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Overhead athletes

Elif Turgut, Volga Bayrakci Tunay
OBJECTIVE: Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score (KJOC-SES) is a subjective assessment tool to measure functional status of the upper extremities in overhead athletes. The aim was to translate and culturally adapt the KJOC-SES and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version (KJOC-SES-Tr) in overhead athletes. METHODS: The forward and back-translation method was followed. One hundred and twenty-three overhead athletes completed the KJOC-SES-Tr, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation Form (ASES)...
March 9, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. PURPOSE: To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Dawn P Andrews, Kari B Odland-Wolf, James May, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany
Background and Purpose: Secondary impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common complaint in the sporting population particularly among athletes engaging in overhead activities. While symptoms may be present at the shoulder with patients complaining of SIS, spinal alignment or dysfunction can influence scapular positioning and overall shoulder girdle function. As an adjunct therapy to traditional interventions for SIS, thoracic high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrusts have been utilized and correlated with patient reported decreases in pain...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
V Moreno-Pérez, Jll Elvira, J Fernandez-Fernandez, F J Vera-Garcia
Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and external rotation strength have been associated with the development of shoulder pain in overhead athletes. Objective: To examine the bilateral passive shoulder rotational range of motion (ROM), the isometric rotational strength and unilateral serve speed in elite tennis players with and without shoulder pain history (PH and NPH, respectively) and compare between dominant and non-dominant limbs and between groups...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Eric M Neverman, Kevin Clary
Fracture of the first rib is rare because of the anatomic protection provided by surrounding structures. Osseous fatigue caused by repetitive motion and antagonistic muscular contraction is postulated to contribute to nontraumatic first rib fracture, which is most often described in adolescent athletes in sports that involve repetitive overhead motion of the arm. In this report, we describe a 49-year-old man with an occupation involving repetitive overhead motion at the shoulder who was found to have a nontraumatic first rib fracture...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Daniel López-Plaza, Fernando Alacid, Jacobo Ángel Rubio, Pedro Ángel López-Miñarro, José María Muyor, Pedro Manonelles
Traditionally, physical and anthropometrical profiles of the most successful kayak athletes have been identified in male kayakers. This study attempted to identify the differences in morphology and fitness level of two performance-based groups of young elite female paddlers. Eighty-six female kayakers, aged 13.62 ± 0.57 years (mean ± SD) were allocated in two groups (Top-10 and Rest) depending on their ranking in the three Olympic distances (200, 500 and 1000 meters). All subjects underwent a battery of anthropometrical (heights, weight, girths and sum of skinfolds), physical fitness (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, sit-and-reach test and 20-m multistage shuttle run test) and specific performance assessments (200, 500 and 1000 meters)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jonathan D Gelber, Lonnie Soloff, Mark S Schickendantz
Overhead athletes subject their shoulders to extreme repetitive torque, compression, distraction, and translation stresses, resulting in adaptive changes of the soft tissues and osseous structures within and around the glenohumeral joint. These anatomic adaptations result in biomechanical enhancements, which improve performance. Understanding the difference between necessary and adaptive changes and pathologic findings is critical when making treatment decisions. Injuries to the shoulder of the overhead athlete can be generally classified into three groups: internal impingement, internal impingement with acquired secondary anterior instability, and primary anterior or multidirectional instability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Michael G Azzam, Jeffrey R Dugas, James R Andrews, Samuel R Goldstein, Benton A Emblom, E Lyle Cain
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in adolescents but cause significant morbidity if unrecognized. Previous literature on rotator cuff repairs in adolescents is limited to small case series, with few data to guide treatment. HYPOTHESIS: Adolescent patients would have excellent functional outcome scores and return to the same level of sports participation after rotator cuff repair but would have some difficulty with returning to overhead sports. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence 4...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael O Schär, Simone Dellenbach, Christian W Pfirrmann, Sumit Raniga, Bernhard Jost, Matthias A Zumstein
BACKGROUND: Anatomic findings on MRI scans of the shoulder likely affect patients differently based on their physical demands and fitness levels. The natural history of these anatomic findings once professional overhead athletes retire remains unclear. A better understanding of what happens with these findings after retirement may influence how we manage shoulder problems in athletes. PURPOSE: (1) What is the natural history of MRI-observed findings in the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders of professional European handball players after retirement from the sport? What proportion of these individuals have diagnosable findings on MRI, and do these findings disappear after retirement? (2) Do clinical findings such as Constant and Murley score and shoulder ROM change after retirement in these professional overhead athletes? METHODS: The inception cohort of this series consisted of the entire Swiss National European handball team except the goalkeepers...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Wen-Yi Chou, Ching-Jen Wang, Kuan-Ting Wu, Ya-Ju Yang, Jai-Hong Cheng, Shih-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Refractory shoulder tendinitis or partial thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are common findings in overhead athletes. Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for shoulder tendinitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, we recruited 36 shoulders and performed a comparison between the professional athletes (13 shoulders, athletic group; AG) and the non-athletic population (23 shoulders, non-athletic group, NAG) with PTRCTs or shoulder tendinitis of the shoulder after ESWT...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Terrance A Sgroi, Michelle Cilenti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improvements in surgical techniques and increased knowledge of rotator cuff healing, there was a need to identify a safe progression after rotator cuff repair. The rehabilitation specialist plays an integral role in the care of these patients, and by implementing an evidence and criteria-based model, patients may be able to return to their prior levels of function sooner with fewer complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Timing of progression for rotator cuff patients should align not only with healing but also potential strain on the involved tissue...
