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Mineral metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335485/intra-amniotic-administration-of-raffinose-and-stachyose-affects-the-intestinal-brush-border-functionality-and-alters-gut-microflora-populations
#1
Sarina Pacifici, Jaehong Song, Cathy Zhang, Qiaoye Wang, Raymond P Glahn, Nikolai Kolba, Elad Tako
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics-stachyose and raffinose-which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1...
March 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#2
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332570/iron-minerals-within-specific-microfossil-morphospecies-of-the-1-88%C3%A2-ga-gunflint-formation
#3
Kevin Lepot, Ahmed Addad, Andrew H Knoll, Jian Wang, David Troadec, Armand Béché, Emmanuelle J Javaux
Problematic microfossils dominate the palaeontological record between the Great Oxidation Event 2.4 billion years ago (Ga) and the last Palaeoproterozoic iron formations, deposited 500-600 million years later. These fossils are often associated with iron-rich sedimentary rocks, but their affinities, metabolism, and, hence, their contributions to Earth surface oxidation and Fe deposition remain unknown. Here we show that specific microfossil populations of the 1.88 Ga Gunflint Iron Formation contain Fe-silicate and Fe-carbonate nanocrystal concentrations in cell interiors...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332217/imaging-for-vascular-calcification
#4
Paolo Raggi, W Charles O'Neill
Chronic decline in renal function is accompanied by deterioration of bone structure and function and progressive calcification of the vascular system. Both disease states have been linked with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease. The severe alterations of mineral metabolism inherent with loss of renal function have an impact on vascular calcification development and progression, and several investigators have focused on ways to reduce their impact on vascular health. Imaging has contributed an important role in the assessment of vascular calcification, and the impact of various interventions aimed at curbing their progression...
March 22, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330219/effect-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-microbial-diversity-and-its-biotransformation-by-streptomyces-sp-hp-11
#5
M Supreeth, M A Chandrashekar, N Sachin, N S Raju
The application of pesticides in agricultural fields not only reaches the target pests but also with soil where it interacts with soil microorganisms resulting in change of microbial diversity. Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one such organophosphorous insecticide most widely used against various insects, termites, and beetles throughout the globe. In the present work, the effect of CP on soil microbial population was assessed by the cultivable method. The fertile soil which does not have a history of any pesticide application was treated with 100 and 200 µg/g of CP along with control which received only sterile water and incubated for 1, 7, and 14 days...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328298/the-synthetic-progestin-gestodene-affects-functional-biomarkers-in-neonatal-rat-osteoblasts-through-an-estrogen-receptor-related-mechanism-of-action
#6
Juana Enríquez, Gustavo García, Bertha Herrero, Fernando Larrea
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that gestodene (GDN), a potent third-generation synthetic progestin, affects bone resorption. However, its mode of action in bone cells is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to establish whether GDN affects bone directly or through its bioconversion to other metabolites with different biological activities. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of GDN and its A-ring reduced metabolites on proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of calvarial osteoblasts isolated from neonatal rat and their capacity to displace [(3)H]-E2 at ER binding sites...
March 22, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327822/impact-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-rygb-on-metabolic-syndrome-components-and-on-the-use-of-associated-drugs-in-obese-patients
#7
Vilma Maria Junges, Jarbas Marinho Cavalheiro, Eliana Franzoi Fam, Vera Elizabeth Closs, João Feliz Moraes, Maria Gabriela Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and both behavior modification and drug therapy have low adherence. Gastric bypass has shown effective results in both reducing weight and improving comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery (RYGB) on both metabolic syndrome components and the use of associated drugs in obese patients. METHODS: Historical cohort of patients subjected to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery (RYGB) between January 2007 and March 2014 in a private clinic...
March 16, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327260/vitamin-d-and-dental-caries-in-primary-dentition
#8
Ana Lucia Seminario, Elizabet Velan
Traditionally classified as a vitamin, vitamin D represents a group of fat-soluble secosteroids with D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol) being the most relevant of the group. The importance of this prohormone exceeds its known ability to maintain intra- and extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations, thereby preserving essential metabolic functions such as the promotion of mineralization and maintenance and remodeling of the bone. Current observational research recognizes the potential antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in the human body...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326346/genetic-determinism-of-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-in-meat-type-chickens-a-qtl-mapping-study
#9
Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau, Céline Chantry-Darmon, Marie-Yvonne Boscher, Nadine Sellier, Marie Chabault-Dhuit, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Agnès Narcy
Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326339/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-gip-and-gip-receptor-gipr-genes-an-association-analysis-of-polymorphisms-and-bone-in-young-and-elderly-women
#10
Gaurav Garg, Fiona E McGuigan, Jitender Kumar, Holger Luthman, Valeriya Lyssenko, Kristina Akesson
INTRODUCTION: The gastro-intestinal hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion, with bone anabolic effects through GIP receptor (GIPR) in animal models. We explore its potential in humans by analyzing association between polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GIP and GIPR genes with bone phenotypes in young and elderly women. METHODS: Association between GIP (rs2291725) and GIPR (rs10423928) and BMD, bone mineral content (BMC), bone microarchitecture, fracture and body composition was analyzed in the OPRA (75y, n = 1044) and PEAK-25 (25y; n = 1061) cohorts and serum-GIP in OPRA...
