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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163852/melatonin-as-a-potential-inhibitory-agent-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Chia-Ming Yeh, Shih-Chi Su, Chiao-Wen Lin, Wei-En Yang, Ming-Hsien Chien, Russel J Reiter, Shun-Fa Yang
Melatonin is a molecule secreted by the pineal gland; it is an important regulator of sleep and circadian rhythms. Through multiple interrelated mechanisms, melatonin exhibits various inhibitory properties at different stages of tumor progression. Many studies have explored the oncostatic effects of melatonin on hormone-dependent tumors. In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding the effects of melatonin on the development of head and neck cancers, including molecular mechanisms identified through experimental and clinical observations...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160833/taxon-and-site-specific-melatonin-catabolism
#2
REVIEW
Rüdiger Hardeland
Melatonin is catabolized both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. Nonenzymatic processes mediated by free radicals, singlet oxygen, other reactive intermediates such as HOCl and peroxynitrite, or pseudoenzymatic mechanisms are not species- or tissue-specific, but vary considerably in their extent. Higher rates of nonenzymatic melatonin metabolism can be expected upon UV exposure, e.g., in plants and in the human skin. Additionally, melatonin is more strongly nonenzymatically degraded at sites of inflammation...
November 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152648/melatonin-inhibits-colon-cancer-rko-cell-migration-by-downregulating-rho%C3%A2-associated-protein-kinase-expression-via-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#3
Zhen Liu, Duobing Zou, Xiaoping Yang, Xiaolong Xue, Li Zuo, Qing Zhou, Ruolei Hu, Yuan Wang
Melatonin is predominately produced and secreted by the pineal gland, and inhibits cell growth in various cancer cell lines such as colorectal cancer. However, the precise mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the potential molecular mechanism underlying the efficacy of melatonin on migration in RKO colon cancer cells was investigated. The effects of melatonin and H‑1152, a selective inhibitor of Rho‑associated protein kinase (ROCK), on the migration of RKO cells were analyzed by an in vitro wound healing assay...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139015/defining-the-optimal-midline-shift-threshold-to-predict-poor-outcome-in-patients-with-supratentorial-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#4
Wen-Song Yang, Qi Li, Rui Li, Qing-Jun Liu, Xing-Chen Wang, Li-Bo Zhao, Peng Xie
BACKGROUND: Midline shift (MLS) has been associated with unfavorable outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the optimal criteria to define the MLS measurements that indicate future outcome in ICH patients are absent, and the quantitative threshold of MLS that differentiates favorable and poor clinical outcome should be further explored. METHODS: We enrolled patients with ICH who underwent admission computed tomography (CT) within 6 h after onset of symptoms...
November 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131126/extending-the-neuroanatomic-territory-of-diffuse-midline-glioma-k27m-mutant-pineal-region-origin
#6
Andrea R Gilbert, Wafik Zaky, Murat Gokden, Christine E Fuller, Eylem Ocal, Norman E Leeds, Gregory N Fuller
Diffuse midline glioma, H3-K27M mutant (DMG-K27M) is a newly described, molecularly distinct infiltrative glioma that almost exclusively arises in midline CNS structures, including the brain stem, especially the pons, as well as the thalamus and spinal cord with rare examples seen in the cerebellum, third ventricle, and hypothalamus. To our knowledge, only 1 case of a molecularly confirmed DMG-K27M arising in the pineal region has been previously reported. We present the second occurrence of a tissue-confirmed DMG-K27M of the pineal region, which, to our knowledge, is the first case reported in a child and the first case with documented preoperative MRI...
