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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034095/current-and-emerging-brain-applications-of-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound
#1
REVIEW
Ying Meng, Suganth Suppiah, Karim Mithani, Benjamin Solomon, Michael L Schwartz, Nir Lipsman
MRI guided focused ultrasound is an emerging technique that uses acoustic energy to noninvasively treat intracranial disorders. At high frequencies, it can be used to raise tissue temperatures and ablate discrete brain targets with sub-millimeter accuracy. This application is currently under investigation for a broad range of clinical applications, including brain tumors, movement disorders, and psychiatric conditions. At low frequencies MRI guided focused ultrasound can be used to modulate neuronal activity and in conjunction with injected microbubbles, can open the blood-brain barrier to enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031222/apolipoproteins-adsorption-and-brain-targeting-evaluation-of-baicalin-nanocrystals-modified-by-combination-of-tween80-and-tpgs
#2
Yang Liu, Yueqin Ma, Junnan Xu, Yingchong Chen, Jin Xie, Pengfei Yue, Qin Zheng, Ming Yang
To help baicalin pass across BBB and improve its targeting in brain, we designed a novel formulation strategy of baicalin nanocrystals that preferentially adsorbing apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and repelling protein adsorption of opsonins. Intravenous baicalin nanocrystals suspensions (BCL-NS) modified by different surfactant were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The targeting potential of surface-modified BCL-NS with mean particles size of about 250nm was assessed by in vitro protein adsorption studies using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), and further evaluated in vivo pharmacokinetics...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027831/evaluation-of-brain-targeting-in-rats-of-salvianolic-acid-b-nasal-delivery-by-the-microdialysis-technique
#3
Suiling Zhang, Yajun Shi, Lizhi Tang, Jing Wang, Dongyan Guo, Mei Wang, Xiaofei Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of Salvianolic acid B in rats blood and brain after intranasal administration and explore its feasibility and evaluate its brain targeting effect. The concentration of Salvianolic acid B in blood and brain following nasal administration (32 mgċkg(-1)) was measured combining with microdialysis sampling and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/MS detection technology. After the microdialysis samples were corrected with in vivo recoveries, the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by using non-compartment model and the brain targeting evaluated by the value of drug targeting index (DTI)...
October 13, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018554/psychiatric-neurosurgery-in-the-21st-century-overview-and-the-growth-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#4
REVIEW
Kenneth Barrett
Ambulatory deep brain stimulation (DBS) became possible in the late 1980s and was initially used to treat people with movement disorders. Trials of DBS in people with treatment-resistant psychiatric disorder began in the late 1990s, initially focusing on obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder and Tourette syndrome. Despite methodological issues, including small participant numbers and lack of consensus over brain targets, DBS is now being trialled in a wide range of psychiatric conditions...
October 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942680/brain-targeted-oral-delivery-of-doxycycline-hydrochloride-encapsulated-tween-80-coated-chitosan-nanoparticles-against-ketamine-induced-psychosis-behavioral-biochemical-neurochemical-and-histological-alterations-in-mice
#5
Monu Yadav, Milind Parle, Nidhi Sharma, Sameer Dhingra, Neha Raina, Deepak Kumar Jindal
To develop statistically optimized brain targeted Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticulate formulation for oral delivery of doxycycline hydrochloride for the treatment of psychosis and to evaluate its protective effect on ketamine induced behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and histological alterations in mice. 3(2) full factorial design was used to optimize the nanoparticulate formulation to minimize particle size and maximize entrapment efficiency, while independent variables chosen were concentration of chitosan and Tween 80...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935901/a-brain-targeting-lipidated-peptide-for-neutralizing-rna-mediated-toxicity-in-polyglutamine-diseases
#6
Qian Zhang, Mengbi Yang, Kasper K Sørensen, Charlotte S Madsen, Josephine T Boesen, Ying An, Shao Hong Peng, Yuming Wei, Qianwen Wang, Knud J Jensen, Zhong Zuo, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Jacky Chi Ki Ngo
Polyglutamine (PolyQ) diseases are progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by both protein- and RNA-mediated toxicities. We previously showed that a peptidyl inhibitor, P3, which binds directly to expanded CAG RNA can inhibit RNA-induced nucleolar stress and suppress RNA-induced neurotoxicity. Here we report a N-acetylated and C-amidated derivative of P3, P3V8, that showed a more than 20-fold increase in its affinity for expanded CAG RNA. The P3V8 peptide also more potently alleviated expanded RNA-induced cytotoxicity in vitro, and suppressed polyQ neurodegeneration in Drosophila with no observed toxic effects...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899762/the-role-of-non-endothelial-cells-on-the-penetration-of-nanoparticles-through-the-blood-brain-barrier
#7
REVIEW
Rui Pedro Moura, Andreia Almeida, Bruno Sarmento
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a well-established cell-based membrane that circumvents the central nervous system (CNS), protecting it from harmful substances. Due to its robustness and cell integrity, it is also an outstanding opponent when it comes to the delivery of several therapeutic agents to the brain, which requires the crossing through its highly-organized structure. This regulation and cell-cell communications occur mostly between astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells. Therefore, alternative ways to deliver drugs to the CNS, overcoming the BBB are required, to improve the efficacy of brain target drugs...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892789/thymoquinone-rich-fraction-nanoemulsion-tqrfne-decreases-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-levels-by-modulating-app-processing-up-regulating-ide-and-lrp1-and-down-regulating-bace1-and-rage-in-response-to-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#8