February 5, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Robert A Keller, Anthony F De Giacomo, Julie A Neumann, Orr Limpisvasti, James E Tibone
CONTEXT: Current perception dictates that glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a chronic adaptation that leads to an increased risk of pathologic conditions in the dominant shoulder or elbow of overhead athletes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adaptations in glenohumeral range of motion in overhead athletes lead to injuries of the upper extremity, specifically in the shoulder or elbow. DATA SOURCES: An electronic database search was performed using Medline, Embase, and SportDiscus from 1950 to 2016...
January 1, 2018: Sports Health
Jeffrey Kay, Jacob M Kirsh, Neil Bakshi, Seper Ekhtiari, Nolan Horner, Mark Gichuru, Bashar Alolabi, Moin Khan, Asheesh Bedi
PURPOSE: To investigate the humeral and soft-tissue adaptations, including humeral retroversion, range of motion, and posterior capsule changes, in overhead throwing athletes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Embase were searched from January 1, 2011, through April 23, 2017, by 2 reviewers independently and in duplicate...
January 17, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini
CONTEXT: Isolated infraspinatus atrophy (IIA) is a common condition among overhead-activity athletes, which affects the hitting shoulder and is caused by suprascapular nerve injury. The loss of infraspinatus function could lead to altered activity of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic muscles and compromise the optimal shoulder function. OBJECTIVE: To assess the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity patterns, relationships, and response latencies of relevant shoulder girdle muscles in professional volleyball players with IIA and in healthy control players...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Fahimeh Kamali, Ehsan Sinaei, Maryam Morovati
CONTEXT: Chronic musculoskeletal disorders in shoulder joint are often associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP), particularly in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. Dry needling (DN) is a treatment of choice for myofascial pain syndrome. However, local lesions and severe post-needle soreness sometimes hamper the direct application of DN in the UT. Therefore, finding an alternative point of treatment seems useful in this regard. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of UT versus infraspinatus (ISP) DN on pain and disability of subjects with shoulder pain...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Yi-Fen Shih, Ya-Fang Lee, Wen-Yin Chen
CONTEXT: Scapular proprioception is a key concern in managing shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). However, no study has examined the effect of elastic taping on scapular proprioception performance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immediate effect of kinesiology taping on scapular reposition accuracy, kinematics and muscle activation in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. DESIGN: Randomized controlled study. SETTING: Musculoskeletal laboratory, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Corbin A Hedt, S Brett Holland, Bradley S Lambert, Joshua D Harris, Patrick C McCulloch
CONTEXT: Interval throwing programs (ITP) have long been used in the physical therapy setting to aid in the safe and efficacious return to sport for an overhead athlete. However, the overall utilization and variation of interval throwing programs are unknown in the physical therapy setting leading to potential inconsistencies in treatment paradigms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in practice patterns exist among active physical therapists of various experience levels with regards to years of experience and advanced certifications...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Jacob M Kirsch, M Tyrrell Burrus, Asheesh Bedi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Professional football quarterbacks are at particular risk for upper extremity injuries due to the physical demands of their position coupled with the inherent risks associated with professional football. This review sought to evaluate current clinical literature to better characterize the injury profile unique to this athletic population. RECENT FINDINGS: Shoulder injuries are the most prevented upper extremity injury among professional football quarterbacks...
January 23, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Dana J Lin, Tony T Wong, Jonathan K Kazam
The unparalleled velocity achieved by overhead throwers subjects the shoulder to extreme forces, resulting in both adaptive changes and pathologic findings that can be detected at imaging. A key biomechanical principle of throwing is achieving maximum external rotation, which initially leads to adaptive changes that may result in a pathologic cascade of injuries. In addition to the well-established concepts of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and internal impingement, osseous and soft-tissue injuries of the shoulder unique to overhead athletes are illustrated...
February 2018: Radiology
Kaila A Holtz, Russell J O'Connor
Background: Softball is a popular sport with a high incidence of upper extremity injuries. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) questionnaire is a validated performance and functional assessment tool used in overhead athletes. Upper extremity pain patterns and baseline KJOC scores have not been reported for active female youth softball pitchers. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of upper extremity pain and its effect in female youth softball pitchers over a competitive season...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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