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Throwing mechanics

John F Stins, Gur Yaari, Kevin Wijmer, Joost F Burger, Peter J Beek
Objectives: The study of sequential effects in aiming tasks might shed light on the organization of repetitive motor performances over time. To date, investigations of such effects in sports have been limited and yielded mixed results. Given the relatively short time intervals between successive attempts, and the absence of defensive interventions, dart throwing provides a potentially fruitful testing ground for examining the presence of sequential performance effects in the motor domain. Methods and Results: A total of 80 competitive darts matches of 10 of the world's best players were scored from publicly available video footage in terms of sequences of hits and misses of triple 20...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Diannan Xu, Meiling Du, Jun Zhang, Panpan Xiong, Wenshuai Li, Huilu Zhang, Wujun Xiong, Fei Liu, Jie Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent cancers worldwide and has recently become the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men of developing countries. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) has been reported to be associated with the early process of HCC. In our previous study, GNAO1, one of members of G protein, was found to be down-regulated in HCC. Thus, the present study aimed to throw light upon the mechanism of the abnormal expression of GNAO1 in HCC...
April 27, 2018: Gene
Jessica K Washington, Gabrielle G Gilmer, Jeff W Barfield, Sarah S Gascon, Michael G Saper, Jeffrey R Dugas, James R Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
The purpose of this study was to determine how stride length, segmental sequencing of the pelvis, trunk, humerus, and forearm velocities and accelerations, and the timing of these values change as youth mature. Thirteen youth baseball pitchers participated at three consecutive time points: visit 1 (10.7±1.3 years; 151.8±10.7 cm; 45.0±9.65 kg), visit 2 (11.5±1.6 years; 155.5±11.1 cm; 50.4±10.0 kg), and visit 3 (12.4±1.7 years; 161.5±11.7 cm; 56.4±10.8 kg). Participants executed three pitches for a strike to a catcher...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Shoeb Ikhlas, Afia Usman, Masood Ahmad
Interaction studies of bisphenol analogues; Biphenol-A (BPA), Bisphenol-B (BPB) and Bisphenol-F (BPF) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were performed using multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking studies at the protein level. The mechanism of binding of bisphenols with BSA was dynamic in nature. SDS refolding experiments demonstrated no stabilization of BSA structure denatured by BPB, however, BSA denatured by BPA and BPF was found to get stabilized. Also, CD spectra and molecular docking studies revealed that BPB bound more strongly and induced more conformational changes in BSA in comparison to BPA...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Stig Haugsboe Andersson, Marco Cardinale, Rod Whiteley, Nebojsa Popovic, Clint Hansen, Fernando Sanz Lopez, Tone Bere, Roald Bahr, Grethe Myklebust
Although handball is a contact sport with a high risk of acute match injuries, their mechanisms have not yet been investigated. We aimed to describe the mechanisms of acute match injuries in elite male handball and evaluate referee performance in injury situations. Based on injury surveillance from the 24th Men's Handball World Championship 2015 in Qatar, injury situations and the referee decisions were identified on video footage. A total of 55 injury situations and 37 referee decisions were included for analysis...
March 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Harjot Dhillon, Sargun Singh
Pain is one of the common and debilitating health manifestations associated with the majority of diseased conditions, thus making it a serious health concern worldwide. While trying to decipher the cryptic mechanism of pain in hope to provide better gene-based therapeutics, researchers have concluded pain to be of multigenic origin making it hard to cure. Apolipoprotein E is a protein coded by APOE gene containing 4 exons, located on chromosome 19q13.2. It is among the key regulators of various crucial body functions such as lipid transport, apoptosis, vitamin k pathway, and cognition, hence, it is highly suspected to play a pivotal role in the nociception process...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Michael B Rose, Thomas Noonan
Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is an adaptive process in which the throwing shoulder experiences a loss of internal rotation (IR). GIRD has most commonly been defined by a loss of >20° of IR compared to the contralateral shoulder. Total rotational motion of the shoulder is the sum of internal and external rotation and may be more important than the absolute value of IR loss. Pathologic GIRD has been defined as a loss of IR combined with a loss of total rotational motion. The leading pathologic process in GIRD is posterior capsular and rotator-cuff tightness, due to the repetitive cocking that occurs with the overhead throwing motion...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Shimon Schuldiner
Multidrug transporters function in a coordinated mode to provide an essential first-line defense mechanism that prevents antibiotics fromreaching lethal concentrations, until a number of stable efficient adaptations occur that allow survival. Single-component efflux transporters remove the toxic compounds from the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space where TolC-dependent transporters expel them from the cell. The close interaction between the two types of transporters ensures handling of a wide range of xenobiotics and prevents rapid leak of the hydrophobic substrates back into the cell...