November 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124531/identification-of-peptide-aedg-in-the-polypeptide-complex-of-the-pineal-gland
#7
V Kh Khavinson, A T Kopylov, B V Vaskovsky, G A Ryzhak, N S Lin'kova
The polypeptide complex of the epiphysis and the peptide AEDG, constructed on the basis of its amino acid analysis, exert similar biological effects. Both bioregulators normalize melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland, functioning of the brain, eye retina, cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems; they also act as antioxidants, stress-protectors, and geroprotectors. Within the epiphysis polypeptide complex, free amino acids (3.26%), dipeptides (23.19%), tripeptides (50.72%), tetrapeptides (22.10%), and pentapeptides (0...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122492/d-leucine-evaluation-in-an-epilepsy-model
#8
Kylie Holden, Adam L Hartman
BACKGROUND: Current medicines do not provide sufficient seizure control for nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy. New options are needed to address this treatment gap. We recently found that the atypical amino acid d-leucine protected against acutely-induced seizures in mice, but its effect in chronic seizures has not been explored. We hypothesized that d-leucine would protect against spontaneous recurrent seizures. We also investigated whether mice lacking a previously-described d-leucine receptor (Tas1R2/R3) would be protected against acutely-induced seizures...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118419/melatonin-promotes-triacylglycerol-accumulation-via-mt2-receptor-during-differentiation-in-bovine-intramuscular-preadipocytes
#9
Wucai Yang, Keqiong Tang, Yaning Wang, Yingying Zhang, Linsen Zan
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a derivative of tryptophan which is produced and secreted mainly by the pineal gland and regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions. To examine the potential effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of bovine intramuscular preadipocytes (BIPs), BIPs were incubated with different concentrations of melatonin. Melatonin supplementation at 1 mM significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β, and C/EBPα expression and promoted the differentiation of BIPs into adipocytes with large lipid droplets and high cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105727/immune-pineal-axis-acute-inflammatory-responses-coordinate-melatonin-synthesis-by-pinealocytes-and-phagocytes
#10
REVIEW
Regina P Markus, Pedro A Fernandes, Gabriela S Kinker, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Marina Marçola
Melatonin is well known for its circadian production by the pineal gland, with a growing body of data showing its production by many other cells and organs, including immune cells. The chronobiotic role of pineal melatonin, as well as its protective effects in vitro and in vivo, have been extensively explored. However, the interaction between chronobiotic and defence functions of endogenous melatonin has been little investigated. This review details the current knowledge regarding the coordinated shift in melatonin synthesis from the pineal (circadian and monitoring roles) to the regulation of acute immune responses via immune cell production and autocrine effects, producing system interactions termed the immune-pineal axis...
November 4, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099713/peculiairities-of-melatonin-effect-on-chonorhytmic-organization-of-kidney-acid-regulating-function-influenced-by-nitrogen-monoxide-synthesis-blockade-under-conditions-of-pineal-gland-hypofunction
#11
S Semenenko, I Tymofiychuk, L Boreyko, S Karatieieva, K Slobodian
The objective of research is to study the peculiarities of melatonin effect on chronorhythmic organization of the kidney acid-regulating function influenced by nitrogen monoxide (NO) synthesis blockade under conditions of pineal gland (PG) hypofunction. The experiments were conducted on 72 mature non-linear albino male rats with their body mass 0,15-0,18 kg. The animals were kept under vivarium conditions at a stable temperature and air humidity fed on a standard dietary intake. The control group included animals (n=36) kept under conditions of usual light regimen (12...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095071/n-n-dimethyltryptamine-and-the-pineal-gland-separating-fact-from-myth
#12
David E Nichols
The pineal gland has a romantic history, from pharaonic Egypt, where it was equated with the eye of Horus, through various religious traditions, where it was considered the seat of the soul, the third eye, etc. Recent incarnations of these notions have suggested that N,N-dimethyltryptamine is secreted by the pineal gland at birth, during dreaming, and at near death to produce out of body experiences. Scientific evidence, however, is not consistent with these ideas. The adult pineal gland weighs less than 0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061489/corticosteroid-therapy-exacerbates-the-reduction-of-melatonin-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Shima Dokoohaki, Majid Ghareghani, Amir Ghanbari, Naser Farhadi, Kazem Zibara, Heibatollah Sadeghi
OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroid therapy is employed in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurological abnormality characterized by an inflammatory process. Melatonin, a potent sleep-promoting and circadian phase regulatory hormone, is produced mainly in the pineal gland whose inhibition leads to sleep disturbances. METHODS: In this study, methylprednisolone (MP) corticosteroid treatment was used in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model (intraperitoneal, 30 mg/kg) and in MS patients (intravenous, 1000 mg/day), followed by assessing melatonin serum levels...
October 20, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057188/pineal-gland-tumor-but-not-pinealoma-a-case-report
#14
Syeda Naqvi, Chintan Rupareliya, Abdullah Shams, Maria Hameed, Zabeen Mahuwala, Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani
The pineal gland is a small pinecone-shaped and functionally endocrine structure located in the epithalamus region. Developmentally, the pineal gland is considered as a part of the epithalamus. It plays a role in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms of an organism by producing melatonin, a functionally important hormone. Lesions of the pineal region are rare compared to other parts of the brain. A lesion may be tumorous or non-tumorous in nature. The most common lesions are tumors that are pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) in origin...
