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Pineal Gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919448/review-7%C3%AE-hydroxypregnenolone-regulating-locomotor-behavior-identified-in-the-brain-and-pineal-gland-across-vertebrates
#1
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Shogo Haraguchi, Hubert Vaudry
The brain synthesizes steroids de novo from cholesterol, which are called neurosteroids. Based on extensive studies on neurosteroids over the past thirty years, it is now accepted that neurosteroidogenesis in the brain is a conserved property across vertebrates. However, the formation of bioactive neurosteroids in the brain is still incompletely elucidated in vertebrates. In fact, we recently identified 7 α -hydroxypregnenolone (7 α -OH PREG) as a novel bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor behavior in the brain of several vertebrates...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912098/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-sirt3-attenuates-sodium-fluoride-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-activating-the-mt1-pi3k-akt-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#2
Chao Song, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Dan Li, Tingchao Mao, Wei Peng, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in liver. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland, was previously shown to protect against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. Reducing mitochondrial ROS by melatonin substantially attenuated NaF-induced NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation and cytotoxicity in L-02 cells...
September 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911201/gene-expression-profiling-of-puberty-associated-genes-reveals-abundant-tissue-and-sex-specific-changes-across-postnatal-development
#3
Huayun Hou, Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Maisam Makarem, Christina Corre, Shems Saleh, Ariane Metcalf, Anna Goldenberg, Mark R Palmert, And Michael D Wilson
The timing of human puberty is highly variable, sexually dimorphic, and associated with adverse health outcomes. Over 20 genes carrying rare mutations have been identified in known pubertal disorders, many of which encode critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 candidate genes at loci associated with age at menarche or voice breaking in males. We know little about the spatial, temporal or postnatal expression patterns of the majority of these puberty-associated genes...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#4
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867647/inhibitory-effects-of-melatonin-on-titanium-particle-induced-inflammatory-bone-resorption-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#5
Zichuan Ping, Zhirong Wang, Jiawei Shi, Liangliang Wang, Xiaobin Guo, Wei Zhou, Xuanyang Hu, Xiexing Wu, Yu Liu, Wen Zhang, Huilin Yang, Yaozeng Xu, Ye Gu, Dechun Geng
Wear debris-induced peri-implant osteolysis challenges the longevity of implants. The host response to wear debris causes chronic inflammation, promotes bone resorption, and impairs bone formation. We previously demonstrated that melatonin enhances bone formation and attenuates wear debris-induced bone loss in vivo. However, whether melatonin inhibits chronic inflammation and bone resorption at sites of wear debris-induced osteolysis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the potential inhibitory effects of melatonin on titanium particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in a murine calvarial model and on RANKL-induced osteoclastic formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
August 31, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860773/can-melatonin-prevent-or-improve-metabolic-side-effects-during-antipsychotic-treatments
#6
Maria-Cristina Porfirio, Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida, Maddalena Stornelli, Silvia Giovinazzo, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Gabriele Masi
In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828619/melatonin-transport-into-mitochondria
#7
REVIEW
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González-Menéndez, David Hevia, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda
Melatonin is a well-known, nighttime-produced indole found in bacteria, eukaryotic unicellulars, animals or vascular plants. In vertebrates, melatonin is the major product of the pineal gland, which accounts for its increase in serum during the dark phase, but it is also produced by many other organs and cell types. Such a wide distribution is consistent with its multiple and well-described functions which include from the circadian regulation and adaptation to seasonal variations to immunomodulatory and oncostatic actions in different types of tumors...
August 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803211/melatonin-protects-chondrocytes-from-impairment-induced-by-glucocorticoids-via-nad-dependent-sirt1
#8
Wei Yang, Xiaomin Kang, Na Qin, Feng Li, Xinxin Jin, Zhengmin Ma, Zhuang Qian, Shufang Wu
Intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids is used to relieve pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis patients, which is occasionally accompanied with the serious side effects of glucocorticoids in collagen-producing tissue. Melatonin is the major hormone released from the pineal gland and its beneficial effects on cartilage has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of melatonin on matrix degeneration in chondrocytes induced by dexamethasone (Dex). The chondrocytes isolated from mice knee joint were treated with Dex, melatonin, EX527 and siRNA targeted for SIRT6, respectively...
