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Pineal Gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781146/modulation-of-serine-threonine-phosphatases-by-melatonin-therapeutic-approaches-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Raquel L Arribas, Alejandro Romero, Javier Egea, Cristóbal de Los Ríos
Melatonin is an endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland as well as many other tissues and organs. The natural decline in melatonin levels with aging strongly contributes to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases share common mechanisms of toxicity such as proteinopathy, mitochondrial dysfunction, metal dyshomeostasis, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and an imbalance in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation ratio. Several reports have proved the usefulness of melatonin in counteracting the events that lead to a neurodegenerative scenario...
May 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780941/unilateral-paraneoplastic-optic-disc-edema-and-retinal-periphlebitis-in-pineal-germinoma
#2
Gunay Uludag, Aslihan Onay, Sumru Onal
Purpose: To describe a unilateral ocular paraneoplastic syndrome in pineal germinoma. Observations: A 24-year-old male presented with diplopia, excessive thirst, and frequent urination. Cranial MRI showed a mass in pineal gland. Dorsal midbrain syndrome signs were present. Examination showed optic disc edema and segmental retinal periphlebitis in right and normal fundus in left eye. Rheumatologic work-up was negative. Brain biopsy confirmed pineal germinoma. Retinal findings were attributed to paraneoplastic syndrome...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774950/morphology-and-quantification-of-sheep-pineal-glands-at-pre-pubertal-pubertal-and-post-pubertal-periods
#3
Durmuş Bolat, Aytül Kürüm, Sıla Canpolat
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ associated with photoperiodic regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pineal gland at the pre-pubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal periods by means of morphology and stereology. The study examined at total of 24 ovine pineal glands collected from healthy female Akkaraman breed. Thick sections (40 μm) were cut and treated with synaptophysin. Following each thick section, six consecutive sections at a thickness of 5 μm were cut. Each thin section was stained with one of the following dyes: Crossman's modified triple dye, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), melatonin marker, periodic acid-Schiff, Von Kossa and AgNOR...
May 18, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774882/-sleep-wake-rhythm-after-extracorporeal-circulation-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#4
Kaiwei Wang, Jiaqiang Zhang
To evaluate the change of sleep-wake rhythm after extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in New Zealand rabbits, and to explore the role of clock genes in sleep-wake rhythm disorder by ECC.
 Methods: A total of 54 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: a normal group (Group N), a sham group (Group S) and a model group (Group ECC). Electrocorticogram (ECOG), electroophthalmogram (EOG) and electromyogram (EMG) were respectively recorded by multipurpose EEG recorder, and the sleep-wake rhythm was also recorded...
April 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763682/melatonin-attenuates-arsenic-induced-nephropathy-via-the-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-signaling-cascades-in-mice
#5
Sayanta Dutta, Sukanya Saha, Sushweta Mahalanobish, Pritam Sadhukhan, Parames C Sil
Arsenic is a potent inducer of several acute and chronic nephrotoxic disorders. It promotes deleterious phenomenon like oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death and altered glucose uptake leading to distorted kidney homeostasis that end up in chronic kidney disease. This study investigated the possible protective role of melatonin; a natural antioxidant produced by the pineal gland, against arsenic induced nephrotoxicity. Melatonin successfully ameliorated arsenic induced renal toxicity both in in vitro and in vivo models...
May 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763350/fluoride-exposure-in-early-life-as-the-possible-root-cause-of-disease-in-later-life
#6
Tetsuo Nakamoto, H Ralph Rawls
Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757573/low-serum-melatonin-levels-are-associated-with-erectile-dysfunction
#7
Aliseydi Bozkurt, Mehmet Karabakan, Binhan Kagan Aktas, Murat Gunay, Ercüment Keskin, Erkan Hirik
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidative stress is considered as an important factor in the etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED), and in many experimental models, positive results have been obtained with melatonin treatment. This study aimed to measure serum melatonin levels in ED patients and to investigate the possible relationship between ED and melatonin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients diagnosed with mild, moderate or severe ED according to the five-item International Erectile Function Index (IIEF-5) and 22 healthy individuals were included in the study...
