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Throwing mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333093/the-effect-of-regular-intake-of-dry-cured-ham-rich-in-bioactive-peptides-on-inflammation-platelet-and-monocyte-activation-markers-in-humans
#1
Sara María Martínez-Sánchez, Alfredo Minguela, David Prieto-Merino, María Pilar Zafrilla-Rentero, José Abellán-Alemán, Silvia Montoro-García
Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers and the inflammatory status of healthy humans with pre-hypertension. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy volunteers with systolic blood pressure of >125 mmHg were enrolled in a two-arm crossover randomized controlled trial...
March 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328567/effects-of-a-simulated-game-on-upper-extremity-pitching-mechanics-and-muscle-activations-among-various-pitch-types-in-youth-baseball-pitchers
#2
Gretchen D Oliver, Hillary Plummer, Lisa Henning, Michael Saper, Gabrielle Glimer, Allison Brambeck, James R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Throwing requires proper stability and orientation of the pelvis and scapula for efficient energy transfer during pitching. Fatigue of the pelvis and scapular musculature throughout the course of a game can impair pitching performance, and place excessive demands on the throwing arm leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in pelvis, torso, and upper extremity pitching mechanics and muscle activations between the fastball, change-up, and curveball pitches in youth baseball pitchers following a simulated game...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315193/resistance-training-using-different-hypoxic-training-strategies-a-basis-for-hypertrophy-and-muscle-power-development
#3
REVIEW
Belén Feriche, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Paulino Padial
The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of the different hypertrophic resistance training strategies in hypoxia...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299766/increased-level-of-c-kit-in-semen-of-infertile-patients-with-varicocele
#4
Guorong Jin, Jianrong Liu, Qin Qin, Songdan Gao, Fang Zhang, Yuehong Ma, Caiyun Ding, Lina Dong, Haizhen Yin, Yimin Wang
PURPOSE: Varicocele is the most common risk factor for male infertility, however, not all males with varicocele experience infertility. In fact, most patients with varicocele have normal spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanism of varicocele-associated infertility is yet to be completely understood. The aim of this study is to assess the association of a number of fertility regulatory factors on varicocele associated infertility and to throw light on the mechanism of varicocele-associated infertility...
March 16, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284923/vascular-quadrilateral-space-syndrome-in-three-overhead-throwing-athletes-an-underdiagnosed-cause-of-digital-ischemia
#5
Johnathon Rollo, David Rigberg, Hugh Gelabert
Vascular quadrilateral space syndrome (vQSS) is an underdiagnosed cause of extremity ischemia, pain and paresthesia in overhand throwing athletes. The mechanism of vQSS is thought to result from repeated abduction and external rotation of the arm leading to a distraction injury of the posterior circumflex humoral artery (PCHA) as this courses through the quadrilateral space. This trauma may cause dissection and dissecting aneurysm formation. Thrombus from this arterial injury then embolizes down the arm resulting in the symptomatic presentation...
