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Pineal Gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#1
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#2
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317906/novel-hypophysiotropic-agrp2-neurons-and-pineal-cells-revealed-by-bac-transgenesis-in-zebrafish
#3
Inbal Shainer, Adi Buchshtab, Thomas A Hawkins, Stephen W Wilson, Roger D Cone, Yoav Gothilf
The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299428/the-avian-hippocampus-and-the-hypothetical-maps-used-by-navigating-migratory-birds-with-some-reflection-on-compasses-and-migratory-restlessness
#4
Verner P Bingman, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The homology between the avian hippocampal formation (HF) and mammalian hippocampus nurtures the expectation that HF plays a fundamental role in navigation by migratory birds. Indeed, HF of migratory birds displays anatomical properties that differ from non-migratory species. Using a hypothetical framework of multiple maps of differing spatial resolution and range, homing pigeon data suggest that HF is important for navigating by landscape features near familiar breeding, over-wintering, and stop-over sites...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278291/diagnostic-accuracy-of-susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-evaluation-of-pineal-gland-calcification
#5
Lisa C Adams, Sarah M Böker, Yvonne Y Bender, Gerd Diederichs, Eva M Fallenberg, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus R Makowski
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard. METHODS: 384 patients who received a 1.5 Tesla MRI scan including SWMR sequences and a CT scan of the brain between January 2014 and October 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273380/an-aanat-asmt-transgenic-animal-model-constructed-with-crispr-cas9-system-serving-as-the-mammary-gland-bioreactor-to-produce-melatonin-enrich-milk-in-sheep
#6
Teng Ma, Jingli Tao, Minghui Yang, Changjiu He, Xiuzhi Tian, Xiaosheng Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Shoulong Deng, Jianzhong Feng, Zhenzhen Zhang, Jing Wang, Pengyun Ji, Yukun Song, Pingli He, Hongbing Han, Juncai Fu, Zhengxing Lian, Guoshi Liu
Melatonin as a potent antioxidant exhibits important nutritional and medicinal values. To produce melatonin-enriching milk will benefit to the consumers. In this study, a sheep bioreactor which generates melatonin-enriching milk has been successfully developed by the technology that combined CRISPR/Cas9 system and microinjection. The AANAT and ASMT were cloned from pineal gland of Dorper sheep (Ovis aries). The in vitro studies found that AANAT and ASMT were successfully transferred to the mammary epithelial cell lines and significantly increased melatonin production in the culture medium compared to the non-transgenic cell lines...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270617/mechanisms-regulating-angiogenesis-underlie-seasonal-control-of-pituitary-function
#7
Jennifer Castle-Miller, David O Bates, Domingo J Tortonese
Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology, such as those affecting reproduction, hibernation, and metabolism, are controlled by pituitary hormones released in response to annual environmental changes. In temperate zones, the primary environmental cue driving seasonal reproductive cycles is the change in day length (i.e., photoperiod), encoded by the pattern of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. However, although reproduction relies on hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone output, and most cells producing reproductive hormones are in the pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary, melatonin receptors are localized in the pars tuberalis (PT), a physically and functionally separate part of the gland...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222021/intense-blue-light-therapy-during-the-night-time-does-not-suppress-the-rhythmic-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-a-young-boy
#8
K Stebelova, J Kosnacova, M Zeman
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin is a hormone predominantly synthesized and secreted during the night by the pineal gland. Artificial light at night, especially its blue part, acutely suppresses the melatonin production. Th e aim of the present study was to find out, whether an intense blue light phototherapy of severe hyperbilirubinemia, may suppress the melatonin production during the night when the eyes will be properly protected by a sleep mask. METHODS: The main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was measured in urine in a nine-year old boy suffering from the Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I...
