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Mineral metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918137/reticulo-rumen-mass-epithelium-gene-expression-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-energy-diet
#1
J M Arroyo, A Hosseini, Z Zhou, A Alharthi, E Trevisi, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916340/identification-of-potent-nonabsorbable-agonists-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-for-gi-specific-administration
#2
Steven M Sparks, Paul K Spearing, Caroline J Diaz, David J Cowan, Channa Jayawickreme, Grace Chen, Thomas J Rimele, Claudia Generaux, Lindsey T Harston, Shane G Roller
Modulation of gastrointestinal nutrient sensing pathways provides a promising a new approach for the treatment of metabolic diseases including diabetes and obesity. The calcium-sensing receptor has been identified as a key receptor involved in mineral and amino acid nutrient sensing and thus is an attractive target for modulation in the intestine. Herein we describe the optimization of gastrointestinally restricted calcium-sensing receptor agonists starting from a 3-aminopyrrolidine-containing template leading to the identification of GI-restricted agonist 19 (GSK3004774)...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916025/oral-manifestations-of-nutritional-disorders
#3
Stanislav N Tolkachjov, Alison J Bruce
Nutritional deficiencies occur when body metabolic requirements are not matched by intake and absorption. Reasons for this discrepancy are numerous, but often social, economic, medical, and even psychiatric factors may play a role. Vitamins and minerals are required for appropriate rapid cell turnover of the oral mucosa. The oral cavity is a unique anatomic environment that may manifest early signs of nutritional disorders as well as other indicators of systemic disease. Knowledge of these oral manifestations and associated findings will allow a practitioner to consider a nutritional disorder when evaluating oral changes and, in turn, initiate appropriate therapy...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913958/preoperative-nutritional-management-of-bariatric-patients-in-australia-the-current-practice-of-dietitians
#4
Ruth Bourne, Judith Tweedie, Fiona Pelly
AIM: The aim of this observational study was to investigate the reported practices of Australian dietitians managing bariatric surgery patients in the preoperative stage. METHODS: An online survey of dietitians providing nutritional care to bariatric patients was developed for the purpose of this investigation. The survey questions were guided by the Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient guidelines and current literature...
September 15, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904872/treatment-of-renal-anemia-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Patrick Biggar, Gheun-Ho Kim
Anemia, complicating the course of chronic kidney disease, is a significant parameter, whether interpreted as subjective impairment or an objective prognostic marker. Renal anemia is predominantly due to relative erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. EPO inhibits apoptosis of erythrocyte precursors. Studies using EPO substitution have shown that increasing hemoglobin (Hb) levels up to 10-11 g/dL is associated with clinical improvement. However, it has not been unequivocally proven that further intensification of erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy actually leads to a comprehensive benefit for the patient, especially as ESAs are potentially associated with increased cerebro-cardiovascular events...
September 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903900/genetics-association-study-and-functional-analysis-on-osteoporosis-susceptibility-gene-bdnf
#6
Man Yang, Bing-Jie Lu, Yuan-Yuan Duan, Xiao-Feng Chen, Jian-Gang Ma, Yan Guo
To explore the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese Han population, we performed association analysis of 14 tag SNPs on BDNF gene with hip/spine BMD in 1300 Han Chinese samples from Shaanxi Province. We found that 8 of the 14 SNPs were significantly associated with hip or spine BMD (P < 0.05). Moreover, the SNP rs16917237 was significantly associated with both hip and spine BMD, with significant Bonferroni correlation (P value 0.05/14 = 0...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903124/early-monitoring-of-osteoporosis-treatment-response-by-technetium-99m-methylene-diphosphonate-bone-scan
#7
Jingjing Lou, Guanghua Wen, Ke Dong, Yifan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) bone scan and the bone mineral density (BMD) test in monitoring the efficacy of osteoporosis (OP) treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 50 women with OP were prospectively enrolled in this study from January 2011 to October 2016 in our hospital. All the patients underwent a Tc-MDP whole-body bone scan and the BMD test before and after alendronate sodium treatment at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively...
