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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538869/potential-mechanisms-linking-probiotics-to-diabetes-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#1
Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh, Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Sima Sabihi, Reza Ghiasvand
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested a wide range of possible mechanisms through which probiotics may play a role in diabetes prevention and treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted this study to review the potential mechanisms suggested for the effect of probiotics in diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan. METHODS: A search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google scholar was performed up to October 2016...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536357/glycosylated-triterpenoids-as-endosomal-escape-enhancers-in-targeted-tumor-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Hendrik Fuchs, Nicole Niesler, Alexandra Trautner, Simko Sama, Gerold Jerz, Hossein Panjideh, Alexander Weng
Protein-based targeted toxins play an increasingly important role in targeted tumor therapies. In spite of their high intrinsic toxicity, their efficacy in animal models is low. A major reason for this is the limited entry of the toxin into the cytosol of the target cell, which is required to mediate the fatal effect. Target receptor bound and internalized toxins are mostly either recycled back to the cell surface or lysosomally degraded. This might explain why no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date although more than 500 targeted toxins have been developed within the last decades...
March 29, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498227/mechanisms-and-treatments-for-shoulder-injuries-in-overhead-throwing-athletes
#3
Jason L Zaremski, Joseph G Wasser, Heather K Vincent
Shoulder injuries in overhead throwing athletes are very common. Throwing volume and mechanical forces that are placed on the glenohumeral joint and associated soft tissue structures are contributors. Poor biomechanics and weak links in the kinetic chain place this athletic population at increased risk for shoulder injuries. Common biomechanical deficiencies in overhead throwing athletes typically involve poor sequential timing of muscle activity and insufficient coordination also presented in shoulder elevation and other functional tasks...
May 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475551/evaluation-of-muscle-mechanical-capacities-through-the-two-load-method-optimization-of-the-load-selection
#4
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Slobodan Jaric, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial, Amador García-Ramos
Recent research has revealed that the force-velocity relationship obtained from the 'two-load method' (i.e., functional movements tested against just 2 external loads) could be a feasible method for the selective assessment of muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. The study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the outcomes of the two-load method observed from (1) farther vs. closer data points (20-70%1RM, 30-60%1RM, and 40-50%1RM), and (2) force-biased (50-70%1RM) vs. velocity-biased (20-40%1RM) data points...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456383/adult-onset-spinal-muscular-atrophy-an-update
#5
REVIEW
R Juntas Morales, N Pageot, G Taieb, W Camu
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) refers to a group of disorders affecting lower motor neurons. The age of onset of these disorders is variable, ranging from the neonatal period to adulthood. Over the last few years, there has been enormous progress in the description of new genes and phenotypes that throw new light on the molecular pathways involved in motor neuron degeneration. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the most frequent forms, SMA linked to SMN1 gene mutations and Kennedy disease, has led to the development of therapeutic strategies currently being tested in clinical trials...
April 26, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451622/the-effects-of-elbow-bracing-on-medial-elbow-joint-space-gapping-associated-with-repetitive-throwing-in-high-school-baseball-players
#6
Hiroshi Hattori, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Keiichi Takei, Mitsuru Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing...