August 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053271/discovery-of-7-18-f-fluorotryptophan-as-a-novel-positron-emission-tomography-pet-probe-for-the-visualization-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-vivo
#15
Boris D Zlatopolskiy, Johannes Zischler, Dominique Schäfer, Elizaveta A Urusova, Mehrab Guliyev, Olesia Bannykh, Heike Endepols, Bernd Neumaier
Tryptophan and its metabolites are involved in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. Consequently, positron emission tomography (PET) tracers addressing tryptophan metabolic pathways should allow the detection of different pathologies like neurological disorders and cancer. Herein we report an efficient method for the preparation of fluorotryptophans labeled in different positions with (18)F and their biological evaluation. 4-7-[(18)F]Fluorotryptophans ([(18)F]FTrps) were prepared according to a modified protocol of alcohol-enhanced Cu-mediated radiofluorination in 30-53% radiochemical yields...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053071/prevention-of-postoperative-visual-field-defect-after-the-occipital-transtentorial-approach-anatomical-study
#16
Satoshi Matsuo, Serhat Baydin, Abuzer Güngör, Erik H Middlebrooks, Noritaka Komune, Koji Iihara, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE A postoperative visual field defect resulting from damage to the occipital lobe during surgery is a unique complication of the occipital transtentorial approach. Though the association between patient position and this complication is well investigated, preventing the complication remains a challenge. To define the area of the occipital lobe in which retraction is least harmful, the surface anatomy of the brain, course of the optic radiations, and microsurgical anatomy of the occipital transtentorial approach were examined...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034075/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-12-persons-with-aniridia
#17
Madison K Grant, Anastasia M Bobilev, Jordan E Pierce, Jon DeWitte, James D Lauderdale
Background: Aniridia is a disorder predominately caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the PAX6 gene, which is a transcriptional regulator necessary for normal eye and brain development.  The ocular abnormalities of aniridia have been well characterized, but mounting evidence has implicated brain-related phenotypes as a prominent feature of this disorder as well.  Investigations using neuroimaging in aniridia patients have shown reductions in discrete brain structures and changes in global grey and white matter...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029459/melatonin-promotes-the-proliferation-of-gc-1-spg-cells-by-inducing-metallothionein-2-expression-through-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-activation
#18
Chunjin Li, Xiaoling Zhu, Shuxiong Chen, Lu Chen, Yun Zhao, Yanwen Jiang, Shan Gao, Fengge Wang, Zhuo Liu, Rong Fan, Liting Sun, Xu Zhou
Synthesized by the pineal gland, melatonin is a neurohormone implicated in diverse physiological functions via several mechanisms. However, the role of melatonin in spermatogenesis and its underlying mechanisms have yet to be completely understood. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing was performed to characterize the mechanism of melatonin-induced GC-1 spg proliferation. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and pathway analyses were also conducted to identify the signaling pathways and biological processes involved in differential mRNA expression...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991991/effects-of-ghrelin-on-nocturnal-melatonin-secretion-in-sheep-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approach
#19
K Kirsz, M Szczesna, E Molik, D A Zieba
Recent studies confirmed that pineal melatonin (MEL) secretion is regulated by ghrelin (GHRL) in seasonally reproductive sheep. The first in vivo experiment investigated whether the effect of GHRL on nocturnal secretion of MEL in sheep is mediated by type 2 serotonin receptors. Sheep ( = 16) were intravenously injected with GHRL (2.5 μg/kg of BW) and meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; a mixed agonist of 5-HT2B/5-HT2C receptors; 1 mg/kg BW), either combined or individually, during the short-day (SDS) and long-day (LDS) seasons...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989900/prevalence-of-pineal-gland-calcification-as-an-incidental-finding-in-patients-referred-for-implant-dental-therapy
#20
Sunil Mutalik, Aditya Tadinada
PURPOSE: Pineal gland calcification has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This study evaluated the prevalence and extent of pineal gland calcification in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of patients referred for dental implant therapy who could possibly be a vulnerable group for this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of 500 CBCT scans was conducted. Scans that showed the area where the pineal gland was located were included...
September 2017: Imaging Science in Dentistry
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