April 30, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749514/proteomic-analysis-of-chick-retina-during-early-recovery-from-lens%C3%A2-induced-myopia
#8
Yun Yun Zhou, Rachel Ka Man Chun, Jian Chao Wang, Bing Zuo, King Kit Li, Thomas Chuen Lam, Quan Liu, Chi-Ho To
Myopia development has been extensively studied from different perspectives. Myopia recovery is also considered important for understanding the development of myopia. However, despite several previous studies, retinal proteomics during recovery from myopia is still relatively unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in protein profiles of chicken retinas during early recovery from lens‑induced myopia to evaluate the signals involved in the adjustment of this refractive disorder...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747444/mitochondria-transcription-factor-a-a-putative-target-for-the-effect-of-melatonin-on-u87mg-malignant-glioma-cell-line
#9
Daiane G Franco, Isabele F Moretti, Suely K N Marie
The disruption of mitochondrial activity has been associated with cancer development because it contributes to regulating apoptosis and is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a protein that maintains mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, and alterations in its expression are associated with mitochondrial damage and cancer development. In addition, studies have shown that mitochondria are a known target of melatonin, the pineal gland hormone that plays an important anti-tumorigenic role...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721578/circumventricular-organs-of-human-brain-visualized-on-post-contrast-3d-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-imaging
#10
Minako Azuma, Toshinori Hirai, Yoshihito Kadota, Zaw Aung Khant, Yohei Hattori, Mika Kitajima, Hiroyuki Uetani, Yasuyuki Yamashita
PURPOSE: Although contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D T2-FLAIR) images are useful for assessing various neuronal diseases, physiological enhancement of the circumventricular organs on the images have not been investigated. We aimed to assess the physiological appearance of the circumventricular organs on contrast-enhanced 3D T2-FLAIR images. METHODS: We studied 3-T MR images of the brain of 30 individuals with no apparent brain abnormalities...
May 2, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710712/melatonin-in-synaptic-impairments-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Yan Shi, Ying-Yan Fang, Yu-Ping Wei, Qian Jiang, Peng Zeng, Na Tang, Youming Lu, Qing Tian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) underlies dementia for millions of people worldwide with no effective treatment. The dementia of AD is thought stem from the impairments of the synapses because of their critical roles in cognition. Melatonin is a neurohormone mainly released by the pineal gland in a circadian manner and it regulates brain functions in various manners. It is reported that both the melatonin deficit and synaptic impairments are present in the very early stage of AD and strongly contribute to the progress of AD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710710/neural-correlates-of-sleep-disturbance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-role-of-the-precuneus-in-sleep-disturbance
#12
Teruyuki Matsuoka, Ayu Imai, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yuka Kato, Keisuke Shibata, Kaeko Nakamura, Hajime Yokota, Kei Yamada, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance may affect the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the neural correlates of sleep disturbance in AD have not been fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with sleep disturbance in AD. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 63 patients with AD. None of the patients had been prescribed antidementia or psychoactive drugs, and all underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before medication...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710120/a-histologic-study-of-the-circadian-system-in-parkinson-disease-multiple-system-atrophy-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#13
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, Robert Courtney, Thomas T Warner, Janice L Holton
Importance: Circadian dysfunction may be associated with the symptoms and neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), although the underlying neuroanatomical site of disruption and pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Objective: To perform a neuropathological analysis of disease-specific inclusions in the key structures of the circadian system in patients with PD, MSA, and PSP...
April 30, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709740/retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinical-characteristics-therapeutic-aspects-and-prognosis-factors-of-18-cases-of-childhood-pineoblastoma
#14
Yongji Tian, Raynald Liu, Junji Qin, Junmei Wang, Zhenyu Ma, Jian Gong, Chunde Li
Pineoblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of the pineal gland, which is more common in children. We retrospectively reviewed 18 cases of pineoblastoma in children (10 girls), including general, clinical, and therapeutic information, and factors affecting prognosis. The median age of the children was 51.7 months (19-156 mo). Presenting symptoms included vomiting (64.70%), headache (47.06%), weak or unsteady walking (35.29%), and nausea (29.41%). Rarer symptoms (one patient each) included limb rigidity, inability to speak, double vision, fever, and Parinaud's syndrome...
