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Pineal Gland

Xiaoying Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Shuran Ma, Ya Xu, Ying Xu, Xiazhen Guo, Dekui Li
Seasonal changes impact the melatonin production and immuno-activities in vertebrates. This is believed due to the photoperiodic alterations of the different seasons which impact the functions of pineal gland. The short photoperiod promotes pineal melatonin production. As a result, during the winter, animals have significantly higher levels of melatonin than in summer. However, the seasonal changes also include temperature changes. This factor has never been systemically investigated in animals. In the current study, we observed that increased temperature had limited influence on melatonin production...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shunying Hu, Pingjun Zhu, Hao Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland that is indicated to effectively prevent myocardial reperfusion injury. It is unclear whether melatonin protects cardiac function from reperfusion injury by modulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate that melatonin protect against myocardial reperfusion injury through modulating IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1 in cardiomyocytes...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Paula Pierozan, Marie Andersson, Ingvar Brandt, Oskar Karlsson
The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a glutamate receptor agonist that can induce oxidative stress and has been implicated as a possible risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Detection of BMAA in mussels, crustaceans and fish, illustrates that the sources of human exposure to this toxin are more abundant than previously anticipated. The aim of this study was to determine uptake of BMAA in the pineal gland and subsequent effects on melatonin production in primary pinealocyte cultures and a rat model...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Xiaobing Jiang, Yinsheng Chen, Zhihuan Zhou, Liping Luo, Wanming Hu, Huirong Zheng, Zhe Zhu, Jian Wang, Zhongping Chen
BACKGROUND: The pineal gland has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of mood and psychotic disorders. However, few studies have looked at the relationship between pineal region tumors and psychiatric disorders. Intracranial epidermoid cysts usually arise in cerebellopontine angle area, and are extremely rare in the pineal region. The case of pineal epidermoid cyst presenting as schizophrenia has never been reported before. CASE PRESENTATION: We described the case of a 23-year old man who presented to hospital with symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Anna Ashton, Patrick N Stoney, Jemma Ransom, Peter McCaffery
Vitamin A is important for the circadian timing system; deficiency disrupts daily rhythms in activity and clock gene expression, and reduces the nocturnal peak in melatonin in the pineal gland. However, it is currently unknown how these effects are mediated. Vitamin A primarily acts via the active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), a transcriptional regulator with emerging non-genomic activities. We investigated whether RA is subject to diurnal variation in synthesis and signaling in the rat pineal gland. Its involvement in two key molecular rhythms in this gland was also examined: kinase activation and induction of Aanat, which encodes the rhythm-generating melatonin synthetic enzyme...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Rosa Estrada-Reyes, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán, Jesús Argueta, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Daniel Quero-Chávez, Ricardo Cruz-Garduño, Montserrat G Cercós, Citlali Trueta, Julián Oikawa-Sala, Margarita L Dubocovich, Gloria Benítez-King
Mood disorders are a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by changes in the emotional state. In particular, major depressive disorder is expected to have a worldwide prevalence of 20% in 2020, representing a huge socioeconomic burden. Currently used antidepressant drugs have poor efficacy with only 30% of the patients getting in remission after the first-line of treatment. Importantly, mood disorder patients present uncoupling of circadian rhythms. In this regard, melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) an indolamine synthesized by the pineal gland during the night, contributes to synchronize body rhythms with the environmental light/dark cycle...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Abdulkerim Kasım Baltaci, Rasim Mogulkoc
Background Melatonin, an important neurohormone released from the pineal gland, is generally accepted to exercise an inhibitor effect on the thyroid gland. Zinc mediates the effects of many hormones and is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors. Aim The present study aims to examine the effect of melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy on leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), melatonin and zinc levels in rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Methods This study was performed on the 70 male rats...
March 2, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
B S Alghamdi
Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland and has a wide-ranging regulatory and neuroprotective role. It has been reported that melatonin level is disturbed in some neurological conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, which indicates its involvement in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Its properties qualify it to be a promising potential therapeutic neuroprotective agent, with no side effects, for some neurological disorders. This review discusses and localizes the effect of melatonin in the pathophysiology of some diseases...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Wamidh H Talib
Melatonin is a natural indoleamine produced by the pineal gland that has many functions, including regulation of the circadian rhythm. Many studies have reported the anticancer effect of melatonin against a myriad of cancer types. Cancer hallmarks include sustained proliferation, evading growth suppressors, metastasis, replicative immortality, angiogenesis, resisting cell death, altered cellular energetics, and immune evasion. Melatonin anticancer activity is mediated by interfering with various cancer hallmarks...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hui-Li Yang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Yu-Han Meng, Jun Shao, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized from the aromatic amino acid tryptophan mainly by the pineal gland of mammals. Melatonin acts as a broad-spectrum antioxidant, powerful free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, anticarcinogenic factor, sleep inducer and regulator of the circadian rhythm, and potential immunoregulator. Melatonin and reproductive system are interrelated under both physiological and pathological conditions. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune dysregulation are associated with the pathogenesis of the female reproductive system which causes endometriosis (EMS), recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jun Song, Sai-Jun Ma, Jian-Hua Luo, Hui Zhang, Ri-Xiong Wang, Hui Liu, Li Li, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Rui-Xiang Zhou
Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer‑related death. In China, gastric and liver cancers have the highest mortality rates. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl‑5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin has been shown to inhibit various carcinomas, including GC. There are many different hypotheses to explain the anticancer effects of melatonin, including stimulation of apoptosis, inhibition of cell growth, regulation of anticancer immunity, induction of free-radical scavenging, and the competitive inhibition of estrogen...