October 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901385/protective-effect-of-rhizoma-dioscoreae-extract-against-alveolar-bone-loss-in-ovariectomized-rats-via-regulation-of-il-6-stat3-signaling
#8
Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yan-Jing Chen, Li-Hua Xiang, Jing-Hua Pan, Zhen Wang, Gary Guishan Xiao, Da-Hong Ju
The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on preventing rat alveolar bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX), and to determine the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in this effect. Female Wistar rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery. The rats that had undergone OVX were treated with RDE (RDE group), vehicle (OVX group) or 17β-estradiol subcutaneous injection (E2 group). Subsequently, bone metabolic activity was assessed by analyzing 3-D alveolar bone construction, bone mineral density, as well as the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899800/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-status-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Tarek Carlos Salman-Monte, Vicenç Torrente-Segarra, Ana Leticia Vega Vidal, Patricia Corzo, F Castro-Dominguez, F Ojeda, Jordi Carbonell Abelló
Despite the improvement in the quality of life of patients with SLE due to scientific and technological advances, SLE remains a disease that over the years may produce irreversible damage to patients. Osteoporosis and secondary bone fractures are two of the major causes of irreparable injury in patients with SLE. Vitamin D insufficiency may play a vital role both in reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and in the appearance of fractures, although its mechanisms of action are still unclear. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the prevalence and predictors of reduced vitamin D plasma levels, bone loss and the presence of fractures in SLE patients...
September 9, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895587/a-new-animal-diet-based-on-human-western-diet-is-a-robust-diet-induced-obesity-model-comparison-to-high-fat-and-cafeteria-diets-in-term-of-metabolic-and-gut-microbiota-disruption
#10
R C Bortolin, A R Vargas, J Gasparotto, P R Chaves, C E Schnorr, K da Boit Martinello, A K Silveira, T K Rabelo, D P Gelain, J C F Moreira
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that predisposes patients to numerous diseases and has become a major global public-health concern. Animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are frequently used to study obesity, but which DIO model most accurately reflects the pathology of human obesity remains unclear. In this study, we designed a diet based on the human Western diet (WD) and compared it with the cafeteria diet (CAF) and high-fat diet (HFD) in order to evaluate which diet most closely mirrors human obesity...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894358/therapy-with-pamidronate-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#11
Otilia Marginean, Raluca Corina Tamasanu, Niculina Mang, Ioana Mozos, Giorgiana Flavia Brad
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by excessive bone fragility with fractures consecutive to minor trauma. Considering lack of standardization of therapy with pamidronate in children, it was our aim to present our experience over a period of 10 years regarding evolution and treatment in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis and OI. Nine patients diagnosed with OI were admitted to the First Pediatric Clinic, Timisoara. They were investigated (clinical, biomarkers of bone metabolism and imaging studies), and a quality-of-life questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of OI...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893644/high-bone-mass-due-to-novel-lrp5-and-amer1-mutations
#12
Alice Costantini, Päivi Kekäläinen, Riikka E Mäkitie, Outi Mäkitie
WNT signaling is a key regulator of bone metabolism and its increased or decreased activity leads to skeletal disorders. Here we describe two patients with high bone mass (HBM) caused by novel mutations in two different WNT pathway components. The first patient is a 53-year-old male with HBM. He was diagnosed at adult age based on significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD). He has undergone several surgeries due to excessive bone in ear canals, bilateral jaw exostoses and mandibular tori. Radiographs show severe cortical thickening of cranial and long bones...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893232/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-deficiency-enhances-subchondral-osteopenia-after-induction-of-osteoarthritis-in-mice
#13
Akihiro Moritake, Naoyuki Kawao, Kiyotaka Okada, Kohei Tatsumi, Masayoshi Ishida, Katsumi Okumoto, Osamu Matsuo, Masao Akagi, Hiroshi Kaji
BACKGROUND: Subchondral osteopenia is important for the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Although previous studies suggest that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is related to bone metabolism, its role in OA remains unknown. We therefore investigated the roles of PAI-1 in the subchondral bone in OA model mice. METHODS: Wild type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient (KO) mice were ovariectomized (OVX), and then destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed...
