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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921213/pediatric-intracranial-primary-anaplastic-ganglioglioma
#1
Wolf Lüdemann, Rouzbeh Banan, Christian Hartmann, Helmut Bertalanffy, Concezio Di Rocco
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors in the pediatric patient group. Most of them present with symptoms of elevated pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. Extraaxial location is far more common than axial location. On MRI examination, they mimic pilocytic astrocytomas. The outcome after surgery depends mainly on the possible amount of surgical resection, and oncological therapy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the disease. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old boy presented with headache and double vision due to obstructive hydrocephalus...
December 5, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900599/melatonin-attenuates-manganese-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-activation-of-bv2-microglia
#3
Euteum Park, Hong Sung Chun
Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878256/melatonin-attenuates-tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#4
Na Yu, Yi-Tian Sun, Xin-Ming Su, Miao He, Bing Dai, Jian Kang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common interstitial lung disease. However, the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland, it has a strong antioxidant effect, and exerts an anti-fibrosis effect. Whether melatonin attenuates pulm -onary fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) requires further research. The present study aimed to investigate whether melatonin prevents transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1)‑induced EMT and underlying signaling pathways using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870848/genetically-blocking-the-zebrafish-pineal-clock-affects-circadian-behavior
#5
Zohar Ben-Moshe Livne, Shahar Alon, Daniela Vallone, Yared Bayleyen, Adi Tovin, Inbal Shainer, Laura G Nisembaum, Idit Aviram, Sima Smadja-Storz, Michael Fuentes, Jack Falcón, Eli Eisenberg, David C Klein, Harold A Burgess, Nicholas S Foulkes, Yoav Gothilf
The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862951/characterization-and-evolution-of-the-spotted-gar-retina
#6
Joshua M Sukeena, Carlos A Galicia, Jacob D Wilson, Tim McGinn, Janette W Boughman, Barrie D Robison, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Deborah L Stenkamp, Peter G Fuerst
In this study, we characterize the retina of the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a ray-finned fish. Gar did not undergo the whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of the teleost fish lineage, which includes the model species zebrafish and medaka. The divergence of gars from the teleost lineage and the availability of a high-quality genome sequence make it a uniquely useful species to understand how genome duplication sculpted features of the teleost visual system, including photoreceptor diversity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861587/cellular-basis-of-pineal-gland-development-emerging-role-of-microglia-as-phenotype-regulator
#7
María P Ibañez Rodriguez, Stephen C Noctor, Estela M Muñoz
The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858294/sleep-quality-morningness-eveningness-preference-mood-profile-and-levels-of-serum-melatonin-in-migraine-patients-a-case-control-study
#8
Hasan Hüseyin Kozak, Murat Boysan, Ali Ulvi Uca, Adem Aydın, İbrahim Kılınç, Emine Genç, Mustafa Altaş, Dilara Cari Güngör, Keziban Turgut, Nejla Özer
The melatonin as the pineal gland's secretory product is implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. Melatonin has critical functions in human physiology, and research underscores the importance of melatonin in circadian rhythm, sleep, and mood regulation. Clinical observations have indicated that migraine attacks have a seasonal, menstrual, and circadian timing, suggesting that chronobiological mechanisms and their alterations may causally involve in the etiology of the disease. However, the topic has received relatively little attention in the migraine literature...
November 17, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843905/cat-scratch-disease-expanded-spectrum
#9
Hassan A Aziz, Thomas P Plesec, Camille Sabella, Unni K Udayasankar, Arun D Singh
BACKGROUND: To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836641/2-3-cyclic-nucleotide-3-phosphodiesterase-as-a-messenger-of-protection-of-the-mitochondrial-function-during-melatonin-treatment-in-aging
#10
Yulia Baburina, Irina Odinokova, Tamara Azarashvili, Vladimir Akatov, John J Lemasters, Olga Krestinina
The process of aging is considered to be tightly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. One of the causes of aging is an increased sensitivity to the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Melatonin, a natural antioxidant, is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. The role of melatonin whose level decreases with aging is well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that long-term treatment of aged rats with melatonin improved the functional state of mitochondria; thus, the Ca(2+) capacity was enhanced and mitochondrial swelling was deaccelerated in mitochondria...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829983/melatoninergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-neuroprotection-to-the-management-of-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#11
REVIEW
Josiel Mileno Mack, Marissa Giovanna Schamne, Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Renata Aparecida Nedel Pértile, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno Fernandes, Regina P Markus, Rui Daniel Prediger
Melatonin is synthesized by several tissues besides the pineal gland, and beyond its regulatory effects in light-dark cycle, melatonin is a hormone with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Melatonin acts as a free-radical scavenger, reducing reactive species and improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin also regulates the expression of neurotrophins that are involved in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and reduces α-synuclein aggregation, thus protecting the dopaminergic system against damage...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815658/characterization-of-the-expression-of-basigin-gene-products-within-the-pineal-gland-of-mice
#12
Derek Tokar, Leslie van Ekeris, Paul J Linser, Judith D Ochrietor
The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry...
