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Throwing mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140180/the-role-of-lumbopelvic-hip-complex-stability-in-softball-throwing-mechanics
#1
Gabrielle G Gilmer, Jessica K Washington, Jeffrey Dugas, James Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
CONTEXT: Studies have found that a 20% reduction in energy generation from the lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) during overhead throws leads to a 34% increase in load on the shoulder. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of LPHC stability, via the single leg squat (SLS) assessment, on throwing mechanics of softball athletes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty softball athletes (164...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102772/recalibration-in-functional-perceptual-motor-tasks-a-systematic-review
#2
Milou Tessa Brand, Rita Ferraz de Oliveira
Skilled actions are the result of a perceptual-motor system being well-calibrated to the appropriate information variables. Changes to the perceptual or motor system initiates recalibration, which is the rescaling of the perceptual-motor system to informational variables. For example, a professional baseball player may need to rescale their throws due to fatigue. The aim of this systematic review is to analyse how recalibration can and has been measured and also to evaluate the literature on recalibration. Five databases were systematically screened to identify literature that reported experiments where a disturbance was applied to the perceptual-motor system in functional perceptual-motor tasks...
November 2, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031458/quiet-eye-training-improves-accuracy-in-basketball-field-goal-shooting
#3
Joan N Vickers, Ben Vandervies, Christie Kohut, Brendan Ryley
University students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to a quiet eye training (QET) or technical training (TT) group, and their shooting accuracy (%) determined during a pre-, post-, and transfer test in basketball field shooting. Both groups first received lectures on visuomotor processing and the quiet eye (QE), followed by a laboratory in which participants in the QET group were taught how to adopt the QE characteristics of elite free-throw shooters, which stresses optimal gaze control and focus relative to a single target location, while the TT participants were taught elite biomechanics which stresses optimal control of the shooting stance, arms, and hands...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979069/novel-pathogens-in-periodontal-microbiology
#4
REVIEW
K Vidya Hiranmayi, K Sirisha, M V Ramoji Rao, P Sudhakar
Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease caused by complex interactions between distinct pathogens in a biofilm resulting in the destruction of periodontal tissues. It seems evident that unknown microorganisms might be involved in onset or progression of periodontitis. For many decades, research in the field of oral microbiology failed to identify certain subgingival microbiota due to technical limitations but, over a period of 12 years using molecular approaches and sequencing techniques, it became feasible to reveal the existence of new periodontal pathogens...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957977/single-pass-4-throw-pupilloplasty-for-pre-descemet-endothelial-keratoplasty
#5
Priya Narang, Amar Agarwal, Dhivya A Kumar
PURPOSE: To describe the feasibility and applicability of the single-pass 4-throw pupilloplasty (SFT) technique in the Pre-Descemet endothelial keratoplasty (PDEK) procedure. METHODS: In cases with endothelial decompensation and pupil deformity, SFT was performed to prevent the escape of air into the posterior segment. Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography was performed to analyze elevation of the iris and the suture tail end from the iris plane...