April 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427795/reappraisal-to-the-study-of-4e-bp1-as-an-mtor-substrate-a-normative-critique
#7
REVIEW
Asiya Batool, Sabreena Aashaq, Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi
mTOR-4E-BP1 axis is regarded as the best oncogenic circuitry impinging on translational control whereby mTORC1 dictates post-translational regulation of 4E-BP1. This review provides new insights into the molecular network of signalling pathways highlighting the recent explosion of studies in respect to the deviant behaviour of 4E-BP1 towards mTORC1. Despite the striking conservation of mTOR nexus, the eccentric phosphorylation dynamics of 4E-BP1 negate the apparent linear architecture of mTORC1 attesting the importance of other kinases that may evoke cross-talks with the conventional frame, most of which are enlisted in the manuscript...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412351/effect-of-apoa4-on-serpina3-mediated-by-nuclear-receptors-nr4a1-and-nr1d1-in-hepatocytes
#8
Yupeng Zhang, Jing He, Jing Zhao, Min Xu, Danwen Lou, Patrick Tso, Zongfang Li, Xiaoming Li
ApoA4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but the mechanism remains unclear. SERPINA3 is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor gene family, and has been shown to be involved in anti-inflammation and associated with a number of human diseases. In this study, we revealed that ApoA4 stimulates the gene expression of SERPINA3 in mouse hepatocytes both in vivo and in vitro, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The transcriptional response of SERPINA3 to ApoA4 is regulated through the binding of ApoA4 with nuclear receptors NR4A1 and NR1D1 on the SERPINA3 promoter, which was verified with ChIP, Luciferase activity assay and RNA interference-mediated NR4A1 or NR1D1 gene knockdown...
April 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333093/the-effect-of-regular-intake-of-dry-cured-ham-rich-in-bioactive-peptides-on-inflammation-platelet-and-monocyte-activation-markers-in-humans
#9
Sara María Martínez-Sánchez, Alfredo Minguela, David Prieto-Merino, María Pilar Zafrilla-Rentero, José Abellán-Alemán, Silvia Montoro-García
Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers and the inflammatory status of healthy humans with pre-hypertension. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy volunteers with systolic blood pressure of >125 mmHg were enrolled in a two-arm crossover randomized controlled trial...
March 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328567/effects-of-a-simulated-game-on-upper-extremity-pitching-mechanics-and-muscle-activations-among-various-pitch-types-in-youth-baseball-pitchers
#10
Gretchen D Oliver, Hillary Plummer, Lisa Henning, Michael Saper, Gabrielle Glimer, Allison Brambeck, James R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Throwing requires proper stability and orientation of the pelvis and scapula for efficient energy transfer during pitching. Fatigue of the pelvis and scapular musculature throughout the course of a game can impair pitching performance, and place excessive demands on the throwing arm leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in pelvis, torso, and upper extremity pitching mechanics and muscle activations between the fastball, change-up, and curveball pitches in youth baseball pitchers following a simulated game...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315193/resistance-training-using-different-hypoxic-training-strategies-a-basis-for-hypertrophy-and-muscle-power-development
#11
REVIEW
Belén Feriche, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Paulino Padial
The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of the different hypertrophic resistance training strategies in hypoxia...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299766/increased-level-of-c-kit-in-semen-of-infertile-patients-with-varicocele
#12
Guorong Jin, Jianrong Liu, Qin Qin, Songdan Gao, Fang Zhang, Yuehong Ma, Caiyun Ding, Lina Dong, Haizhen Yin, Yimin Wang
PURPOSE: Varicocele is the most common risk factor for male infertility, however, not all males with varicocele experience infertility. In fact, most patients with varicocele have normal spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanism of varicocele-associated infertility is yet to be completely understood. The aim of this study is to assess the association of a number of fertility regulatory factors on varicocele associated infertility and to throw light on the mechanism of varicocele-associated infertility...
March 16, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284923/vascular-quadrilateral-space-syndrome-in-three-overhead-throwing-athletes-an-underdiagnosed-cause-of-digital-ischemia
#13
Johnathon Rollo, David Rigberg, Hugh Gelabert
Vascular quadrilateral space syndrome (vQSS) is an underdiagnosed cause of extremity ischemia, pain and paresthesia in overhand throwing athletes. The mechanism of vQSS is thought to result from repeated abduction and external rotation of the arm leading to a distraction injury of the posterior circumflex humoral artery (PCHA) as this courses through the quadrilateral space. This trauma may cause dissection and dissecting aneurysm formation. Thrombus from this arterial injury then embolizes down the arm resulting in the symptomatic presentation...
