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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#1
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330670/treatment-of-partial-thickness-rotator-cuff-tears-in-overhead-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Joseph N Liu, Grant H Garcia, Anirudh K Gowd, Brandon C Cabarcas, Michael D Charles, Anthony A Romeo, Nikhil N Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the etiology, classification, presentation, evaluation, treatment strategy, and outcomes in overhead athletes with partial thickness rotator cuff tears. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite advances in surgical repair techniques, return to play following surgical repair of partial rotator cuff tears remains modest at best. Overhead athletes may be particularly prone to rotator cuff pathology due to the supraphysiological strains within the tendon during the throwing motion, as well as mechanical stress with contact between the undersurface of the rotator cuff and the glenoid...
January 13, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330669/hip-and-groin-injuries-in-baseball-players
#3
REVIEW
Ryan A Mlynarek, Struan H Coleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the clinical significance of the most common hip and groin injuries in baseball players, as well as an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: (a) Limitations in throwing velocity, pitch control, and bat swing speed may be secondary to decreased mobility and strength within the proximal kinetic chain, which must harness power from the lower extremities and core. (b) Approximately 5.5% of all baseball injuries per year involve the hip/groin and may lead to a significant amount of time spent on the disabled list...
January 12, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326494/experience-of-an-academic-institute-in-importing-a-novel-preclinical-drug-into-india
#4
M Praveen Kumar, Bikash Medhi
The article throws light on the process of importing a novel preclinical drug into India based on the real-life experience from one of our studies. A novel drug "X" acting through a new mechanism of action was hypothesized by us to function as a neuroprotectant. It was decided to import this novel drug from a university located in Brazil. An official collaboration pact was exchanged between both the sides. In accordance with the Indian Drug and Cosmetics Act 1940, unauthorized import of drug into India is not permitted...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291488/impact-of-aerobic-acclimation-on-the-nitrification-performance-and-microbial-community-of-landfill-leachate-sludge
#5
Daisuke Hira, Nobuyuki Aiko, Yoshinori Yabuki, Takao Fujii
Nitrogenous pollution of water is regarded as a global environmental problem, and nitrogen removal has become an important issue in wastewater treatment processes. Landfill leachate is a typical large source of nitrogenous wastewater. Although the characteristics of leachate vary according to the age of the landfill, leachates of mature landfill have high concentrations of nitrogenous compounds. Most nitrogen in these leachates is in the form of ammonium nitrogen. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community of sludge from a landfill leachate lagoon by pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289491/the-effect-of-repetitive-baseball-pitching-on-medial-elbow-joint-space-gapping-associated-with-2-elbow-valgus-stressors-in-high-school-baseball-players
#6
Hiroshi Hattori, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Toby Hall, Katsuya Amemiya, Yoshihisa Mori
BACKGROUND: To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. METHODS: The study included 25 high school baseball players...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284390/imparting-pharmaceutical-applications-to-the-surface-of-fabrics-for-wound-and-skin-care-by-ultrasonic-waves
#7
Aharon Gedanken, Nina Perkas, Ilana Perelshtein, Anat Lipovsky
The review, reports on the functionalization of textiles for the treatment of wounds and skin diseases such as acne. In view of the growing demand for high-quality textiles, much research is focused on the creation of antimicrobial finishings for fabrics, in order to protect customers from pathogenic or odor-generating microorganisms. We present coatings from inorganic, organic and biochemical nanoparticles (NPs) on surfaces that impart the ability to kill bacteria, avoid biofilm formation and speed up the recovery of wounds...
