (AHA). Correction of FVIII deficiency and eradication of the factor inhibitor are the ultimate therapeutic goals in this disorder. Bypassing agents such as recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) or FVIII inhibitor bypassing agent are often used to control coagulopathy before the inhibitor is eradicated. Bypassing agents carry a risk of thrombosis, however. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with newly diagnosed AHA and thalamic bleed who additionally had active atrial fibrillation and developed a segmental pulmonary embolism, limiting tolerable rFVIIa dosage...
April 24, 2017: Transfusion
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