October 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#9
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800009/pathologic-prognostic-factors-of-pineal-parenchymal-tumor-of-intermediate-differentiation
#10
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Khushboo Lath, Navneet Singla, Narendra Kumar, Bishan D Radotra
INTRODUCTION: Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is an uncommon tumor of the pineal gland. Although this behaves as a grade II/III tumor, the exact clinical behavior is not well known. There is no well-established pathologic factor that can predict the behavior of PPTID. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the pathologic prognostic factors in PPTID. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All PPTID cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782536/immunolesion-of-melanopsin-neurons-causes-gonadal-regression-in-pekin-drakes-anas-platyrhynchos-domesticus
#11
H Potter, E Alenciks, K Frazier, A Porter, G S Fraley
Several light sensitive receptors have been described in the avian brain that are thought to regulate the reproductive axis independently from the eyes and pineal gland.Recently, our lab has described the presence of three of these photoneuroendocrine systems in the Pekin duck: opsin, opsin 5, & melanopsin. We set out to test the hypothesis that melanopsin receptive neurons are necessary to maintain seasonal reproductive status along with growth and development in the Pekin drake. To accomplish these goals we first investigated 50-week-old Pekin drakes that were housed in the aviary at Hope College under long day length (18 hrs lights on) conditions in floor pens...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770437/comparing-the-effects-of-melatonin-with-caloric-restriction-in-the-hippocampus-of-aging-mice-involvement-of-sirtuin1-and-the-foxos-pathway
#12
Anorut Jenwitheesuk, Seongjoon Park, Prapimpun Wongchitrat, Jiraporn Tocharus, Sujira Mukda, Isao Shimokawa, Piyarat Govitrapong
It has been suggested that age-related neurodegeneration might be associated with neuropeptide Y (NPY); sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and forkhead box transcription factors O subfamily (FOXOs) pathways. Melatonin, a hormone mainly secreted by the pineal gland, is another anti-aging agent associated with the SIRT1-FOXOs pathway. This study aimed to compare the effects of melatonin (Mel) and caloric restriction (CR) on the expression of Sirt1, FoxO1, FoxO3a and FOXOs target genes in the aging mouse hippocampus. Neuropeptide Y-knockout (NpyKO) and wild-type (WT) male mice aged 19 months were previously treated either with food ad libitum or CR for 16 months...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764741/the-role-of-melatonin-in-the-onset-and-progression-of-type-3-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Juhyun Song, Daniel J Whitcomb, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the excessive accumulation of toxic peptides, such as beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The risk factors associated with AD include genetic mutations, aging, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. To date, several studies that have demonstrated an association between AD and diabetes have revealed that the common risk factors include insulin resistance, sleep disturbances, blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and altered glucose homeostasis...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751425/melatonin-inhibits-hypothalamic-gonandotropin-releasing-hormone-release-and-reduces-biliary-hyperplasia-and-fibrosis-in-cholestatic-rats
#14
Matthew McMillin, Sharon DeMorrow, Shannon Glaser, Julie Venter, Konstantina Kyritsi, Tianhao Zhou, Stephanie Grant, Thao Giang, John F Greene, Nan Wu, Brandi Jefferson, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland with increased circulating levels shown to inhibit biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis during cholestasis. Melatonin also has the capability to suppress the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), a hormone that promotes cholangiocyte proliferation when serum levels are elevated. However, the interplay and contribution of neural melatonin and GnRH to cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats has not been investigated...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747250/normal-neuroanatomical-variants-that-may-be-misinterpreted-as-disease-entities
#15
REVIEW
S Ramji, P Touska, P Rich, A D MacKinnon
Variations of normal development and benign incidental anomalies are frequently observed on diagnostic neuroimaging. It is important these are recognised for what they are, as misinterpretation may result in unnecessary further investigation, follow-up imaging and anxiety. In this article, we review benign intracranial anomalies commonly referred to our unit for specialist neuroradiology advice or multidisciplinary discussion, concerning cysts of the pineal gland and pituitary fossa, vascular anomalies, and perivascular spaces...
October 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745939/reduced-pineal-volume-in-alzheimer-disease-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-mr-imaging-study
#16
Teruyuki Matsuoka, Ayu Imai, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yuka Kato, Keisuke Shibata, Kaeko Nakamura, Hajime Yokota, Kei Yamada, Jin Narumoto
Purpose To evaluate pineal volume in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects and to correlate the findings with results of cognitive testing and brain parenchymal volumes. Materials and Methods The ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The participants included 63 patients with AD, 33 patients with MCI, and 24 healthy control subjects. There were 36 men and 84 women, with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 76.7 years ± 7...
July 26, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733812/melatonin-increases-reactive-aggression-in-humans
#17
Jinting Liu, Ru Zhong, Wei Xiong, Haibo Liu, Christoph Eisenegger, Xiaolin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin, a hormone released preferentially by the pineal gland during the night, affects circadian rhythms and aging processes. As animal studies have shown that melatonin increases resident-intruder aggression, this study aimed to investigate the impact of melatonin treatment on human aggression. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled between-participant design, 63 healthy male volunteers completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) after oral administration of melatonin or placebo...
July 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730123/iprgcs-possible-causation-accounts-for-the-higher-prevalence-of-sleep-disorders-in-glaucoma-patients
#18
Zhen-Zhen Guo, Shan-Ming Jiang, Li-Ping Zeng, Li Tang, Ni Li, Zhu-Ping Xu, Xin Wei
Sleep accounts for a third of one's lifetime, partial or complete deprivation of sleep could elicit sever disorders of body function. Previous studies have reported the higher prevalence of sleep disorders in glaucoma patients, but the definite mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. On the other hand, it is well known by us that the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) serve additional ocular functions, called non-image-forming (NIF) functions, in the regulation of circadian rhythm, melatonin secretion, sleep, mood and others...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728370/endotoxin-induced-inflammation-disturbs-melatonin-secretion-in-ewe
#19
Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Joanna Bochenek, Agata Krawczyńska, Hanna Antushevich, Bartosz Pawlina, Marlena Zielińska-Góska, Anna Herman, Katarzyna Romanowicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
The study was designed to determine the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short night (SN; n = 12) and long night (LN; n = 12). Endotoxin administration lowered (P < 0.05) levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724215/melatonin-inhibits-proliferation-and-invasion-via-repression-of-mirna-155-in-glioma-cells
#20
Junyi Gu, Zhongsheng Lu, Chenghong Ji, Yuchao Chen, Yuzhao Liu, Zhe Lei, Longqiang Wang, Hong-Tao Zhang, Xiangdong Li
Melatonin, an indolamine mostly synthesized in the pineal gland, exerts the anti-cancer effect by various mechanisms in glioma cells. Our previous study showed that miR-155 promoted glioma cell proliferation and invasion. However, the question of whether melatonin may inhibit glioma by regulating miRNAs has not yet been addressed. In this study, we found that melatonin (100μM, 1μM and 1nM) significantly inhibited the expression of miR-155 in human glioma cell lines U87, U373 and U251. Especially, the lowest expression of miR-155 was detected in 1μM melatonin-treated glioma cells...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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