December 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950202/hot-rolling-sludge-incineration-suppression-of-pcdd-fs-by-spent-anion-exchange-resins
#6
Shuaixi Xu, Tong Chen, Mengmei Zhang, Alfons Buekens, Yongmei Yu, Yanyan Ling, Zhiliang Chen, Xiaodong Li
Steel industry is the main industrial source of 'dioxins', i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). These arise mainly in the off-gas from sintering plant, yet also other operations, such as continuous casting, and hot and cold rolling could generate albeit minor amounts of dioxins. In this contribution it is verified in how far the incineration of hot rolling sludge (HRS) could contribute to such emissions and, if so, how these could be suppressed at low cost. Spent anion exchange resin (SAER) appeared as a dioxins suppressant during combustion tests of hot rolling sludge in a bench-scale tubular furnace...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925825/conscious-control-is-associated-with-freezing-of-mechanical-degrees-of-freedom-during-motor-learning
#7
Wouter F van Ginneken, Jamie M Poolton, Catherine M Capio, John van der Kamp, Cynthia S Y Choi, Richard S W Masters
This study investigated whether conscious control is associated with freezing of mechanical degrees of freedom during motor learning. Participants practiced a throwing task using either error-strewn or error-reduced practice protocols, which encourage high or low levels of conscious control, respectively. After 24 hr, participants engaged in a series of delayed retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, propensity for conscious control was assessed using participants' ratings and freezing was gauged through movement variability of the throwing arm...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855060/trauma-mechanisms-and-injury-patterns-in-pediatric-burn-patients
#8
Theres Moehrlen, Thomas Szucs, Markus A Landolt, Martin Meuli, Clemens Schiestl, Ueli Moehrlen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency, severity, exact patterns and mechanisms of burn injuries in children. The patient records of children with acute burns admitted to the University Children's Hospital of Zurich were retrospectively reviewed over an 11year period. The age group with the highest risk, were children under the age of five (69%). Boys were overrepresented in all age groups, but the gender imbalance increased with age. Infants and toddlers were mainly injured by scalds and contact burns...
August 27, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854061/lassoing-skill-through-learner-choice
#9
Gabriele Wulf, Takehiro Iwatsuki, Brittney Machin, Jessica Kellogg, Clint Copeland, Rebecca Lewthwaite
The authors examined several issues related to the motor learning benefits resulting from giving learners choices. In 2 experiments, participants practiced a novel task, throwing a lasso. In Experiment 1, giving learners a choice ostensibly irrelevant to performance (color of mat under target) resulted in enhanced learning relative to a control group. The choice group also reported more positive affect. Experiment 2 compared the effectiveness of task-irrelevant (mat color) versus task-relevant (video demonstrations of the skill) choices...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806094/the-relationship-of-throwing-arm-mechanics-and-elbow-varus-torque-within-subject-variation-for-professional-baseball-pitchers-across-82-000-throws
#10
Christopher L Camp, Travis G Tubbs, Glenn S Fleisig, Joshua S Dines, David M Dines, David W Altchek, Brittany Dowling
BACKGROUND: Likely due to the high level of strain exerted across the elbow during the throwing motion, elbow injuries are on the rise in baseball. To identify at-risk athletes and guide postinjury return-to-throw programs, a better understanding of the variables that influence elbow varus torque is desired. PURPOSE: To describe the within-subject relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot and arm rotation in professional baseball pitchers. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
November 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763703/multifractal-foundations-of-visually-guided-aiming-and-adaptation-to-prismatic-perturbation
#11
Nicole S Carver, Danica Bojovic, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Visually-guided action of tossing to a target allows examining coordination between mechanical information for maintaining posture while throwing and visual information for aiming. Previous research indicates that relationships between visual and mechanical information persist in tossing behavior long enough for mechanical cues to prompt recall of past visual impressions. Multifractal analysis might model the long-term coordinations among movement components as visual information changes. We asked 32 adult participants (6 female, 25 male, one not conforming to gender binary; aged M=19...
July 29, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728857/-rosacea-new-data-for-better-care
#12
B Cribier
In the last 10 years, numerous studies have been published that throw new light on rosacea, in all areas of the disease. This overview summarises all the key developments, based on the indexed bibliography appearing in Medline between 2007 and 2017. Recent epidemiological data show that the prevalence of the disease is doubtless greater than estimated hitherto (more than 10% of adults in some countries) and that we should not overlook rosacea in subjects with skin phototypes V or VI, a condition that exists on all continents...
August 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699497/quantitative-structure-activity-relationships-of-aquatic-narcosis-a-review
#13
Chandana Adhikari, Bijay Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND: Prior estimation of toxicity of each and every, existing and yet to be synthesized chemicals is a must to elude their adverse effect on the environment. Experimental determination of such parameters is time consuming, cost effective and above all it demands the sacrifice of many vertebrates. At this end the REACH regulations advocate for the use of non-testing predictive methods such as read-across, weight-of-evidence and QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) techniques...