September 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#14
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892300/thermodynamically-diverse-syntrophic-aromatic-compound-catabolism
#15
Masaru Konishi Nobu, Takashi Narihiro, Miaomiao Liu, Kyohei Kuroda, Ran Mei, Wen-Tso Liu
Specialized organotrophic Bacteria "syntrophs" and methanogenic Archaea "methanogens" form a unique metabolic interaction to accomplish cooperative mineralization of organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 . Due to challenges in cultivation of syntrophs, mechanisms for how their organotrophic catabolism circumvents thermodynamic restrictions remain unclear. In this study, we investigate two communities hosting diverse syntrophic aromatic compound metabolizers (Syntrophus, Syntrophorhabdus, Pelotomaculum, and an uncultivated Syntrophorhabdacaeae member) to uncover their catabolic diversity and flexibility...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891970/the-abcc6-transporter-a-new-player-in-biomineralization
#16
REVIEW
Guillaume Favre, Audrey Laurain, Tamas Aranyi, Flora Szeri, Krisztina Fulop, Olivier Le Saux, Christophe Duranton, Gilles Kauffenstein, Ludovic Martin, Georges Lefthériotis
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Since the first description of the disease in 1896, alleging a disease involving the elastic fibers, the concept evolved with the further discoveries of the pivotal role of ectopic mineralization that is preponderant in the elastin-rich tissues of the skin, eyes and blood vessel walls. After discovery of the causative gene of the disease in 2000, the function of the ABCC6 protein remains elusive...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888853/monitoring-guidance-for-patients-with-hypophosphatasia-treated-with-asfotase-alfa
#17
REVIEW
Priya S Kishnani, Eric T Rush, Paul Arundel, Nick Bishop, Kathryn Dahir, William Fraser, Paul Harmatz, Agnès Linglart, Craig F Munns, Mark E Nunes, Howard M Saal, Lothar Seefried, Keiichi Ozono
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare, inherited, systemic, metabolic disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations or a single dominant-negative mutation in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). The disease is associated with a broad range of signs, symptoms, and complications, including impaired skeletal mineralization, altered calcium and phosphate metabolism, recurrent fractures, pain, respiratory problems, impaired growth and mobility, premature tooth loss, developmental delay, and seizures...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884741/-the-nephroprotective-potential-of-peloid-therapy-used-for-the-rehabilitation-of-the-patients-presenting-with-chronic-pyelonephritis
#18
E I Slobodian, N N Kaladze, A L Govdaliuk, E I Kulik
This review article presents the data on the mechanism of action of peloid therapy from the perspective of its defibrosing effect, the structure and functions of the extracellular matrix under the normal and pathological conditions. In addition, role of this treatment modality in the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis which determines the severity and prognosis of chronic pyelonephritis is considered. The researchers are currently carry out the extensive studies aimed at the search of the methods for the primary and secondary prevention of chronic pyelonephritis...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884735/-the-spa-and-health-resort-based-treatment-of-metabolic-syndrome-with-the-application-of-the-therapeutic-courses-of-different-duration-the-evaluation-according-long-term-results
#19
E N Chalaya, L A Botvineva, L V Tsallagova, N K Ahkubekova, N V Efimenko, A S Kaysinova, V Yu Amiyants, V A Vasin
AIM: The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the new therapeutic modalities for the spa and health resort-based treatment of metabolic syndrome based on the results of the long-term follow-up observations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients presenting with metabolic syndrome were recruited for the participation in the study. All of them underwent a shortened course of mineral water intake in the combination with the use of the herbal medicinal products...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882565/evidence-of-disordered-calcium-metabolism-in-adolescent-girls-with-type-1-diabetes-an-observational-study-using-a-dual-stable-calcium-isotope-technique
#20
David R Weber, Kimberly O O'Brien, George J Schwartz
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with skeletal abnormalities including low bone density and increased fracture risk. The pathophysiology underlying T1D related skeletal fragility remains unknown. The objective of this study was to use a dual-stable calcium isotope method to investigate the effects of T1D on calcium absorption and estimated calcium retention in adolescent females. Twenty adolescent females with T1D were admitted for a 24-h calcium absorption study using oral ((44)Ca) and intravenous ((42)Ca) stable isotopes for determination of percent gastrointestinal calcium absorption and estimated calcium retention...
September 4, 2017: Bone
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