Read by QxMD icon Read


Qingqing Meng, Aiping Wang, Hongchen Hua, Ying Jiang, Yiyun Wang, Hongjie Mu, Zimei Wu, Kaoxiang Sun
Background: Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Purpose: To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. Methods: HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box-Behnken design...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Moitreyi Das, Mausam Ghosh, Kusumika Gharami, Sumantra Das
Thyroid hormones (THs) have important contributions to the development of the mammalian brain, targeting its actions on both neurons and glial cells. Astrocytes, which constitute about half of the glial cells, characteristically undergo dramatic changes in their morphology during development and such changes become necessary for the proper development of the brain. Interestingly, a large number of studies have suggested that THs play a profound role in such morphological maturation of the astrocytes. This review discusses the present knowledge on the mechanisms by which THs elicit progressive differentiation and maturation of the astrocytes...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Darrin J Lee, Gavin J B Elias, Andres M Lozano
Eating disorders and obesity adversely affect individuals both medically and psychologically, leading to reduced life expectancy and poor quality of life. While there exist a number of treatments for anorexia, morbid obesity and bulimia, many patients do not respond favorably to current behavioral, medical or bariatric surgical management. Neuromodulation has been postulated as a potential treatment for eating disorders and obesity. In particular, deep brain stimulation and transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation have been studied for these indications across a variety of brain targets...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Anh H Le, Strahinja Stojadinovic, Robert Timmerman, Hak Choy, Romona L Duncan, Steve B Jiang, Arnold Pompos
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of a real-time whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) workflow, taking advantage of contemporary radiation therapy capabilities and seeking to optimize clinical workflow for WBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We developed a method incorporating the linear accelerator's on-board imaging system for patient simulation, used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data for treatment planning, and delivered the first fraction of prescribed therapy, all during the patient's initial appointment...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Qiming Yue, Yao Peng, Yi Zhao, Runxin Lu, Qiuyi Fu, Yang Chen, Yang Yang, Li Hai, Li Guo, Yong Wu
Ibuprofen is one of the most potent non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and plays an important role in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its poor brain penetration and serious side effects at therapeutic doses, has hindered its further application. Thus, it is of great interest to develop a carrier-mediated transporter (CMT) system that is capable of more efficiently delivering ibuprofen into the brain at smaller doses to treat neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a dual-mediated ibuprofen prodrug modified by glucose (Glu) and vitamin C (Vc) for central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery was designed and synthesized in order to effectively deliver ibuprofen to brain...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Satish K Mandlik, Nisharani S Ranpise, Bhabani S Mohanty, Pradip R Chaudhari
The present investigation deals with preparation and characterization of anti-migraine zolmitriptan (ZMT) nanostructured polymeric carriers for nose to brain drug targeting. The drug-loaded colloidal nanocarriers of ZMT were prepared by modified ionic gelation of cationic chitosan with anionic sodium tripolyphosphate and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. Further, in order to investigate nose to brain drug targeting, biodistribution, and brain kinetics studies were performed using 99mtechnetium radiolabeled nanocarriers (99mTc-ZMTNP) in Swiss albino mice...
January 29, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Roberta Dal Magro, Alysia Cox, Vanessa Zambelli, Simona Mancini, Massimo Masserini, Francesca Re
AIM: To investigate if and how the ability of liposomes, previously designed for Alzheimer's therapy, to reach the brain changes in aging/pathological conditions with respect to the healthy state. METHODS: Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of liposomes in young or aged healthy mice and in an Alzheimer's mouse model were measured by radiochemical techniques. The expression of brain receptors and structural proteins was evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: At equal blood levels, the amount and integrity of liposomes in the brain were dramatically lower in Alzheimer's or aged mice, with respect to young animals...
January 29, 2018: Nanomedicine
Mikkel Staberg, Rikke Darling Rasmussen, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Henriette Pedersen, Kamilla Ellermann Jensen, Mette Villingshøj, Jane Skjoth-Rasmussen, Jannick Brennum, Kristoffer Vitting-Seerup, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Petra Hamerlik
Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the most lethal cancers, with current therapies offering only palliation. Inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity is a hallmark of GBM, with epigenetically distinct cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) at the apex. Targeting GSCs remains a challenging task because of their unique biology, resemblance to normal neural stem/progenitor cells and resistance to standard cytotoxic therapy. Here, we find that the chromatin regulator, JmjC domain histone H3K36me2/me1 demethylase KDM2B, is highly expressed in glioblastoma surgical specimens compared to normal brain...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Hua Peng, Dane D Jensen, Wencheng Li, Michelle N Sullivan, Sophie A Buller, Caleb J Worker, Silvana G Cooper, Shiqi Zheng, Scott Earley, Curt D Sigmund, Yumei Feng
Despite advances in anti-hypertensive therapeutics, at least 15-20% of hypertensive patients have resistant hypertension through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. In this study, we provide a new mechanism for regulation of blood pressure (BP) in the central nervous system (CNS) by the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a recently identified component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that mediates angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the CNS. Although the PRR also mediates Ang II-independent signaling, the importance of these pathways in BP regulation is unknown...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
L Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan
The first surgical procedures for abnormal movement disorders began in the 1930s, when surgeons first proposed ablative techniques of the caudate nucleus or transection of motor (pyramidal) pathways to reduce involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's related tremor. During the 50-year interval between 1945 and 1995, the development of precise intracranial guiding devices, brain maps, and advanced imaging led to the refinement of appropriate deep brain targets affecting extrapyramidal pathways. Lesional surgery and subsequent neuroaugmentation using deep brain stimulation extended the role of deep brain surgery for a wider group of patients with tremor, rigidity, dyskinesia, and other involuntary movement disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Felix Weber, Bernd Bohrmann, Jens Niewoehner, Jens A A Fischer, Petra Rueger, Georg Tiefenthaler, Joerg Moelleken, Alexander Bujotzek, Kevin Brady, Thomas Singer, Martin Ebeling, Antonio Iglesias, Per-Ola Freskgård
Receptors show promise for the transport of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) across the blood-brain barrier. However, safety liabilities associated with peripheral receptor binding and Fc effector function have been reported. We present the Brain Shuttle-mAb (BS-mAb) technology, and we investigate the role of Fc effector function in vitro and in an Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-humanized mouse model. Strong first infusion reactions (FIRs) were observed for a conventional mAb against transferrin receptor (TfR) with a wild-type immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
Kousalya Selvaraj, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Many of the therapeutics used for the treatment of brain disorders are not effective and not delivered to the brain due to the complex structure and its barriers. In recent years, many advanced approaches have emerged for the brain drug delivery. Intranasal drug delivery is one of non-invasive approach has gained interest because of direct transport of drugs circumventing the brain barriers through olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways. Eventhough through these pathways the therapeutics have direct access to the brain, the main limitations of this approach are only limited drug absorption, and nasal permeability...