March 8, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255565/defining-the-long-toss-a-professional-baseball-epidemiological-study
#6
Austin V Stone, Sandeep Mannava, Anita Patel, Alejandro Marquez-Lara, Michael T Freehill
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. PURPOSE: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253058/the-comparison-of-instrument-assisted-soft-tissue-mobilization-and-self-stretch-measures-to-increase-shoulder-range-of-motion-in-overhead-athletes-a-critically-appraised-topic
#7
Matthew J Hussey, Alex E Boron-Magulik, Tamara C Valovich-McLeod, Cailee E Welch Bacon
Shoulder range of motion (ROM) in throwing athletes relies on a balance of mobility and stability in order to maintain proper function and health. Prior research has reported that deficits in internal rotation greater than 20 degrees, decreases in total arc of motion greater than 5 degrees when compared to the contralateral side, and decreases in horizontal adduction greater than 16 degrees have all been identified as factors that could lead to throwing related injuries.(1) Due to the increased risk of injury associated with ROM deficits, it is important for clinicians to be cognizant of how to most effectively treat these issues...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224476/protein-phosphatase-2a-a-double-faced-phosphatase-of-cellular-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Md Nematullah, M N Hoda, Farah Khan
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase, is a vitally important phosphatase for the cellular system. Structurally, it is constituted of three different subunits, namely catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), structural scaffold subunit (PP2A-A), and regulatory subunit (PP2A-B). All subunits have various isoforms, and catalytic and scaffold subunits are ubiquitously expressed, whereas regulatory subunits are more specific to tissue and cell type. It is the numerous possibilities of PP2A holoenzyme assembly with varying isoform components that make it possess a dual nature of activator or the inhibitory character in different signaling pathways, namely neural developmental pathways, Akt/protein kinase B pathway, NF-kB pathway, MAPK pathway, apoptosis pathway, and cell cycle progression to name a few...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205484/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-different-knots-tied-on-fibrewire-suture
#9
Jackson Jiang, Ita Suzana Mat Jais, Andrew Kean Tuck Yam, Duncan Angus McGrouther, Shian Chao Tay
BACKGROUND: Synthetic sutures such as Fiberwire used in flexor tendon repairs have high tensile strength. Proper application allows early mobilisation, decreasing morbidity from repair rupture and adhesions while preserving range of motion. Suture stiffness can cause poorer knot holding, contributing to gapping, peritendinous adhesions or rupture. Previous studies recommended more throws in knots tied on Fiberwire to prevent knot slippage. These larger knots are voluminous and prominent...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149401/transfer-of-mechanical-energy-during-the-shot-put
#10
Michalina Błażkiewicz, Barbara Łysoń, Adam Chmielewski, Andrzej Wit
The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146293/effect-of-fluid-media-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-continuous-pattern-ending-surgeon-s-square-and-aberdeen-knots-in-vitro
#11
Matthew Coleridge, Alexandra M Gillen, Ramsis Farag, R Reid Hanson, Amelia S Munsterman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knot holding capacity (KHC) of pattern-ending square, surgeon's and Aberdeen knots each tied in 4 throw combinations using large gauge suture after exposure to media commonly found in equine abdominal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro mechanical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Knotted suture strands (n = 10/group). METHODS: Strands of 2 polydioxanone or 3 polyglactin 910 were exposed to 1 of 4 media for 15 minutes...
February 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146289/in-vitro-evaluation-of-square-and-surgeon-s-knots-in-large-gauge-suture
#12
Alex M Gillen, Amelia S Munsterman, Ramsis Farag, Matthew O D Coleridge, R Reid Hanson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strength and size of surgeon's and square knots for starting and ending continuous suture lines using large gauge suture. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro mechanical study. STUDY POPULATION: Knotted suture. METHODS: Surgeon's and square knots were tested using 2 and 3 USP polyglactin 910 and 2 USP polydioxanone under linear tension on a universal testing machine. Failure mode and knot holding capacity (KHC) were recorded, and relative knot security (RKS) was calculated as a percentage of KHC...
February 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130260/leonardo-da-vinci-engineer-bioengineer-anatomist-and-artist
#13
John B West
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) enjoys a reputation as one of the most talented people of all time in the history of science and the arts. However little attention has been given to his contributions to physiology. One of his main interests was engineering, and he was fascinated by structural problems, and the flow patterns of liquids. He also produced a large number of ingenious designs for warfare, and a variety of highly original flying machines. But of particular interest to us are his contributions to bioengineering, and how he used his knowledge of basic physical principles to throw light on physiological function...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128000/assessment-and-rehabilitation-of-chronic-low-back-pain-in-baseball-part-ii
#14
Joseph G Wasser, Jason L Zaremski, Daniel C Herman, Heather K Vincent
Repetitive throwing and hitting motions in baseball place mechanical stresses to the lumbar spine which may cause low back pain (LBP). Pain may be due to vertebral stress reactions or insufficiency fractures, intervertebral disc degeneration or intervertebral disc herniation. Untreated chronic conditions have high potential to lead to a more significant injury such as spondylolysis. Chronic LBP increases the risk for missed playing time, early career termination and lower quality of life after retirement. Proper clinical assessment and prevention/rehabilitation of LBP in this population is thus important for performance, play time and overall long-term quality of life...