March 21, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. It was hypothesised that there would be significant kinematic and kinetic differences between these two groups...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Yoichi Kaizu, Hideomi Watanabe, Takehiko Yamaji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Kerry L Price, Sarah C R Lummis
Cys-loop receptors are major sites of action for many important therapeutically active compounds, but the sites of action of those that do not act at the orthosteric binding site or at the pore are mostly poorly understood. To help understand these, we here describe a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of the 5-HT3 A receptor and the transmembrane domain of a prokaryotic homologue, ELIC. Alterations of some residues at the coupling interface are required for function, but the resulting receptor expresses well and responds to 5-HT with a lower EC50 (0...
March 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Christopher S Ahmad
The optimal treatment of shoulder SLAP tears in high-level baseball players remains highly controversial. In pitchers, many SLAP lesions are found incidentally on magnetic resonance imaging and may in fact be adaptive to the baseball pitcher's mechanics of throwing. Surgical repair of SLAP lesions requires lengthy rehabilitation, and outcomes have been similar to or worse than the results after nonoperative treatment. The treatment option of biceps tenodesis is an appealing alternative to SLAP repair, but the indications and technique of biceps tenodesis in the elite pitcher still need to be defined...
March 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Shusuke Toden, Preethi Ravindranathan, Jinghua Gu, Jacob Cardenas, Madelaine Yuchang, Ajay Goel
Proanthocyanidins are a heterogeneous group of flavan-3-ol or flavan-3,4-diol oligomers present in various fruits and vegetables. In particular, the smaller oligomeric subset of proanthocyanidins, termed the oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) appear to have potent anti-tumorigenic properties, but the underlying mechanisms for their effectiveness remain unclear. Herein, we utilized a series of in vitro, in vivo and patient-derived organoid approaches to systematically investigate the chemoprotective role of OPCs in colorectal cancer...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Terrance A Sgroi, John M Zajac
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Throwing places high demands on the human body, and specific characteristics are developed over time unique to these athletes. When returning to throw after injury, it is important to follow a criterion-based progression that allows the body to be prepared appropriately for the stresses that throwing will require. There is currently a void in the literature for criteria-based progression that helps these athletes return to the highest level of play. RECENT FINDINGS: As injury rates continue to rise in baseball, there is increased evidence showing contributions of the core and lower extremity to the baseball pitch...
March 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Reena Rathod, Harshini Surendran, Rajani Battu, Jogin Desai, Rajarshi Pal
Retinal degenerative disorders are a leading cause of the inherited, irreversible and incurable vision loss. While various rodent model systems have provided crucial information in this direction, lack of disease-relevant tissue availability and species-specific differences have proven to be a major roadblock. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have opened up a whole new avenue of possibilities not just in understanding the disease mechanism but also potential therapeutic approaches towards a cure...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Meghan Lee Arnold, Ilija Melentijevic, Anna Joelle Smart, Monica Driscoll
Caenorhabditis elegans neurons have recently been found to throw out cellular debris for remote degradation and/or storage, adding an "extracellular garbage elimination" option to known intracellular protein and organelle degradation pathways. This Q&A describes initial insights into the biology of seemingly selective protein and organelle elimination by challenged neurons, highlighting mysteries of how garbage is distinguished and sorted in the sending neuron, how the garbage-filled "exophers" appear to elicit degradative responses as they transit neighboring tissue, and how non-digestible materials get thrown out of cells again via processes that may be highly relevant to human neurodegenerative disease mechanisms...
January 30, 2018: BMC Biology
Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K Tiwari, Ravi S Pandey
Pesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was conducted for 96 h period in a freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus ...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Gabrielle G Gilmer, Sarah S Gascon, Gretchen D Oliver
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine how lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) stability, via knee valgus, affects throwing kinematics during a team handball jump shot. DESIGN: LPHC stability was classified using the value of knee valgus at the instant of landing from the jump shot. If a participant displayed knee valgus of 17° or greater, they were classified as LPHC unstable. Stable and unstable athletes' throwing mechanics were compared. METHODS: Twenty female team handball athletes (26...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Corbin A Hedt, S Brett Holland, Bradley S Lambert, Joshua D Harris, Patrick C McCulloch
CONTEXT: Interval throwing programs (ITP) have long been used in the physical therapy setting to aid in the safe and efficacious return to sport for an overhead athlete. However, the overall utilization and variation of interval throwing programs are unknown in the physical therapy setting leading to potential inconsistencies in treatment paradigms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in practice patterns exist among active physical therapists of various experience levels with regards to years of experience and advanced certifications...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Ling Qiang, ZhiPeng Ji, Xiuwen Wang
The transcription factor TAp73, a transcriptionally active isoform of p73, has high structure and function similaritieswith its homolog p53, therefore, are thought to be a cancer therapy candidate target. However, there is still a controversy about the tumor suppressor role of TAp73, since it has been found in numerous studies that TAp73 expression is elevated in different cancers. Thus, we take effort to clarify the influence of TAp73 on gastric cancer (GC) chemotherapy. Multiple cell lines of GC such as SNU-1, SNU-3, and AGS were applied to investigate expression of TAp73...
January 23, 2018: Oncology Research
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