November 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812851/pineal-volume-and-evening-melatonin-in-young-people-with-affective-disorders
#13
Joanne S Carpenter, Amy C Abelmann, Sean N Hatton, Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Maxwell R Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian B Hickie
Affective disorders in young people have been associated with disruptions in circadian rhythms, including abnormalities in secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. Previous research reports relationships between pineal gland volumes, melatonin secretion, and sleep-wake cycles, but the relationship between these factors has not been explored in affective disorders. This study aimed to characterize these factors and explore associations with mood symptoms and functioning in a sample of young people with affective disorders...
November 3, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803236/melatonin-modifies-basal-and-stimulated-insulin-secretion-via-nadph-oxidase
#14
Daniel Simões, Patrícia Riva, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Maria Fernanda Graciano, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marco Taneda, José Cipolla-Neto, Angelo Rafael Carpinelli
Melatonin is a hormone synthesized in the pineal gland, which modulates several functions within the organism, including the synchronization of glucose metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Melatonin can mediate different signaling pathways in pancreatic islets through two membrane receptors and via antioxidant or pro-oxidant enzymes modulation. NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a pro-oxidant enzyme responsible for the production of the reactive oxygen specie (ROS) superoxide, generated from molecular oxygen...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787516/melatonin-enhances-sensitivity-to-fluorouracil-in-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-through-inhibition-of-erk-and-akt-pathway
#15
Yun-Xin Lu, Dong-Liang Chen, De-Shen Wang, Le-Zong Chen, Hai-Yu Mo, Hui Sheng, Long Bai, Qi-Nian Wu, Hong-En Yu, Dan Xie, Jing-Ping Yun, Zhao-Lei Zeng, Feng Wang, Huai-Qiang Ju, Rui-Hua Xu
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer-associated death in the world and novel therapeutic alternatives are urgently warranted. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumour activity and underlying mechanisms of melatonin, an indoleamine compound secreted by the pineal gland as well as naturally occurring plant products, in ESCC cells and revealed that melatonin inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of ESCC cells in vitro and suppressed tumour growth in the subcutaneous mice model in vivo...
October 27, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779473/all-genes-encoding-enzymes-participating-in-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-the-chicken-pineal-gland-are-transcribed-rhythmically
#16
I Adamska, K Marhelava, D Walkiewicz, U Kedzierska, M Markowska, P M Majewski
Our recent research on the pineal gland of young chickens confirmed that three genes encoding enzymes involved in pineal melatonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (Asmt), are transcribed rhythmically under light:dark (L:D) 12:12 conditions in vivo. Additionally, in the pineal gland of maturing chickens, the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene is transcribed rhythmically at a specific stage of the developmental process...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775846/a-rare-case-of-a-pineoblastoma-with-a-rhabdomyoblastic-component
#17
Taku Homma, Akihiro Hemmi, Takashi Ohta, Yoshiaki Kusumi, Atsuo Yoshino, Hiroyuki Hao
Pineal anlage tumor (PAT) is a rare subtype of pineoblastoma (PB), which shows a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with PB with a rhabdomyoblastic component. He presented at a local clinic with vomiting and was transferred to our hospital following discovery of a pineal mass. An endoscopic biopsy was performed and was diagnosed as a PB with a rhabdomyoblastic component. Histopathology of PAT is characterized by both neuroectodermal and ectomesenchymal differentiation, and only a few confirmed cases have been reported...
October 24, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767399/pineal-cysts-and-other-pineal-region-malignancies-determining-factors-predictive-of-hydrocephalus-and-malignancy
#18
Robert M Starke, Justin M Cappuzzo, Nicholas J Erickson, Jonathan H Sherman
OBJECTIVE Cystic lesions of the pineal gland are most often uncomplicated benign lesions with typical MRI characteristics. The authors aimed to study pineal lesion characteristics on MRI to better distinguish benign pineal cysts from other pineal region malignancies as well as to determine which characteristics were predictive of the latter malignancies. They also aimed to study risk factors predictive of hydrocephalus or malignancy in patients harboring these lesions. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of a prospectively compiled database documenting the outcomes of patients with suspected pineal cysts on MRI who had presented in the period from 1998 to 2004...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736010/melatonin-enhances-survival-and-preserves-functional-integrity-of-stem-cells-a-review
#19
Mel S Lee, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Pei-Hsun Sung, John Y Chiang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
Despite state-of-the-art pharmaceutical regimens, continuous improvements in diagnostic techniques as well as refinements in equipment and interventional procedures, many diseases remain refractory to conventional therapies. Recent advances in stem cell (SC) biology have opened an avenue to exploring its therapeutic potential in various disease entities, especially those that are ischemia-related and refractory to conventional treatment. A number of experimental studies and clinical trials have already demonstrated promising outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729794/rasagiline-for-sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-observational-study
#20
Carla Schettino, Clemente Dato, Guglielmo Capaldo, Simone Sampaolo, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Mariarosa Ab Melone
INTRODUCTION: Rasagiline is a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor that ameliorates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) by inhibiting striatal dopamine metabolism. There is also evidence that monoamine oxidase B inhibitors increase melatonin levels in the pineal gland and may have a beneficial effect on sleep disorders, which are a common feature in patients with PD. METHODS: This single-center, prospective, observational, 12-week study compared the effect of combination therapy with levodopa 200-300 mg/d + rasagiline 1 mg/d (n=19) with levodopa 200-300 mg/d alone (n=19) in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with idiopathic PD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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