January 27, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102105/pitching-form-determines-probabilistic-structure-of-errors-in-pitch-location
#15
Masahiro Shinya, Shinji Tsuchiya, Yousuke Yamada, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Shingo Oda
According to recent motor control studies, it is important to know probabilistic structure of his/her own motor errors to choose an optimal motor plan (i.e., where you aim at) to maximise the expected gain. In this study, we questioned if pitching form determines the probabilistic structure of pitching errors in baseball pitchers. Eighteen collegiate baseball pitchers with various pitching forms including right- and left-handed overarm, sidearm and underarm throwers threw 100 pitches aiming at a target located 90 cm above the ground...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095019/elbow-injuries-in-adult-overhead-athletes
#16
Tony T Wong, Dana J Lin, Rama S Ayyala, Jonathan K Kazam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review common elbow injuries found in overhead athletes with focus on mechanism, clinical features, imaging appearance, and treatment options. CONCLUSION: The overhead throwing motion subjects the elbow to a variety of complex forces, which places both osseous and soft-tissue structures at high risk for injury.
March 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045528/insights-into-the-thermal-eliminations-and-photoeliminations-of-b-n-heterocycles-a-theoretical-study
#17
Wen-Jie Wu, Quan-Song Li, Ze-Sheng Li
Understanding the photochemistry of organoboron compounds is essential to expand optoelectronic applications. In this work, the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and its second-order perturbation (CASPT2) methods combining with density functional theory (DFT) have been employed to investigate the elimination mechanisms of compound 6,7-dihydro-5(4)-benzo[d]pyrido[2,1-f][1,2]azaborininr (B4) on the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1). B4 is one of the 1,2-B,N-heterocycles that undergo competitive thermal elimination and photoelimination depending on the substitution groups on the B atom and the chelate backbone, thus providing a high-selectivity synthesis strategy for luminescent compounds...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988798/novel-insights-into-biosynthesis-and-uptake-of-rhamnolipids-and-their-precursors
#18
Andreas Wittgens, Filip Kovacic, Markus Michael Müller, Melanie Gerlitzki, Beatrix Santiago-Schübel, Diana Hofmann, Till Tiso, Lars Mathias Blank, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann, Christoph Syldatk, Susanne Wilhelm, Frank Rosenau
The human pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces rhamnolipids, glycolipids with functions for bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and uptake of hydrophobic substrates. Rhamnolipids represent a chemically heterogeneous group of secondary metabolites composed of one or two rhamnose molecules linked to one or mostly two 3-hydroxyfatty acids of various chain lengths. The biosynthetic pathway involves rhamnosyltransferase I encoded by the rhlAB operon, which synthesizes 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) followed by their coupling to one rhamnose moiety...
December 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891347/decidual-cd56-natural-killer-cells-in-spontaneous-early-pregnancy-loss-an-immunohistochemical-study
#19
Balamurugan Senthilnayagam, Sridhar Karthikeyan, Jayapriya Sukumaran, Anoop Srivalsan, Ramesh Rao, Vasantha Subbiah
INTRODUCTION: Natural killer cells are believed to promote placental and trophoblastic growth and provide immune- modulation at maternal-fetal interface in pregnancy and their role in reproductive failure has been a matter of discussion. AIM: To study CD56+ Natural killer cells in spontaneous pregnancy loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections from products of conception from twenty women each with spontaneous early pregnancy loss (test group) and elective pregnancy termination (control group)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886835/shoulder-injuries-in-the-overhead-throwing-athlete
#20
REVIEW
Ryan A Mlynarek, Simon Lee, Asheesh Bedi
The overhead pitching motion is a coordinated sequence of movements that subjects the shoulder to extreme forces. The ultimate goal of this complex, dynamic activity is to generate high ball velocity and accuracy. In doing so, repetitive throwing can cause adaptive and pathologic changes in the thrower's shoulder. This article reviews the relevant shoulder anatomy, the kinetic chain, and throwing mechanics, as well as common shoulder injuries and surgical options for the treating orthopedic surgeon.
February 2017: Hand Clinics
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