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Throwing mechanics

Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. It was hypothesised that there would be significant kinematic and kinetic differences between these two groups...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Yoichi Kaizu, Hideomi Watanabe, Takehiko Yamaji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Kerry L Price, Sarah C R Lummis
Cys-loop receptors are major sites of action for many important therapeutically active compounds, but the sites of action of those that do not act at the orthosteric binding site or at the pore are mostly poorly understood. To help understand these, we here describe a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of the 5-HT3 A receptor and the transmembrane domain of a prokaryotic homologue, ELIC. Alterations of some residues at the coupling interface are required for function, but the resulting receptor expresses well and responds to 5-HT with a lower EC50 (0...
March 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Christopher S Ahmad
The optimal treatment of shoulder SLAP tears in high-level baseball players remains highly controversial. In pitchers, many SLAP lesions are found incidentally on magnetic resonance imaging and may in fact be adaptive to the baseball pitcher's mechanics of throwing. Surgical repair of SLAP lesions requires lengthy rehabilitation, and outcomes have been similar to or worse than the results after nonoperative treatment. The treatment option of biceps tenodesis is an appealing alternative to SLAP repair, but the indications and technique of biceps tenodesis in the elite pitcher still need to be defined...
March 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Shusuke Toden, Preethi Ravindranathan, Jinghua Gu, Jacob Cardenas, Madelaine Yuchang, Ajay Goel
Proanthocyanidins are a heterogeneous group of flavan-3-ol or flavan-3,4-diol oligomers present in various fruits and vegetables. In particular, the smaller oligomeric subset of proanthocyanidins, termed the oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) appear to have potent anti-tumorigenic properties, but the underlying mechanisms for their effectiveness remain unclear. Herein, we utilized a series of in vitro, in vivo and patient-derived organoid approaches to systematically investigate the chemoprotective role of OPCs in colorectal cancer...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Terrance A Sgroi, John M Zajac
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Throwing places high demands on the human body, and specific characteristics are developed over time unique to these athletes. When returning to throw after injury, it is important to follow a criterion-based progression that allows the body to be prepared appropriately for the stresses that throwing will require. There is currently a void in the literature for criteria-based progression that helps these athletes return to the highest level of play. RECENT FINDINGS: As injury rates continue to rise in baseball, there is increased evidence showing contributions of the core and lower extremity to the baseball pitch...
March 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Reena Rathod, Harshini Surendran, Rajani Battu, Jogin Desai, Rajarshi Pal
Retinal degenerative disorders are a leading cause of the inherited, irreversible and incurable vision loss. While various rodent model systems have provided crucial information in this direction.lack of disease-relevant tissue availability and species-specific differences have proven to be a major roadblock. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have opened up a whole new avenue of possibilities not just in understanding the disease mechanism but also potential therapeutic approaches towards a cure. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in the methods of deriving retinal cell types from iPSCs which can serve as a renewable source of disease-relevant cell population for basic as well as translational studies...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Meghan Lee Arnold, Ilija Melentijevic, Anna Joelle Smart, Monica Driscoll
Caenorhabditis elegans neurons have recently been found to throw out cellular debris for remote degradation and/or storage, adding an "extracellular garbage elimination" option to known intracellular protein and organelle degradation pathways. This Q&A describes initial insights into the biology of seemingly selective protein and organelle elimination by challenged neurons, highlighting mysteries of how garbage is distinguished and sorted in the sending neuron, how the garbage-filled "exophers" appear to elicit degradative responses as they transit neighboring tissue, and how non-digestible materials get thrown out of cells again via processes that may be highly relevant to human neurodegenerative disease mechanisms...