April 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705848/how-to-monitor-the-neuroimmune-biological-response-in-patients-affected-by-immune-alteration-related-systemic-diseases
#15
Paolo Lissoni, Franco Rovelli, Luigi Vigorè, Giusy Messina, Arianna Lissoni, Giorgio Porro, Giuseppe Di Fede
The clinical management of patients affected by systemic diseases, including cancer and autoimmune diseases, is generally founded on the evaluation of the only markers related to the single disease rather than the biological immuno-inflammatory response of patients, despite the fundamental role of cytokine network in the pathogenesis of cancer and autoimmunity is well known. Cancer progression has appeared to be associated with a progressive decline in the blood levels of the main antitumor cytokines, including IL-2 and IL-12, in association with an increase in those of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1-beta, and immunosuppressive cytokines, namely TGF-beta and IL-10...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701146/role-of-melatonin-in-the-inflammatory-process-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#16
Livia Carrascal, Pedro Nunez-Abades, Antonio Ayala, Mercedes Cano
Melatonin is an indolamine synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland along with other sources including immune system cells, the brain, skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Growing interest in this compound as a potential therapeutic agent in several diseases stems from its pleiotropic effects. Thus, melatonin plays a key role in various physiological activities that include regulation of circadian rhythms, immune responses, the oxidative process, apoptosis or mitochondrial homeostasis. Most of these processes are altered during inflammatory pathologies, among which neurodegenerative and bowel diseases stand out...
April 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682075/giant-occipital-intradiploic-epidermoid-cyst
#17
Arun Oommen, Jayasree Govindan, Devan Surendran Peroor, C Roshan Azeez, R Rashmi, Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
Intraparenchymal or intradiploic epidermoid cysts are very rare. Most of these cysts, when present, tend to involve the frontal and temporal lobes, and occasionally, the pineal gland or the brain stem. Here, we report a 45-year-old female, who presented with localized occipital headache and a tender occipital swelling, gradually increasing in size. She was hemodynamically and neurologically stable and did not have any focal neurological deficits. Whole skull and brain imaging revealed a well-demarcated expansile lytic lesion in the right occipital bone, which was hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on both T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging without any contrast enhancement...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642520/melatonin-protects-against-lung-fibrosis-by-regulating-the-hippo-yap-pathway
#18
Xiaoguang Zhao, Jian Sun, Wei Su, Huitong Shan, Bowen Zhang, Yining Wang, Azaliia Shabanova, Hongli Shan, Haihai Liang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fibrotic interstitial pneumonia with high mortality. Melatonin, a hormone predominantly secreted by the pineal gland, has been reported to participate in the process of IPF. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of melatonin in pulmonary fibrosis have not been elucidated to date. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-fibrotic role of melatonin in pulmonary fibrosis and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. We observed that melatonin markedly attenuated bleomycin (BLM)-induced experimental lung fibrosis in mice and inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis in lung fibroblasts...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629701/peripheral-precocious-puberty-caused-by-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-producing-pineal-gland-tumor
#19
S K Hammadur Rahaman, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajesh Khadgawat, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Sameer Bakhshi
BACKGROUND: Pineal gland lesions usually present with central precocious puberty. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A 3½-yr-old boy presented with precocious puberty. Clinically and biochemically, it was gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) independent. Serum and CSF beta-hCG levels were increased. Thin section magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed a pineal gland tumor. OUTCOME: He received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and responded well...
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625122/periodic-regulation-of-expression-of-genes-for-kisspeptin-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-and-their-receptors-in-the-grass-puffer-implications-in-seasonal-daily-and-lunar-rhythms-of-reproduction
#20
REVIEW
Hironori Ando, Shahjahan, Takashi Kitahashi
The seasonal, daily and lunar control of reproduction involves photoperiodic, circadian and lunar changes in the activity of kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These changes are brought through complex networks of light-, time- and non-photic signal-dependent control mechanisms, which are mostly unknown at present. The grass puffer, Takifugu alboplumbeus, a semilunar spawner, provides a unique and excellent animal model to assess this question because its spawning is synchronized with seasonal, daily and lunar cycles...
April 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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