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Hamidon Basri
Though the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are yet to be understood, much evidence has suggested that excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation due to abnormal amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ metabolism are crucial processes towards AD pathogenesis. Hence, approaches aiming at APP processing and Aβ metabolism are currently being actively pursued for the management of AD. Studies suggest that high cholesterol and a high fat diet have harmful effects on cognitive function and may instigate the commencement of AD pathogenesis...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887220/enhanced-glioma-therapy-by-synergistic-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-tyrosine-kinase-activity
#9
Xuhui Wang, Yue Qiu, Qianwen Yu, Hui Li, Xiaoxiao Chen, Man Li, Yang Long, Yayuan Liu, Libao Lu, Jiajing Tang, Zhirong Zhang, Qin He
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that acts as a cytoprotective mechanism causing treatment resistance in various cancer cells. Recent studies showed that hydroxychloroquine can inhibit the latter step of autophagy and therefore enhance the anti-glioma efficiency of ZD6474, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, the nonselective distribution of ZD6474 in vivo and the low penetrating ability of hydroxychloroquine when crossing the blood-brain barrier restrict their clinical use in glioma therapy. Here we coencapsulated ZD6474 and hydroxychloroquine into R6dGR peptide-modified liposomes (R6dGR-Lip) which can specifically recognize both integrin αvβ3 and neuropilin-1 receptors that are highly expressed on the endothelial cells and glioma cells...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887135/progress-in-brain-targeting-drug-delivery-system-by-nasal-route
#10
REVIEW
Abdur Rauf Khan, Mengrui Liu, Muhammad Wasim Khan, Guangxi Zhai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the transport of potential therapeutic moieties to the brain. Direct targeting the brain via olfactory and trigeminal neural pathways by passing the BBB has gained an important consideration for delivery of wide range of therapeutics to brain. Intranasal route of transportation directly delivers the drugs to brain without systemic absorption, thus avoiding the side effects and enhancing the efficacy of neurotherapeutics. Over the last several decades, different drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been studied for targeting the brain by the nasal route...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866799/intranasal-administration-of-tat-conjugated-lipid-nanocarriers-loading-gdnf-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Sara Hernando, Enara Herran, Joana Figueiro-Silva, José Luis Pedraz, Manoli Igartua, Eva Carro, Rosa Maria Hernandez
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (ND), characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. Current available treatments in clinical practice cannot halt the progression of the disease. During the last few years, growth factors (GFs) have been raised as a promising therapeutic approach to address the underlying neurodegenerative process. Among others, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a widely studied GF for PD...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863897/lactoferrin-functionalized-peg-plga-nanoparticles-of-shikonin-for-brain-targeting-therapy-of-glioma
#12
Hanmei Li, Yuna Tong, Lan Bai, Lei Ye, Lei Zhong, Xingmei Duan, Yuxuan Zhu
Shikonin (SHK) is a highly liposoluble naphthoquinone pigment has recently been investigated as a potential antiglioma agent. However, shikonin shows several limitations like poor aqueous solubility, short half-life and non-selective biodistribution. Herein, we have developed a nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from PEG-PLGA using an emulsion solvent evaporation method. Nanoparticle surfaces were modified by coating with lactoferrin (Lf) to improve the crossing of the blood brain barrier and targeting of glioma cells via receptor-mediated path-ways...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862080/evaluation-of-brain-targeted-chitosan-nanoparticles-through-blood-brain-barrier-cerebral-microvessel-endothelial-cells
#13
Adem Sahin, Digdem Yoyen-Ermis, Secil Caban-Toktas, Utku Horzum, Yesim Aktas, Patrick Couvreur, Gunes Esendagli, Yilmaz Capan
The blood-brain barrier is the major problem for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. A previous study from our group showed that the brain-targeted chitosan nanoparticles-loaded with large peptide moieties can rapidly cross the barrier and provide neuroprotection. The present study aims to determine the efficacy of the brain-targeted chitosan nanoparticles' uptake by the human blood-brain barrier cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (hCMECs) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms for enhanced cellular entry...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857330/increased-habenular-connectivity-in-opioid-users-is-associated-with-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-nicotinic-receptor-genetic-variant
#14
Kaylah Curtis, Humsini Viswanath, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Mark J Harding, Eduardo Aramayo, Philip R Baldwin, Elisa Ambrosi, Alok Madan, Michelle Patriquin, B Christopher Frueh, J Christopher Fowler, Thomas R Kosten, David A Nielsen, Ramiro Salas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disorder with relapse based on both desire for reinforcement (craving) and avoidance of withdrawal. The aversive aspect of dependence and relapse has been associated with a small brain structure called the habenula, which expresses large numbers of both opioid and nicotinic receptors. Additionally, opioid withdrawal symptoms can be induced in opioid-treated rodents by blocking not only opioid, but also nicotinic receptors...