July 11, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692836/multi-body-dynamic-coupling-mechanism-for-generating-throwing-arm-velocity-during-baseball-pitching
#14
Kozo Naito, Tokio Takagi, Hideaki Kubota, Takeo Maruyama
The purpose of this study was to identify the detailed mechanism how the maximum throwing arm endpoint velocity is determined by the muscular torques and non-muscular interactive torques from the perspective of the dynamic coupling among the trunk, thorax and throwing and non-throwing arm segments. The pitching movements of ten male collegiate baseball pitchers were measured by a three-dimensional motion capture system. Using the induced-segmental velocity analysis (IVA) developed in this study, the maximum fingertip velocity of the throwing arm (MFV) was decomposed into each contribution of the muscular torques, passive motion-dependent torques due to gyroscopic moment, Coriolis force and centrifugal force, and other interactive torque components...
August 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676850/current-therapeutic-approach-to-hypertrophic-scars
#15
REVIEW
Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Anamaria Jović, Lovorka Grgurević, Ivo Dumić-Čule, Krešimir Kostović, Romana Čeović, Branka Marinović
Abnormal scarring and its accompanying esthetic, functional, and psychological sequelae still pose significant challe nges. To date, there is no satisfactory prevention or treatment option for hypertrophic scars (HSs), which is mostly due to not completely comprehending the mechanisms underlying their formation. That is why the apprehension of regular and controlled physiological processes of scar formation is of utmost importance when facing hypertrophic scarring, its pathophysiology, prevention, and therapeutic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675222/the-memristive-effect-as-a-novelty-in-drug-monitoring
#16
Ioulia Tzouvadaki, Nima Aliakbarinodehi, Giovanni De Micheli, Sandro Carrara
Nanoscale devices exhibiting memristive properties show great potential in a plethora of applications. In this work, memristive nanowires are presented for the first time as ideal candidates for absolutely novel, ultrasensitive, highly specific and selective drug-biosensors, also paving the way for real-time monitoring applications, in coupling with the restoration properties of DNA-aptamers. The hysteretic properties exhibited by the hereby-presented special nanodevices, modified via surface treatments, are leveraged along the complete cycle consisting of DNA-aptamer immobilization, target binding, and DNA-aptamer regeneration for successful and effective detection of Tenofovir, an antiviral drug for HIV treatment, in buffer as well as in non-diluted human serum...
July 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641241/influence-of-shoulder-kinematic-estimate-on-joint-and-muscle-mechanics-predicted-by-musculoskeletal-model
#17
Yoann Blache, Mickael Begon
Little information is available in the existing literature regarding the influence of the scapular kinematic estimate method on musculoskeletal analysis. This study aimed to assess the propagation of errors due to the method used for scapular kinematics reconstruction in the workflow of musculoskeletal modeling (joint kinematics, joint torques, muscle force and joint reaction force) in shoulder and upper-limb movements. Two participants performed functional (arm elevation and rotation), daily life (eating and reaching pants pockets) and sports movements (a simulated throwing maneuver)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#18
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588362/folic-acid-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-expression-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#19
Gurwattan S Miranpuri, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Emmanuel Sampene, Abhishek Chopra, Seah Buttar, Carrie Nacht, Neydis Moreno, Kush Patel, Lisa Liu, Anupama Singh, Chandra K Singh, Nithya Hariharan, Bermans Iskandar, Daniel K Resnick
BACKGROUND: The molecular underpinnings of spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with neuropathic pain (NP) are unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP2 play a critical role in inducing NP following SCI. Promoter methylation of MMPs is known to suppress their transcription and reduce NP. In this context, it has been shown in rodents that folic acid (FA), an FDA approved dietary supplement and key methyl donor in the central nervous system (CNS), increases axonal regeneration and repair of injured CNS in part via methylation...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583359/narrative-and-natural-history-in-the-eighteenth-century
#20
Mary Terrall
In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley...
April 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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