December 28, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ruhi Raj, Sarika Wairkar, Vinay Sridhar, Ram Gaud
In the current study, Pramipexole dihydrochloride loaded chitosan nanoparticles (P-CNs) were prepared for Parkinson's disease via nose to brain pathway by ionic gelation method. Optimized P-CNs with chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (6:1 v/v) exhibited particle size and entrapment efficiency of 292.5 nm ± 8.80 and 91.25% ± 0.95 respectively and its diffusion across the artificial membrane and goat nasal mucosa was found to be 93.32% ± 2.56 and 83.03% ± 3.48 correspondingly after 24 h...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eman Abd-Elrasheed, Sara Nageeb El-Helaly, Manal M El-Ashmoony, Salwa Salah
Intranasal Zaleplon solid dispersion was formulated to enhance the solubility, bioavailability and deliver an effective therapy. Zaleplon belongs to Class II drugs, and undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism after oral absorption exhibiting 30% bioavailability. A 23full factorial design was chosen for the investigation of solid dispersion formulations. The effects of different variables include drug to carrier ratio (1:1 and 1:2), carrier type (polyethylene glycol 4000 and poloxamer 407), and preparation method (solvent evaporation and freeze drying) on different dissolution parameters were studied...
December 13, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Ioannis N Mavridis
The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
Rehab Abdelmonem, Mohamed El Nabarawi, Alshaimaa Attia
The aim of this study was to formulate granisetron hydrochloride (GH) spanlastic in mucoadhesive gels and lyophilized inserts for intranasal administration to improve GH bioavailability and brain targeting. Carpapol 934 and HPMC were incorporated in GH spanlastic in nasal gels (GHSpNGs). Gelatin and HPMC as matrix former, glycine as a collapse protecting and mannitol as an insert filler and sweeting agent were used to prepare GH spanlastic loaded in lyophilized inserts (GHSpNIs). The prepared GHSpNGs were characterized for pH measurement, drug content, rheology, and in vitro drug release...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Asahi Tomitaka, Hamed Arami, Zaohua Huang, Andrea Raymond, Elizette Rodriguez, Yong Cai, Marcelo Febo, Yasushi Takemura, Madhavan Nair
Image-guided drug delivery is an emerging strategy in the field of nanomedicine. The addition of image guidance to a traditional drug delivery system is expected to achieve highly efficient treatment by tracking the drug carriers in the body and monitoring their effective accumulation in the targeted tissues. In this study, we developed multifunctional magneto-plasmonic liposomes (MPLs), a hybrid system combining liposomes and magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for a triple-modality image-guided drug delivery...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
Patrícia C Pires, Adriana O Santos
The treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders remains a challenge in medical research. Several strategies have been developed over the years, either to overcome the blood-brain barrier or to achieve a safer or faster brain delivery, one of them being intranasal (IN) administration. The possibility of direct nose-to-brain transport offers enhanced targeting and reduced systemic side effects. Nevertheless, labile, low soluble, low permeant and/or less potent drugs might need a formulation other than the common solutions or suspensions...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jing Sun, Wenjie Xie, Xufeng Zhu, Mengmeng Xu, Jie Liu
Functionalized nanomaterials, which have been applied widely to inhibit amyloid-β protein (Aβ) aggregation, show an enormous potential in the field of prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant body of data has demonstrated that the morphology and size of nanomaterials have remarkable effects on their biological behaviors. In this paper, we proposed and designed three kinds of brain-targeting sulfur nanoparticles (RVG@Met@SNPs) with novel morphologies (volute-like, tadpole-like and sphere-like), and investigated the effect of different RVG@Met@SNPs on the Aβ-Cu2+ complex aggregation and their corresponding neurotoxicity...
December 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Viral Shah, Pratiksha Kochar
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Brain cancer is identified as one of the most formidable forms of cancer due to several hurdles posed by the anatomy and physiology of the brain on the therapeutic strategies employed for treating brain cancer. Poor prognosis and high relapse rate further aggravate the situation leading to the high mortality rate in brain cancer. OBJECTIVE: The present review gives a brief insight on different aspects of brain cancer by elucidating its types, causative factors, associated symptoms, diagnostic techniques, treatment strategies and limitations of current treatment strategies...
November 29, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"