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Throwing mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102105/pitching-form-determines-probabilistic-structure-of-errors-in-pitch-location
#1
Masahiro Shinya, Shinji Tsuchiya, Yousuke Yamada, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Shingo Oda
According to recent motor control studies, it is important to know probabilistic structure of his/her own motor errors to choose an optimal motor plan (i.e., where you aim at) to maximise the expected gain. In this study, we questioned if pitching form determines the probabilistic structure of pitching errors in baseball pitchers. Eighteen collegiate baseball pitchers with various pitching forms including right- and left-handed overarm, sidearm and underarm throwers threw 100 pitches aiming at a target located 90 cm above the ground...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095019/elbow-injuries-in-adult-overhead-athletes
#2
Tony T Wong, Dana J Lin, Rama S Ayyala, Jonathan K Kazam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review common elbow injuries found in overhead athletes with focus on mechanism, clinical features, imaging appearance, and treatment options. CONCLUSION: The overhead throwing motion subjects the elbow to a variety of complex forces, which places both osseous and soft-tissue structures at high risk for injury.
January 17, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045528/insights-into-the-thermal-eliminations-and-photoeliminations-of-b-n-heterocycles-a-theoretical-study
#3
Wen-Jie Wu, Quan-Song Li, Ze-Sheng Li
Understanding the photochemistry of organoboron compounds is essential to expand optoelectronic applications. In this work, the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and its second-order perturbation (CASPT2) methods combining with density functional theory (DFT) have been employed to investigate the elimination mechanisms of compound 6,7-dihydro-5(4)-benzo[d]pyrido[2,1-f][1,2]azaborininr (B4) on the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1). B4 is one of the 1,2-B,N-heterocycles that undergo competitive thermal elimination and photoelimination depending on the substitution groups on the B atom and the chelate backbone, thus providing a high-selectivity synthesis strategy for luminescent compounds...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988798/novel-insights-into-biosynthesis-and-uptake-of-rhamnolipids-and-their-precursors
#4
Andreas Wittgens, Filip Kovacic, Markus Michael Müller, Melanie Gerlitzki, Beatrix Santiago-Schübel, Diana Hofmann, Till Tiso, Lars Mathias Blank, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann, Christoph Syldatk, Susanne Wilhelm, Frank Rosenau
The human pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces rhamnolipids, glycolipids with functions for bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and uptake of hydrophobic substrates. Rhamnolipids represent a chemically heterogeneous group of secondary metabolites composed of one or two rhamnose molecules linked to one or mostly two 3-hydroxyfatty acids of various chain lengths. The biosynthetic pathway involves rhamnosyltransferase I encoded by the rhlAB operon, which synthesizes 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) followed by their coupling to one rhamnose moiety...
December 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891347/decidual-cd56-natural-killer-cells-in-spontaneous-early-pregnancy-loss-an-immunohistochemical-study
#5
Balamurugan Senthilnayagam, Sridhar Karthikeyan, Jayapriya Sukumaran, Anoop Srivalsan, Ramesh Rao, Vasantha Subbiah
INTRODUCTION: Natural killer cells are believed to promote placental and trophoblastic growth and provide immune- modulation at maternal-fetal interface in pregnancy and their role in reproductive failure has been a matter of discussion. AIM: To study CD56+ Natural killer cells in spontaneous pregnancy loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections from products of conception from twenty women each with spontaneous early pregnancy loss (test group) and elective pregnancy termination (control group)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886835/shoulder-injuries-in-the-overhead-throwing-athlete
#6
REVIEW
Ryan A Mlynarek, Simon Lee, Asheesh Bedi
The overhead pitching motion is a coordinated sequence of movements that subjects the shoulder to extreme forces. The ultimate goal of this complex, dynamic activity is to generate high ball velocity and accuracy. In doing so, repetitive throwing can cause adaptive and pathologic changes in the thrower's shoulder. This article reviews the relevant shoulder anatomy, the kinetic chain, and throwing mechanics, as well as common shoulder injuries and surgical options for the treating orthopedic surgeon.