December 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215738/electronic-cigarette-a-recent-update-of-its-toxic-effects-on-humans
#8
REVIEW
Shu-Jie Huang, Yan-Ming Xu, Andy T Y Lau
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered and liquid-vaporizing devices, were invented to replace the conventional cigarette (c-cigarette) smoking for the sake of reducing the adverse effects on multiple organ systems that c-cigarettes have induced. Although some of the identified harmful components in e-cigarettes were alleged to be measured in lower quantity than those in c-cigarettes, researchers unveiled that the toxic effects of e-cigarettes should not be understated. This review is sought for an attempt to throw light on several typical types of e-cigarette components (tobacco-specific nitrosamines, carbonyl compounds, and volatile organic compounds) by revealing their possible impacts on human bodies through different action mechanisms characterized by alteration of specific biomarkers on cellular and molecular levels...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163182/the-natural-antiangiogenic-compound-ad0157-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#9
Melissa García-Caballero, Beatríz Martínez-Poveda, Miguel A Medina, Ana R Quesada
Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer especially relevant in the development and the appearance of leukemia drug resistance mechanisms. The development of new drugs that could trigger apoptosis in aggressive hematological malignancies, such as AML and CML, may be considered a promising antileukemic strategy. AD0157, a natural marine pyrrolidinedione, has already been described as a compound that inhibits angiogenesis by induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells. The crucial role played by defects in the apoptosis pathways in the pathogenesis, progression and response to conventional therapies of several forms of leukemia, moved us to analyze the effect of this compound on the growth and death of leukemia cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140180/the-role-of-lumbopelvic-hip-complex-stability-in-softball-throwing-mechanics
#10
Gabrielle G Gilmer, Jessica K Washington, Jeffrey Dugas, James Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
CONTEXT: Studies have found that a 20% reduction in energy generation from the lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) during overhead throws leads to a 34% increase in load on the shoulder. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of LPHC stability, via the single leg squat (SLS) assessment, on throwing mechanics of softball athletes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty softball athletes (164...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102772/recalibration-in-functional-perceptual-motor-tasks-a-systematic-review
#11
Milou Tessa Brand, Rita Ferraz de Oliveira
Skilled actions are the result of a perceptual-motor system being well-calibrated to the appropriate information variables. Changes to the perceptual or motor system initiates recalibration, which is the rescaling of the perceptual-motor system to informational variables. For example, a professional baseball player may need to rescale their throws due to fatigue. The aim of this systematic review is to analyse how recalibration can and has been measured and also to evaluate the literature on recalibration. Five databases were systematically screened to identify literature that reported experiments where a disturbance was applied to the perceptual-motor system in functional perceptual-motor tasks...
November 2, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031458/quiet-eye-training-improves-accuracy-in-basketball-field-goal-shooting
#12
Joan N Vickers, Ben Vandervies, Christie Kohut, Brendan Ryley
University students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to a quiet eye training (QET) or technical training (TT) group, and their shooting accuracy (%) determined during a pre-, post-, and transfer test in basketball field shooting. Both groups first received lectures on visuomotor processing and the quiet eye (QE), followed by a laboratory in which participants in the QET group were taught how to adopt the QE characteristics of elite free-throw shooters, which stresses optimal gaze control and focus relative to a single target location, while the TT participants were taught elite biomechanics which stresses optimal control of the shooting stance, arms, and hands...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979069/novel-pathogens-in-periodontal-microbiology
#13
REVIEW
K Vidya Hiranmayi, K Sirisha, M V Ramoji Rao, P Sudhakar
Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease caused by complex interactions between distinct pathogens in a biofilm resulting in the destruction of periodontal tissues. It seems evident that unknown microorganisms might be involved in onset or progression of periodontitis. For many decades, research in the field of oral microbiology failed to identify certain subgingival microbiota due to technical limitations but, over a period of 12 years using molecular approaches and sequencing techniques, it became feasible to reveal the existence of new periodontal pathogens...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957977/single-pass-4-throw-pupilloplasty-for-pre-descemet-endothelial-keratoplasty
#14
Priya Narang, Amar Agarwal, Dhivya A Kumar
PURPOSE: To describe the feasibility and applicability of the single-pass 4-throw pupilloplasty (SFT) technique in the Pre-Descemet endothelial keratoplasty (PDEK) procedure. METHODS: In cases with endothelial decompensation and pupil deformity, SFT was performed to prevent the escape of air into the posterior segment. Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography was performed to analyze elevation of the iris and the suture tail end from the iris plane...