January 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221369/chemistry-based-molecular-signature-underlying-the-atypia-of-clozapine
#9
T Cardozo, E Shmelkov, K Felsovalyi, J Swetnam, T Butler, D Malaspina, S V Shmelkov
The central nervous system is functionally organized as a dynamic network of interacting neural circuits that underlies observable behaviors. At higher resolution, these behaviors, or phenotypes, are defined by the activity of a specific set of biomolecules within those circuits. Identification of molecules that govern psychiatric phenotypes is a major challenge. The only organic molecular entities objectively associated with psychiatric phenotypes in humans are drugs that induce psychiatric phenotypes and drugs used for treatment of specific psychiatric conditions...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212404/the-pineal-gland-a-model-for-adrenergic-modulation-of-ubiquitin-ligases
#10
Jerry Vriend, Wenjun Liu, Russel J Reiter
INTRODUCTION: A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212315/developmental-programming-of-adult-disease-reprogramming-by-melatonin
#11
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Li-Tung Huang, Chien-Ning Hsu
Adult-onset chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can originate from early life through so-called the "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD) or "developmental programming". The DOHaD concept offers the "reprogramming" strategy to shift the treatment from adulthood to early life, before clinical disease is apparent. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine produced by the pineal gland, has pleiotropic bioactivities those are beneficial in a variety of human diseases. Emerging evidence support that melatonin is closely inter-related to other proposed mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of a variety of chronic NCDs...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209510/microarray-and-gene-co-expression-analysis-reveals-that-melatonin-attenuates-immune-responses-and-modulates-actin-rearrangement-in-macrophages
#12
Miki Kadena, Yutaro Kumagai, Alexis Vandenbon, Hitomi Matsushima, Haruka Fukamachi, Noboru Maruta, Hideo Kataoka, Takafumi Arimoto, Hirobumi Morisaki, Takahiro Funatsu, Hirotaka Kuwata
Melatonin produced by the pineal gland suppresses inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. However, the mechanism of how melatonin affects inflammatory gene regulation remains unclear. Here we performed comprehensive microarray analysis combined with transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analysis using LPS-induced mouse macrophages to investigate the effect of melatonin treatment. The results showed that melatonin preferentially downregulated interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) related signaling...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209308/melatonin-and-cortisol-secretion-profile-in-patients-with-pineal-cyst-before-and-after-pineal-cyst-resection
#13
Martin Májovský, Lenka Řezáčová, Alena Sumová, Lenka Pospíšilová, David Netuka, Ondřej Bradáč, Vladimír Beneš
A pineal cyst is a benign affection of the human pineal gland on the borderline between pathology and normality. Only a small percentage of patients present with symptoms and a surgical treatment is indicated in highly selected cases. A melatonin secretion in patients with a pineal cyst before and after a pineal cyst resection has not been studied yet and the effect of surgery on human metabolism is unknown. The present study examined melatonin, cortisol and blood glucose secretion profiles perioperatively in a surgical group of 4 patients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181328/protein-and-mrna-expression-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-receptor-and-luteinizing-hormone-receptor-during-the-oestrus-in-the-yak-bos-grunniens
#14
S-D Huo, S-E Chen, R-J Long, J-T Yang, J-X Lu, R-X Zang, T-J Zhang, A Abudureyimu, J-L Liu, G-H Zhang, Y-Q Zhao, Z-R Ma
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have a central role in follicle growth, maturation and oestrus, but no clear pathway in the seasonal oestrus of yak (Bos grunniens) has been found. To better understand the role of FSH and LH in seasonal oestrus in the yak, six yaks were slaughtered while in oestrus, and the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads were collected. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemical assays, we determined the mRNA and protein expression of the FSH and LH receptors (FSHR and LHR) in these organs...
February 8, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177105/the-circumventricular-organs
#15
REVIEW
Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
The circumventricular organs (CVOs) are midline structures located around the third and fourth ventricles that are characterized by a lack of blood-brain barrier. The pineal gland, median eminence, neurohypophysis and the subcommisural organ are classified as secretory, whereas the subfornical organ, area postrema and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis as the sensory CVOs. Glial cells consisting of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages are present in all these organs. The pineal gland, neurohypophysis and the median eminence lack the presence of neurons that are present in the rest of the circumventricular organs...
February 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160436/role-of-the-mt1-and-mt2-melatonin-receptors-in-mediating-depressive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-c3h-hen-mice
#16
J Liu, S J Clough, M L Dubocovich
Melatonin is a neurohormone primarily synthesized by the pineal gland following a circadian rhythm with a high level during the night and a low level during the day. Alterations in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin have been reported in various mood disorders, including major depressive disorder. However, the role of endogenous melatonin in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder is unclear. Melatonin primarily acts through two G protein-coupled receptors, termed MT1 and MT2 . The present study investigated the effect of genetic deletion of the MT1 and/or MT2 receptors on tests associated with depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in C3H/HeN mice...
February 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132129/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-melatonin-in-hemorrhagic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Hai-Jian Wu, Cheng Wu, Huan-Jiang Niu, Kun Wang, Lian-Jie Mo, An-Wen Shao, Brandon J Dixon, Jian-Min Zhang, Shu-Xu Yang, Yi-Rong Wang
Hemorrhagic stroke which consists of subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage is a dominant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although great efforts have been made, the physiological mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood and effective pharmacological interventions are still lacking. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and potent free radical scavenger. More importantly, there is extensive evidence demonstrating that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke...
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#18
REVIEW
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as post-transcriptional modifications, are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival, and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106875/putting-down-the-pineal-gland-in-zebrafish
#19
Dustin M Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092625/adrenergic-control-of-pinealocyte-chondriome-an-in-vitro-study
#20
B Przybylska-Gornowicz, B Lewczuk, N Ziółkowska, M Prusik
Norepinephrine released from sympathetic innervation plays the main role in the regulation of melatonin secretion in mammalian pinealocytes. The present study was conducted for the following reasons: 1) to establish whether the pinealocyte chondriome is controlled by norepinephrine, 2) to determine the effect of adrenergic stimulation on mitochondria, and 3) to characterize adrenoceptors involved in the regulation of the chondriome. The static organ culture of the pineal gland was used. The explants were incubated for 5 consecutive days in control medium and between 20:00 and 08:00 in medium with the presence of 10 μM norepinephrine - adrenergic agonist; isoproterenol - beta-adrenoceptor agonist; cirazoline, methoxamine, M-6364 - alfa1 - adrenoceptors agonists or PMA - activator of PKC...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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