February 2017: Hand Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865216/establishing-the-role-of-unlinked-total-elbow-arthroplasty-in-low-demand-patients-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#7
Sara Machado, Isabel Almeida Pinto, Rui Pinto, Paulo Ribeiro de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Experience with total elbow arthroplasty is scarce in most centers. It seems to have a significant rate of associated complications. Most studies are based on non-validated outcome measures and short-term results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected patients undergoing unlinked total elbow arthroplasty, with a resultant sample of thirteen cases, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 72 months. We applied the Mayo Elbow Score and all patients underwent an X-ray study, prior to surgery and during the follow-up period...
June 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788457/understanding-and-treating-amotivation-in-people-with-psychosis-an-experimental-study-of-the-role-of-guided-imagery
#8
Charlotte Cox, Suzanne Jolley, Louise Johns
Psychological models propose that the amotivational negative symptoms (ANS) of psychosis are influenced by expectations of future events; both anticipatory success (believing one can achieve something, AS) and anticipatory pleasure (mentally pre-creating potential future experiences of enjoyment, AP). Mental imagery manipulations have been shown to change expectations across a range of settings, and may therefore enhance psychological interventions for ANS in people with psychosis. We set out to investigate the impact of a guided imagery manipulation on AS and AP in this group...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731339/ultrastructure-of-compacted-dna-in-cyanobacteria-by-high-voltage-cryo-electron-tomography
#9
Kazuyoshi Murata, Sayuri Hagiwara, Yoshitaka Kimori, Yasuko Kaneko
Some cyanobacteria exhibit compaction of DNA in synchrony with their circadian rhythms accompanying cell division. Since the structure is transient, it has not yet been described in detail. Here, we successfully visualize the ultrastructure of compacted DNA in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under rigorous synchronized cultivation by means of high-voltage cryo-electron tomography. In 3D reconstructions of rapidly frozen cells, the compacted DNA appears as an undulating rod resembling a eukaryotic condensed chromosome...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729841/in-silico-study-of-mirna-based-gene-regulation-involved-in-solid-cancer-by-the-assistance-of-argonaute-protein
#10
Surya Narayan Rath, Debasrita Das, V Badireenath Konkimalla, Sukanta Kumar Pradhan
Solid tumor is generally observed in tissues of epithelial or endothelial cells of lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder, where several genes transcription is regulated by the microRNAs (miRNAs). Argonaute (AGO) protein is a family of protein which assists in miRNAs to bind with mRNAs of the target genes. Hence, study of the binding mechanism between AGO protein and miRNAs, and also with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex is crucial for understanding the RNA silencing mechanism. In the current work, 64 genes and 23 miRNAs have been selected from literatures, whose deregulation is well established in seven types of solid cancer like lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder cancer...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699699/the-optimal-load-for-maximal-power-production-during-upper-body-resistance-exercises-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Marco Antonio Soriano, Timothy J Suchomel, Pedro J Marín
BACKGROUND: External mechanical power is considered to be one of the most important characteristics with regard to sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of load on kinetic variables such as mean and peak power during bench press and bench press throw, thus integrating the findings of various studies to provide the strength and conditioning professional with more reliable evidence upon which to base their program design...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685840/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-size-knot-holding-capacity-and-knot-security-of-the-forwarder-knot-compared-to-square-and-surgeon-s-knots-using-large-gauge-suture
#12
Alex M Gillen, Amelia S Munsterman, R Reid Hanson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strength, size, and holding capacity of the self-locking forwarder knot compared to surgeon's and square knots using large gauge suture. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro mechanical study. STUDY POPULATION: Knotted suture. METHODS: Forwarder, surgeon's, and square knots were tested on a universal testing machine under linear tension using 2 and 3 USP polyglactin 910 and 2 USP polydioxanone. Knot holding capacity (KHC) and mode of failure were recorded and relative knot security (RKS) was calculated as a percentage of KHC...