February 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yina Chen, Qian Zhao, Yangjie Sun, Yin Jin, Jie Zhang, Jiansheng Wu
Melatonin, which is predominantly secreted by the pineal gland and is released into the blood, appears to have anti‑inflammatory properties. Several studies have shown that melatonin can relieve lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this anti‑inflammatory effect remain to be fully elucidated, particularly the association between melatonin and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS). Therefore, the present study examined the anti‑inflammatory activity of melatonin in RAW264...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yina Chen, Qian Zhao, Qinfen Chen, Yuxue Zhang, Bule Shao, Yin Jin, Jiansheng Wu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanism underlying of melatonin in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 64 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: The sham operation (SO) group, SAP group, melatonin treatment (MLT) group and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) treatment (SB) group. Acute pancreatitis was induced by 5% taurocholate through retrograde infusion into the biliopancreatic ducts. The melatonin and SB203580 treatment groups were administered with MLT and SB 30 min before operation the induction of SAP...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jinglin Zhang, Jingtao Qiu, Yewen Zhou, Yue Wang, Hongjiao Li, Taojie Zhang, Ying Jiang, Kemian Gou, Sheng Cui
Melatonin is a key hormone that regulates circadian rhythms, metabolism and reproduction. However, the mechanisms of melatonin synthesis and secretion have not been fully defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of the LIM homeobox transcription factor Isl1 in regulating melatonin synthesis and secretion in porcine pineal gland. We found that Isl1 is highly expressed in the melatonin producing cells in the porcine pineal gland. Further functional studies demonstrate that Isl1 knockdown in cultured primary porcine pinealocytes results in the decline of melatonin and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA levels by 29...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Tao Shu, Lei Fan, Tao Wu, Chang Liu, Lei He, Mao Pang, Yang Bu, Xuan Wang, Juan Wang, Bin Liu, Limin Rong
Melatonin is a neurohormone mainly extracted from the pineal gland with neuroprotective effects. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic functions. However, the mechanism of melatonin against reactive oxygen species is unclear. Here, we explore the potential proliferative and neuroprotective mechanism of melatonin on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). NSCs were induced from iPSCs, then pretreated with 500μM H2 O2 , 1μM melatonin, 1μM melatonin receptor antagonist (Luzindole), or 10μM Phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002)...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
E H Taniguti, Y S Ferreira, I J V Stupp, E B Fraga-Junior, C B Mendonça, F L Rossi, H N Ynoue, D L Doneda, L Lopes, E Lima, Z S Buss, S Vandresen-Filho
Accumulating evidence indicates an interaction between inflammation and depression since increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with depression-related symptoms. Melatonin is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant-like effects. In this way, it would be interesting to evaluate the putative antidepressant-like effect of melatonin treatment in an acute inflammation mice model of depression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and alteration on brain-derived neurotrophic fator (BDNF) levels...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Won Joo Jeong, Jae Seung Bang, Kyu Sun Yum, Sangkil Lee, Inyoung Chung, O-Ki Kwon, Chang Wan Oh, Beom Joon Kim, Hee-Joon Bae, Moon-Ku Han
Brain herniation is most often the result of severe brain swelling and can rapidly lead to death or brain death. We retrospectively identified radiologic indicators to evaluate the effects of targeted temperature management (TTM) on the extent of cerebral edema and determine the cutoff values that best predict TTM outcomes in patients with large hemispheric infarction. We retrospectively reviewed brain computed tomography (CT) scans of 21 patients with large hemispheric infarctions, who were treated with TTM...
February 15, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Azadeh Aminzadeh, Saeed Mehrzadi
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a major risk factor for vascular disease and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction. Melatonin is a neurohormone that is mostly produced by the pineal gland. Studies have reported that melatonin exhibits neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible protective effect of melatonin against Hcy-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore the underlying mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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