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Mineral metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#1
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913891/biotransformation-of-2-4-dinitroanisole-by-a-fungal-penicillium-sp
#2
Hunter W Schroer, Kathryn L Langenfeld, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Craig L Just
Insensitive munitions explosives are new formulations that are less prone to unintended detonation compared to traditional explosives. While these formulations have safety benefits, the individual constituents, such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), have an unknown ecosystem fate with potentially toxic impacts to flora and fauna exposed to DNAN and/or its metabolites. Fungi may be useful in remediation and have been shown to degrade traditional nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, that are structurally similar to DNAN...
December 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913023/in-stream-metabolism-and-atmospheric-carbon-sequestration-in-a-groundwater-fed-karst-stream
#3
Junbing Pu, Jianhong Li, Mitra B Khadka, Jonathan B Martin, Tao Zhang, Shi Yu, Daoxian Yuan
Atmospheric carbon sequestered in karst systems through dissolution of carbonate minerals is considered to have no net effect on long-term regional and global carbon budgets because precipitation of dissolved carbonate minerals emits CO2 back to the atmosphere. Even though recent studies have implied that rapid kinetics of carbonate dissolution coupled with the aquatic photosynthetic uptake of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) could facilitate a stable atmospheric C sink in karst rivers and streams, little is known about the magnitudes and long-term stability of this C sink...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912678/the-physiology-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-diabetes
#4
Simon S Evers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley
Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy, produce significant and durable weight loss in both humans and rodents. Recently, these surgical interventions have also been termed metabolic surgery because they result in profound metabolic improvements that often surpass the expected improvement due to body weight loss alone. In this review we focus on the weight-loss independent effects of bariatric surgery, which encompass energy expenditure and macronutrient preference, the luminal composition of the gut (i...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909782/associations-between-serum-vitamin-e-concentration-and-bone-mineral-density-in-the-us-elderly-population
#5
J Zhang, X Hu, J Zhang
: Mixed findings regarding effects of vitamin E on bone metabolism existed. We were the first to find a negative association between serum α-tocopherol concentration and bone mineral density in the US elderly population. Using vitamin E supplement as α-tocopherol to promote bone health was not warranted at this time. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to examine the associations between serum vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) status and bone mineral density (BMD) among the US elderly population...
December 1, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#7
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906582/fiat-deletion-increases-bone-mass-but-does-not-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-complications
#8
Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Vionnie W C Yu, William Addison, Vice Mandic, Martin Pellicelli, Alice Arabian, René St-Arnaud
FIAT (Factor Inhibiting ATF4-mediated Transcription) interacts with ATF4 to repress its transcriptional activity. We performed a phenotypic analysis of Fiat-deficient male mice (Fiat(-/Y)) at 8 and 16 weeks of age. Fiat(-/Y) mice appeared normal at birth and weight gain was comparable between genotypes. μCT analysis of proximal femur demonstrated 46% and 13% age-dependent increases in trabecular bone volume and thickness, respectively, in Fiat(-/Y) mice. Cortical bone measurements at the femoral midshaft revealed a significant increase in cortical thickness in older Fiat(-/Y) mice...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905856/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-stimulates-odontoblastic-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-vitro
#9
Goksen Mucuk, Elif Sepet, Mine Erguven, Ozlem Ekmekci, Ayhan Bilir
BACKGROUND: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-OH D3) plays an important role in mineralized tissue metabolism, including teeth. However, few studies have addressed its role in odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp-stem cells (hDPSCs). AIM: This study aimed to understand the influence of various concentrations of 1,25-OH D3 on the proliferation capacity and early dentinogenesis responses of hDPSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hDPSCs were obtained from the impacted third molar teeth...