June 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324752/vertical-ground-reaction-force-during-standing-and-walking-are-they-related-to-bone-mineral-density-left-right-asymmetries
#11
Marina Brozgol, Mira Arbiv, Anat Mirelman, Talia Herman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Nachum Vaisman
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue and skeletal fragility. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether asymmetrical femur bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with asymmetrical gait and standing. We compared measures of gait and standing asymmetry in subjects with (n=38) and without (n=11) significant left-right differences in BMD. Participants walked for 72m at their comfortable speed and stood quietly for 60s while outfitted with pressure-sensitive insoles...
March 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324001/cyp3a4-induction-by-rifampin-an-alternative-pathway-for-vitamin-d-inactivation-in-patients-with-cyp24a1-mutations
#12
Colin Patrick Hawkes, Dong Li, Hakon Hakonarson, Kevin E Meyers, Kenneth Thummel, Michael A Levine
Context: The P450 enzyme CYP24A1 is the principal inactivator of vitamin D metabolites. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CYP24A1 are associated with elevated serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with consequent hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, and represent the most common form of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). Current management strategies for this condition include a low calcium diet, reduced dietary vitamin D intake and limited sunlight exposure. CYP3A4 is a P450 enzyme that inactivates many drugs and xenobiotics and may represent an alternative pathway for inactivation of vitamin D metabolites...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323991/whole-body-vibration-mimics-the-metabolic-effects-of-exercise-in-male-leptin-receptor-deficient-mice
#13
Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Karl H Wenger, Sudipta Misra, Catherine L Davis, Norman K Pollock, Mohammed Elsalanty, Kehong Ding, Carlos M Isales, Mark W Hamrick, Joanna R Erion, Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Phonepasong Arounleut, Mark P Mattson, Roy G Cutler, Jack C Yu, Alexis M Stranahan
Whole-body vibration has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether whole-body vibration recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wildtype (Wt) and leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise or whole-body vibration for three months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with Wt and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following treadmill exercise or whole-body vibration...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323987/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-adiposity-in-normal-kidney-function
#14
Sarah Zaheer, Ian H de Boer, Matthew Allison, Jenifer M Brown, Bruce M Psaty, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Erin D Michos, Joachim H Ix, Bryan Kestenbaum, David Siscovick, Anand Vaidya
Context: Obesity is associated with poor bone mineralization and quality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays an important role in calcium, phosphate, and skeletal physiology. Objective: To test the hypothesis that greater adiposity results in higher FGF23 levels among individuals with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Design, Setting, Participants: Cross-sectional analyses among participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323483/taphonomy-of-microbial-biosignatures-in-spring-deposits-a-comparison-of-modern-quaternary-and-jurassic-examples
#15
Sally L Potter-McIntyre, Jason Williams, Charity Phillips-Lander, Laura O'Connell
On Earth, microorganisms commonly enhance mineral precipitation and mediate mineralogical and chemical compositions of resulting deposits, particularly at spring systems. However, preservation of any type of microbial fossil or chemical or textural biosignature depends on the degree of alteration during diagenesis and factors such as exposure to diagenetic fluids. Little is known about the transformation of biosignatures during diagenesis over geologic time. Ten Mile Graben, Utah, USA, hosts a cold spring system that is an exceptional site for evaluation of diagenetic alteration of biosignatures because of the presence of modern springs with actively precipitating microbial mats and a series of progressively older tufa terraces (<400 ka) preserved in the area from the same spring system...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323146/hypogonadal-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-have-smaller-bone-size-and-lower-bone-turnover
#16
Georgia Colleluori, Lina Aguirre, Richard Dorin, David Robbins, Dean Blevins, Yoann Barnouin, Rui Chen, Clifford Qualls, Dennis T Villareal, Reina Armamento-Villareal
INTRODUCTION: Both hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are associated with increased fracture risk. Emerging data support the negative effect of low testosterone on glucose metabolism, however, there is little information on the bone health of hypogonadal men with diabetes. We evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry and bone turnover of hypogonadal men with T2D compared to hypogonadal men without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study, men 40-74years old, with average morning testosterone (done twice) of<300ng/dl...
March 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321337/salivary-distinctiveness-and-modifications-in-males-with-diabetes-and-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#17
Loai Aljerf, Iyad Alhaffar
Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls...
2017: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321061/effects-of-denosumab-on-bone-metabolic-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-treated-with-glucocorticoids
#18
Masato Sawamura, Atsushi Komatsuda, Masaru Togashi, Hideki Wakui, Naoto Takahashi
Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture. Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320527/characterization-and-genome-functional-analysis-of-the-ddt-degrading-bacterium-ochrobactrum-sp-ddt-2
#19
Xiong Pan, Tianheng Xu, Haoyu Xu, Hua Fang, Yunlong Yu
A strain of Ochrobactrum sp. DDT-2 that was capable of degrading DDT as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated and sequenced, and its biodegradation characteristics and metabolism mechanism were examined. The genome sequence of the isolate DDT-2 was composed of 4,630,303bp with a GC content of 55.99% and 4454 coding genes. The degradation rate of DDT by the isolate DDT-2 increased with the increasing substrate concentration (0.1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The degradation half-life of DDT in the presence of the isolate DDT-2 at pH7...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319607/reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-children-with-screening-detected-celiac-disease
#20
Sara Björck, Charlotte Brundin, Magnus Karlsson, Daniel Agardh
OBJECTIVES: To assess if bone mass and metabolism are impaired in genetically at risk children with screening-detected celiac disease. METHODS: Included were 71 children with screening-detected celiac disease diagnosed at 10.0 ± 0.7 (mean ± SD) years and 142 matched controls as well as 30 children with screening-detected celiac disease diagnosed at 3.3 ± 0.4 years of age presently on a gluten-free diet for 6.9 ± 1.1 years and 60 matched controls...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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