August 31, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855877/sex-and-electrode-configuration-in-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#15
Michael J Russell, Theodore A Goodman, Joseph M Visse, Laurel Beckett, Naomi Saito, Bruce G Lyeth, Gregg H Recanzone
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) can be an effective non-invasive neuromodulation procedure. Unfortunately, the considerable variation in reported treatment outcomes, both within and between studies, has made the procedure unreliable for many applications. To determine if individual differences in cranium morphology and tissue conductivity can account for some of this variation, the electrical density at two cortical locations (temporal and frontal) directly under scalp electrodes was modeled using a validated MRI modeling procedure in 23 subjects (12 males and 11 females)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842313/a-facile-approach-to-functionalizing-cell-membrane-coated-nanoparticles-with-neurotoxin-derived-peptide-for-brain-targeted-drug-delivery
#16
Zhilan Chai, Xuefeng Hu, Xiaoli Wei, Changyou Zhan, Linwei Lu, Kuan Jiang, Bingxia Su, Huitong Ruan, Danni Ran, Ronnie H Fang, Liangfang Zhang, Weiyue Lu
The blood brain barrier separates the circulating blood from the extracellular fluid in the central nervous system and thus presents an essential obstacle to brain transport of therapeutics. Herein, we report on an effective brain-targeted drug delivery system that combines a robust red blood cell membrane-coated nanoparticle (RBCNP) with a unique neurotoxin-derived targeting moiety. The RBCNPs retain the complex biological functions of natural cell membranes while exhibiting physicochemical properties that are suitable for effective drug delivery...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840157/evaluation-of-evoked-responses-to-pulse-matched-high-frequency-and-intermittent-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-using-simultaneous-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#17
Adrian Curtin, Junfeng Sun, Hasan Ayaz, Zhenying Qian, Banu Onaral, Jijun Wang, Shanbao Tong
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method used to excite or inhibit cortical activity for experimental, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. However, nonmotor regions of the brain targeted in TMS therapies, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), offer no extrinsic response to stimulation, resulting in a need for a practical method for the evaluation of treatment. We sought to determine the capability of a continuous-wave light emitting diodes (LED)-based functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system to measure evoked cortical hemoglobin changes in the DLPFC during the simultaneous application of TMS to the left-DLPFC under brief stimulation paradigms used in the clinic...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837234/a-precision-3d-conformal-treatment-technique-in-rats-application-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-with-hippocampal-avoidance
#18
Suk W Yoon, Christina K Cramer, Devin A Miles, Michael H Reinsvold, Kyeung M Joo, David G Kirsch, Mark Oldham
PURPOSE: To develop and validate 3D conformal hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) for Wistar rats utilizing precision 3D printed immobilization and micro-blocks. This technique paves the way for future pre-clinical studies investigating brain treatments that reduce neurotoxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A novel pre-clinical treatment planning and delivery process was developed to enable precision 3D conformal treatment and hippocampal avoidance capability for the Xrad 225cx small animal irradiator...
August 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833225/the-glycine-receptor-a-functionally-important-primary-brain-target-of-ethanol
#19
Bo Söderpalm, Helga Höifödt Lidö, Mia Ericson
Identification of ethanol's primary molecular brain targets and determination of their functional importance is an ongoing, important quest. Pentameric ligand-gated ion-channels (pLGIC), i.e. the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 and the glycine receptor (GlyR) are such targets. Here, aspects of the structure and function of these receptors and ethanol's interaction with them are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on the GlyR and the importance of this receptor and its ligands for ethanol pharmacology...
August 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822195/-pharmacokinetics-of-%C3%AE-asarone-after-intranasal-and-intravenous-administration-with-pla-%C3%AE-asarone-nanoparticles
#20
Jin Lu, Li-Wei Guo, Ting-Ming Fu, Guo-Long Zhu, Zhen-Nan Dai, Guan-Jun Zhan, Li-Li Chen
PLA-α-asarone nanoparticles were prepared by using organic solvent evaporation method, and their in vivo distribution and brain targeting after intranasal administration were studied as compared with intravenous administration. The results showed that brain targeting coefficient of PLA-α-asarone nanoparticles after intranasal and intravenous administration was 1.65 and 1.16 respectively. The absolute bioavailability, brain-targeting efficiency and the percentage of nasal-brain delivery of PLA-α-asarone nanoparticles were 74...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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