December 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950202/hot-rolling-sludge-incineration-suppression-of-pcdd-fs-by-spent-anion-exchange-resins
#15
Shuaixi Xu, Tong Chen, Mengmei Zhang, Alfons Buekens, Yongmei Yu, Yanyan Ling, Zhiliang Chen, Xiaodong Li
Steel industry is the main industrial source of 'dioxins', i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). These arise mainly in the off-gas from sintering plant, yet also other operations, such as continuous casting, and hot and cold rolling could generate albeit minor amounts of dioxins. In this contribution it is verified in how far the incineration of hot rolling sludge (HRS) could contribute to such emissions and, if so, how these could be suppressed at low cost. Spent anion exchange resin (SAER) appeared as a dioxins suppressant during combustion tests of hot rolling sludge in a bench-scale tubular furnace...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925825/conscious-control-is-associated-with-freezing-of-mechanical-degrees-of-freedom-during-motor-learning
#16
Wouter F van Ginneken, Jamie M Poolton, Catherine M Capio, John van der Kamp, Cynthia S Y Choi, Richard S W Masters
This study investigated whether conscious control is associated with freezing of mechanical degrees of freedom during motor learning. Participants practiced a throwing task using either error-strewn or error-reduced practice protocols, which encourage high or low levels of conscious control, respectively. After 24 hr, participants engaged in a series of delayed retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, propensity for conscious control was assessed using participants' ratings and freezing was gauged through movement variability of the throwing arm...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855060/trauma-mechanisms-and-injury-patterns-in-pediatric-burn-patients
#17
Theres Moehrlen, Thomas Szucs, Markus A Landolt, Martin Meuli, Clemens Schiestl, Ueli Moehrlen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency, severity, exact patterns and mechanisms of burn injuries in children. The patient records of children with acute burns admitted to the University Children's Hospital of Zurich were retrospectively reviewed over an 11year period. The age group with the highest risk, were children under the age of five (69%). Boys were overrepresented in all age groups, but the gender imbalance increased with age. Infants and toddlers were mainly injured by scalds and contact burns...
August 27, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854061/lassoing-skill-through-learner-choice
#18
Gabriele Wulf, Takehiro Iwatsuki, Brittney Machin, Jessica Kellogg, Clint Copeland, Rebecca Lewthwaite
The authors examined several issues related to the motor learning benefits resulting from giving learners choices. In 2 experiments, participants practiced a novel task, throwing a lasso. In Experiment 1, giving learners a choice ostensibly irrelevant to performance (color of mat under target) resulted in enhanced learning relative to a control group. The choice group also reported more positive affect. Experiment 2 compared the effectiveness of task-irrelevant (mat color) versus task-relevant (video demonstrations of the skill) choices...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806094/the-relationship-of-throwing-arm-mechanics-and-elbow-varus-torque-within-subject-variation-for-professional-baseball-pitchers-across-82-000-throws
#19
Christopher L Camp, Travis G Tubbs, Glenn S Fleisig, Joshua S Dines, David M Dines, David W Altchek, Brittany Dowling
BACKGROUND: Likely due to the high level of strain exerted across the elbow during the throwing motion, elbow injuries are on the rise in baseball. To identify at-risk athletes and guide postinjury return-to-throw programs, a better understanding of the variables that influence elbow varus torque is desired. PURPOSE: To describe the within-subject relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot and arm rotation in professional baseball pitchers. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
November 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763703/multifractal-foundations-of-visually-guided-aiming-and-adaptation-to-prismatic-perturbation
#20
Nicole S Carver, Danica Bojovic, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Visually-guided action of tossing to a target allows examining coordination between mechanical information for maintaining posture while throwing and visual information for aiming. Previous research indicates that relationships between visual and mechanical information persist in tossing behavior long enough for mechanical cues to prompt recall of past visual impressions. Multifractal analysis might model the long-term coordinations among movement components as visual information changes. We asked 32 adult participants (6 female, 25 male, one not conforming to gender binary; aged M=19...
July 29, 2017: Human Movement Science
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