March 8, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255565/defining-the-long-toss-a-professional-baseball-epidemiological-study
#14
Austin V Stone, Sandeep Mannava, Anita Patel, Alejandro Marquez-Lara, Michael T Freehill
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. PURPOSE: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253058/the-comparison-of-instrument-assisted-soft-tissue-mobilization-and-self-stretch-measures-to-increase-shoulder-range-of-motion-in-overhead-athletes-a-critically-appraised-topic
#15
Matthew J Hussey, Alex E Boron-Magulik, Tamara C Valovich-McLeod, Cailee E Welch Bacon
Shoulder range of motion (ROM) in throwing athletes relies on a balance of mobility and stability in order to maintain proper function and health. Prior research has reported that deficits in internal rotation greater than 20 degrees, decreases in total arc of motion greater than 5 degrees when compared to the contralateral side, and decreases in horizontal adduction greater than 16 degrees have all been identified as factors that could lead to throwing related injuries.(1) Due to the increased risk of injury associated with ROM deficits, it is important for clinicians to be cognizant of how to most effectively treat these issues...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224476/protein-phosphatase-2a-a-double-faced-phosphatase-of-cellular-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Md Nematullah, M N Hoda, Farah Khan
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase, is a vitally important phosphatase for the cellular system. Structurally, it is constituted of three different subunits, namely catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), structural scaffold subunit (PP2A-A), and regulatory subunit (PP2A-B). All subunits have various isoforms, and catalytic and scaffold subunits are ubiquitously expressed, whereas regulatory subunits are more specific to tissue and cell type. It is the numerous possibilities of PP2A holoenzyme assembly with varying isoform components that make it possess a dual nature of activator or the inhibitory character in different signaling pathways, namely neural developmental pathways, Akt/protein kinase B pathway, NF-kB pathway, MAPK pathway, apoptosis pathway, and cell cycle progression to name a few...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205484/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-different-knots-tied-on-fibrewire-suture
#17
Jackson Jiang, Ita Suzana Mat Jais, Andrew Kean Tuck Yam, Duncan Angus McGrouther, Shian Chao Tay
BACKGROUND: Synthetic sutures such as Fiberwire used in flexor tendon repairs have high tensile strength. Proper application allows early mobilisation, decreasing morbidity from repair rupture and adhesions while preserving range of motion. Suture stiffness can cause poorer knot holding, contributing to gapping, peritendinous adhesions or rupture. Previous studies recommended more throws in knots tied on Fiberwire to prevent knot slippage. These larger knots are voluminous and prominent...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149401/transfer-of-mechanical-energy-during-the-shot-put
#18
Michalina Błażkiewicz, Barbara Łysoń, Adam Chmielewski, Andrzej Wit
The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146293/effect-of-fluid-media-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-continuous-pattern-ending-surgeon-s-square-and-aberdeen-knots-in-vitro
#19
Matthew Coleridge, Alexandra M Gillen, Ramsis Farag, R Reid Hanson, Amelia S Munsterman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knot holding capacity (KHC) of pattern-ending square, surgeon's and Aberdeen knots each tied in 4 throw combinations using large gauge suture after exposure to media commonly found in equine abdominal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro mechanical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Knotted suture strands (n = 10/group). METHODS: Strands of 2 polydioxanone or 3 polyglactin 910 were exposed to 1 of 4 media for 15 minutes...
February 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146289/in-vitro-evaluation-of-square-and-surgeon-s-knots-in-large-gauge-suture
#20
Alex M Gillen, Amelia S Munsterman, Ramsis Farag, Matthew O D Coleridge, R Reid Hanson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strength and size of surgeon's and square knots for starting and ending continuous suture lines using large gauge suture. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro mechanical study. STUDY POPULATION: Knotted suture. METHODS: Surgeon's and square knots were tested using 2 and 3 USP polyglactin 910 and 2 USP polydioxanone under linear tension on a universal testing machine. Failure mode and knot holding capacity (KHC) were recorded, and relative knot security (RKS) was calculated as a percentage of KHC...
February 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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