December 1, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904825/can-acetazolamide-be-used-to-treat-diseases-involving-increased-bone-mineral-density
#10
Juan David González-Rodríguez, María Isabel Luis-Yanes, Esther Inglés-Torres, Pedro Arango-Sancho, José Eugenio Cabrera-Sevilla, María Rosario Duque-Fernández, Salvador Gil-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel García-Nieto
Sclerosing bone dysplasias are a series of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by functional failure of the osteoclasts in bone resorption, leading to an excessive amount of bone mineral density (BMD) which could have serious clinical consequences. We treated three children affected with seriously high levels of BMD with acetazolamide, with the intention of inducing metabolic acidosis, thus increasing bone resorption and reducing BMD. All our patients tolerated and followed the treatment well and the clinical response was satisfactory in all cases...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903998/survival-benefit-of-hemodiafiltration-compared-with-prolonged-high-flux-hemodialysis
#11
Petar S Djuric, Aleksandar Jankovic, Jovan Popovic, Jelena Tosic Dragovic, Ana Bulatovic, Zivka Djuric, Milos Mitrovic, Nada Dimkovic
INTRODUCTION:  Patients on dialysis have a high rate of death, mainly of cardiovascular cause. Nephrologists are actively looking for ways to improve patients' outcomes, and alternative dialysis strategies, such as long conventional hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration, are currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to compare anemia, nutrition, inflammation, mineral metabolism, and 3-year survival rates between patients treated with hemodiafiltration and prolonged high-flux hemodialysis (HFH)...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902586/neurological-psychological-and-cognitive-disorders-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-conservative-and-replacement-therapy
#12
Silvia Lai, Oriano Mecarelli, Patrizia Pulitano, Roberto Romanello, Leonardo Davi, Alessia Zarabla, Amalia Mariotti, Maria Carta, Giorgia Tasso, Luca Poli, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Massimo Testorio, Nicla Frassetti, Paola Aceto, Alessandro Galani, Carlo Lai
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in the world. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders, related to CKD, could contribute to the morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the neurological, psychological, and cognitive imbalance in patients with CKD on conservative and replacement therapy.Seventy-four clinically stable patients affected by CKD on conservative therapy, replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD)), or with kidney transplantation (KT) and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched for age and sex were enrolled...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900962/association-of-conjunctival-and-corneal-calcification-with-vascular-calcification-among-hepatitis-c-seropositive-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Khaled AbouSeif, Dawlat Sany, Yasser Elshahawy, Ayman Seddik, Khedr Rahman, Moustapha Gaber
Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC) and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#14
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899269/pixe-study-on-the-effects-of-parathyroid-hormone-on-elemental-content-in-rat-bones
#15
M H Eisa, H Shen, W Jin, Abdulaziz S Alaamer, M A Al-Rajhi, Hajo Idriss
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. PTH plays a central role in regulating calcium phosphate metabolism and its increases in production in response to low serum calcium levels. A continuous hypersecretion of PTH, as occurs in primary hyperparathyroidism, leads to bone resorption. In this study, the effect of different doses of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone mineral content (BMC) in rats was investigated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study will help in investigating further the toxicity of extremely high doses of PTH on BMC...
November 26, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898652/natural-mineral-rich-water-ingestion-by-ovariectomized-fructose-fed-sprague-dawley-rats-effects-on-sirtuin-1-and-glucocorticoid-signaling-pathways
#16
Jugal Kishore Das, Milton Severo, Cidália Dionísio Pereira, Emília Patrício, José Magalhães, Rosário Monteiro, Delminda Neves, Maria João Martins
OBJECTIVE: Prevention or induction of metabolic disorders and obesity depend on estrogen signaling and/or exogenous factors, such as mineral content in diet. The protective effects of a Portuguese natural mineral-rich water against the induction of metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats have been reported. The present study was designed to assess the impact of this mineral-rich water on fructose-fed estrogen-deficient female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ovariectomized rats had access to tap (TWO) or mineral-rich (MWO) waters, with and without 10% fructose (10-wk treatment)...
November 28, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896453/management-of-phosphorus-load-in-ckd-patients
#17
REVIEW
Yutaka Taketani, Fumihiko Koiwa, Keitaro Yokoyama
Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896266/in-vitro-bone-cell-models-impact-of-fluid-shear-stress-on-bone-formation
#18
REVIEW
Claudia Wittkowske, Gwendolen C Reilly, Damien Lacroix, Cecile M Perrault
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895088/hormonal-alterations-in-pcos-and-its-influence-on-bone-metabolism
#19
Abhaya Krishnan, Sridhar Muthusami
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) report. National Institute of Health documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States . Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The impact of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895003/effect-on-nitrogen-balance-thermogenesis-body-composition-satiety-and-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-up-to-one-year-after-surgery-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-dietary-protein-during-surgical-weight-loss
#20
Violeta Moizé, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Josep Vidal, Patricia Miner, Yves Boirie, Blandine Laferrère
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS), the most effective treatment for severe obesity, typically results in 40-50 kg weight loss in the year following the surgery. Beyond its action on protein metabolism, dietary protein intake (PI) affects satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition (BC). However, the required amount of PI after surgical weight loss is not known. The current daily PI recommendation for diet-induced weight loss is 0.8 g/kg ideal body weight (IBW) per day, but whether this amount is sufficient to preserve fat-free mass during active surgical weight loss is unknown...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
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