January 30, 2018: BMC Biology
Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K Tiwari, Ravi S Pandey
Pesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was conducted for 96 h period in a freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Gabrielle G Gilmer, Sarah S Gascon, Gretchen D Oliver
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine how lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) stability, via knee valgus, affects throwing kinematics during a team handball jump shot. DESIGN: LPHC stability was classified using the value of knee valgus at the instant of landing from the jump shot. If a participant displayed knee valgus of 17° or greater, they were classified as LPHC unstable. Stable and unstable athletes' throwing mechanics were compared. METHODS: Twenty female team handball athletes (26...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Corbin A Hedt, S Brett Holland, Bradley S Lambert, Joshua D Harris, Patrick C McCulloch
CONTEXT: Interval throwing programs (ITP) have long been used in the physical therapy setting to aid in the safe and efficacious return to sport for an overhead athlete. However, the overall utilization and variation of interval throwing programs are unknown in the physical therapy setting leading to potential inconsistencies in treatment paradigms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in practice patterns exist among active physical therapists of various experience levels with regards to years of experience and advanced certifications...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Ling Qiang, ZhiPeng Ji, Xiuwen Wang
The transcription factor TAp73, a transcriptionally active isoform of p73, has high structure and function similaritieswith its homolog p53, therefore, are thought to be a cancer therapy candidate target. However, there is still a controversy about the tumor suppressor role of TAp73, since it has been found in numerous studies that TAp73 expression is elevated in different cancers. Thus, we take effort to clarify the influence of TAp73 on gastric cancer (GC) chemotherapy. Multiple cell lines of GC such as SNU-1, SNU-3, and AGS were applied to investigate expression of TAp73...
January 23, 2018: Oncology Research
Dana J Lin, Tony T Wong, Jonathan K Kazam
The unparalleled velocity achieved by overhead throwers subjects the shoulder to extreme forces, resulting in both adaptive changes and pathologic findings that can be detected at imaging. A key biomechanical principle of throwing is achieving maximum external rotation, which initially leads to adaptive changes that may result in a pathologic cascade of injuries. In addition to the well-established concepts of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and internal impingement, osseous and soft-tissue injuries of the shoulder unique to overhead athletes are illustrated...
February 2018: Radiology
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Joseph N Liu, Grant H Garcia, Anirudh K Gowd, Brandon C Cabarcas, Michael D Charles, Anthony A Romeo, Nikhil N Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the etiology, classification, presentation, evaluation, treatment strategy, and outcomes in overhead athletes with partial thickness rotator cuff tears. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite advances in surgical repair techniques, return to play following surgical repair of partial rotator cuff tears remains modest at best. Overhead athletes may be particularly prone to rotator cuff pathology due to the supraphysiological strains within the tendon during the throwing motion, as well as mechanical stress with contact between the undersurface of the rotator cuff and the glenoid...
January 13, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Ryan A Mlynarek, Struan H Coleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the clinical significance of the most common hip and groin injuries in baseball players, as well as an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: (a) Limitations in throwing velocity, pitch control, and bat swing speed may be secondary to decreased mobility and strength within the proximal kinetic chain, which must harness power from the lower extremities and core. (b) Approximately 5.5% of all baseball injuries per year involve the hip/groin and may lead to a significant amount of time spent on the disabled list...
January 12, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
M Praveen Kumar, Bikash Medhi
The article throws light on the process of importing a novel preclinical drug into India based on the real-life experience from one of our studies. A novel drug "X" acting through a new mechanism of action was hypothesized by us to function as a neuroprotectant. It was decided to import this novel drug from a university located in Brazil. An official collaboration pact was exchanged between both the sides. In accordance with the Indian Drug and Cosmetics Act 1940, unauthorized import of drug into India is not permitted...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Daisuke Hira, Nobuyuki Aiko, Yoshinori Yabuki, Takao Fujii
Nitrogenous pollution of water is regarded as a global environmental problem, and nitrogen removal has become an important issue in wastewater treatment processes. Landfill leachate is a typical large source of nitrogenous wastewater. Although the characteristics of leachate vary according to the age of the landfill, leachates of mature landfill have high concentrations of nitrogenous compounds. Most nitrogen in these leachates is in the form of ammonium nitrogen. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community of sludge from a landfill leachate lagoon by pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Hiroshi Hattori, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Toby Hall, Katsuya Amemiya, Yoshihisa Mori
BACKGROUND: To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. METHODS: The study included 25 high school baseball players...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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