September 29, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632891/effectiveness-of-stretching-on-posterior-shoulder-tightness-and-glenohumeral-internal-rotation-deficit-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#13
Koya Mine, Takashi Nakayama, Steve Milanese, Karen Grimmer
Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) are common physical impairments in overhead sports, such as baseball, cricket and tennis.(1-4)) PST is clinically measured by passive shoulder horizontal adduction with scapula stabilized in supine or side lying.(5),(6)) GIRD is generally characterised as concurrent deficits of internal rotation (IR) and total arc of motion in dominant side.(7),(8)) Although the mechanisms of PST and GIRD are not clear, it is speculated that they derive from tight posterior glenohumeral capsule and posterior muscles, such as posterior deltoid, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630630/exposure-of-elf-emf-and-rf-emf-increase-the-rate-of-glucose-transport-and-tca-cycle-in-budding-yeast
#14
Kang-Wei Lin, Chuan-Jun Yang, Hui-Yong Lian, Peng Cai
In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618471/contrast-loading-increases-upper-body-power-output-in-junior-volleyball-athletes
#15
Ilias Smilios, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Karolina Barzouka, Marios Christou, Savvas P Tokmakidis
PURPOSE: This study examined the acute effects of contrast loading on mechanical power output during bench-press throws in junior volleyball players. METHOD: Eleven males (age: 16.5±0.5 years) performed a contrast loading and a control protocol. The contrast protocol included the execution of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM, after 3 min a conditioning set of 5 bench-throws with a 60% load of 1RM and after 3 and 5 min two more sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618241/elbow-injuries-in-the-young-throwing-athlete
#16
Benjamin L Oshlag, Tracy R Ray
Baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes place their elbows under tremendous stresses, making them vulnerable to a number of unique injuries. Skeletally immature throwers in particular are at a greater risk for growth plate and other bony injuries, due to the relative strengths of these tissues and the kinematics involved in throwing. Care should be taken to fully evaluate these injuries based on the particular history and presentation to properly direct treatment and rehabilitation. Patients, as well as other athletes, coaches, and families, also should be made aware of the significant risk factors for these injuries, especially those regarding pitch limits, proper mechanics, and sufficient rest...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617025/holi-colours-contain-pm10-and-can-induce-pro-inflammatory-responses
#17
Katrin Bossmann, Sabine Bach, Conny Höflich, Kerttu Valtanen, Rita Heinze, Anett Neumann, Wolfgang Straff, Katrin Süring
BACKGROUND: At Holi festivals, originally celebrated in India but more recently all over the world, people throw coloured powder (Holi powder, Holi colour, Gulal powder) at each other. Adverse health effects, i.e. skin and ocular irritations as well as respiratory problems may be the consequences. The aim of this study was to uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We analysed four different Holi colours regarding particle size using an Electric field cell counting system...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604910/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-aberdeen-knot-for-continuous-suture-patterns-with-large-gauge-suture
#18
Alex M Gillen, Amelia S Munsterman, Ramsis Farag, Matthew O D Coleridge, R Reid Hanson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the strength, size, and holding capacity of the Aberdeen knot compared to surgeon's and square knots using large gauge suture. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro mechanical study. STUDY POPULATION: Knotted suture. METHODS: Aberdeen, surgeon's, and square knots were tested using 2 and 3 USP polyglactin 910 and 2 USP polydioxanone under linear tension on a universal testing machine. Mode of failure and knot holding capacity (KHC) were recorded and relative knot security (RKS) was calculated as a percentage of KHC...
October 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604768/weight-centile-crossing-in-infancy-correlations-between-successive-months-show-evidence-of-growth-feedback-and-an-infant-child-growth-transition
#19
Tim J Cole, Atul Singhal, Mary S Fewtrell, Jonathan Ck Wells
BACKGROUND: Early rapid weight gain is associated with later overweight, which implies that weight centile crossing tracks over time. OBJECTIVE: Centile crossing is defined in terms of the change or deviation in weight z score during 1 mo, and the correlations between successive deviations are explored at different ages. DESIGN: Two Cambridge (United Kingdom) growth cohorts were used: Widdowson (1094 infants born during 1959-1965) and the Cambridge Infant Growth Study (CIGS; 255 infants born during 1984-1987), each with weights measured monthly in the first year...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590172/baseball-players-with-an-ulnar-collateral-ligament-tear-display-increased-nondominant-arm-humeral-torsion-compared-with-healthy-baseball-players
#20
Casey J Meyer, J Craig Garrison, John E Conway
BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that an increase in the amount of developmentally acquired, dominant arm humeral retrotorsion (D HRT) in the thrower's shoulder may be a potentially protective mechanism. Although the relationship between HRT and shoulder injuries has been reported, the relationship between HRT and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in baseball players is not known. PURPOSE: To determine whether D HRT and nondominant arm HRT (ND HRT) measurements in baseball players with a UCL tear differ statistically from a matched healthy cohort...
January 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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