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Pineal Gland

Mel S Lee, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Pei-Hsun Sung, John Y Chiang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
Despite state-of-the-art pharmaceutical regimens, continuous improvements in diagnostic techniques as well as refinements in equipment and interventional procedures, many diseases remain refractory to conventional therapies. Recent advances in stem cell (SC) biology have opened an avenue to exploring its therapeutic potential in various disease entities, especially those that are ischemia-related and refractory to conventional treatment. A number of experimental studies and clinical trials have already demonstrated promising outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Carla Schettino, Clemente Dato, Guglielmo Capaldo, Simone Sampaolo, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Mariarosa Ab Melone
INTRODUCTION: Rasagiline is a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor that ameliorates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) by inhibiting striatal dopamine metabolism. There is also evidence that monoamine oxidase B inhibitors increase melatonin levels in the pineal gland and may have a beneficial effect on sleep disorders, which are a common feature in patients with PD. METHODS: This single-center, prospective, observational, 12-week study compared the effect of combination therapy with levodopa 200-300 mg/d + rasagiline 1 mg/d (n=19) with levodopa 200-300 mg/d alone (n=19) in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with idiopathic PD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
The habenula is a tiny brain region the size of a pea in humans. This region is highly conserved across vertebrates and has been traditionally overlooked by neuroscientists. The name habenula is derived from the Latin word habena, meaning "little rein", because of its elongated shape. Originally its function was thought to be related to the regulation of the nearby pineal gland (which Rene Descartes described as the "principal seat of the soul"). More recent evidence, however, demonstrates that the habenula acts as a critical neuroanatomical hub that connects and regulates brain regions important for divergent motivational states and cognition...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Iwona Adamska, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Markowska, Pawel M Majewski
The aim of the present study was to characterize the daily profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles in the pineal glands of male Hy-Line chickens hatched in the winter and reared under controlled light (L:D 12:12) conditions. The pineal glands were isolated from 16-day-old birds immediately after decapitation every 2h over a 24-h period. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection. According to the obtained data, in chicken pineal glands tryptophan occurred at the highest level among the investigated compounds, showing rhythmical, daily changes with decreased levels during the scotophase...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Andrew Korenevsky, Yulia Milyutina, Ljudmila Kozina, Alexander Arutjunyan
Industrial xenobitics, as well as endogenous damaging factors, such as L-homocysteine, are a well-known source of reactive oxygen species that disrupt biological processes. Among many others, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone synthesis and secretion mediated by a variety of neurotransmitters, which are under control of the hypothalamus and pineal gland, may be put in peril by reactive oxygen species. Their formation can be one of the reasons for the reproductive function shutdown in ageing as the generic response to the damaging factors independent of their nature...
October 6, 2016: Current Aging Science
Satoshi Matsuo, Serhat Baydin, Abuzer Güngör, Koichi Miki, Noritaka Komune, Ryota Kurogi, Koji Iihara, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Soujanya D Yelamanchi, Manish Kumar, Anil K Madugundu, Lathika Gopalakrishnan, Gourav Dey, Sandip Chavan, Gajanan Sathe, Premendu P Mathur, Harsha Gowda, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla K Shankar, T S Keshava Prasad
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time...
October 7, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Shih-Chi Su, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Wei-En Yang, Wen-Hung Chung, Russel J Reiter, Shun-Fa Yang
Melatonin is a naturally occurring molecule secreted by the pineal gland and known as a gatekeeper of circadian clocks. Mounting evidence indicates that melatonin, employing multiple and interrelated mechanisms, exhibits a variety of oncostatic properties in a myriad of tumors during different stages of their progression. Tumor metastasis, which commonly occurs at the late stage is responsible for the majority of cancer deaths; metastases lead to the development of secondary tumors distant from a primary site...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Lars Peter Holst Andersen
The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Meena Patil, Manjiri Karandikar
Pineal tumors comprise 0.4 - 1.0% of intracranial space-occupying lesions in adults. Papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR) is a very rare entity. It has been newly described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. We report a case of a 60 year-old female presenting with headache, giddiness and reduced vision. Imaging studies showed a pineal mass with areas of hemorrhage. All ventricles were normal. There was a past history of a pineal gland tumor excised 2 years ago...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Aditya Kumar Gupta, Michael Jones, Kristina Prelog, John Bui, Jacqui Zhu, Anthea Ng, Luciano Dalla-Pozza
Patients with familial/heritable retinoblastoma (RB) are at increased risk of developing second malignancies throughout life, including a pineoblastoma (trilateral RB [TRB]) in early childhood. Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance brain imaging for those with heritable RB until 5 years of age. The presence of pineal cysts has been reported in patients with RB. Pineal cysts are thought to arise due to focal degeneration of the pineal gland and can be found incidentally. The finding of pineal abnormalities including cysts in children with RB on imaging is disconcerting, as it raises the possibility of an underlying malignancy, specifically a pinealoblastoma...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Janusz Blasiak, Russel J Reiter, Kai Kaarniranta
Melatonin, an indoleamine, is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, but it is produced in many other organs, including the retina, which seems to be especially important as the eye is a primary recipient of circadian signals. Melatonin displays strong antioxidative properties, which predispose it to play a protective role in many human pathologies associated with oxidative stress, including premature aging and degenerative disease. Therefore, melatonin may play a role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease affecting photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an established role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
I Paterniti, M Campolo, M Cordaro, D Impellizzeri, R Siracusa, R Crupi, E Esposito, S Cuzzocrea
Melatonin is the principal secretory product of the pineal gland, and its role as an immunomodulator is well established. Recent evidence shows that melatonin is a scavenger of oxyradicals and peroxynitrite and reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. Previous results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor activated by fatty acids, plays a role in control of secondary inflammatory process associated with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Stephen W Hartley, James C Mullikin, David C Klein, Morgan Park, Steven L Coon
Alternative isoform regulation (AIR) vastly increases transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in numerous biological processes and pathologies. However, the detection and analysis of isoform-level differential regulation is difficult, particularly in the face of complex and incompletely-annotated transcriptomes. Here we have used Illumina short-read/high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify 55 genes that exhibit neurally-regulated AIR in the pineal gland, and then used two other complementary experimental platforms to further study and characterize the Ttc8 gene, which is involved in Bardet-Biedl syndrome and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa...
2016: PloS One
Weimin Li, Jiansheng Wu, Zhiyin Li, Zhibo Zhou, Chao Zheng, Le Lin, Binbin Tan, Min Huang, Mengdi Fan
Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland and is released into the blood. In the last several years, some studies have shown that melatonin has anticancer properties; however, the mechanisms behind the antitumour traits are unclear, especially in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the antitumour effects of melatonin on the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line MIA PaCa‑2 and explored its biological mechanisms. MIA PaCa‑2 cells were treated with melatonin, and we used a CCK‑8 assay to evaluate the cell viability...
September 16, 2016: Oncology Reports
Evgeniy A Khizhkin, Victor A Ilukha, Irina A Vinogradova, Lyudmila B Uzenbaeva, Tatiana N Ilyina, Victoria D Yunash, Artem V Morozov, Vladimir N Anisimov
The present study was aimed to identify how age-related changes in some physiological and biochemical systems are related to changes in the life span of rats with long-term pineal gland hypo- and hyperfunction induced by constant light and constant darkness, respectively. At the age of 25 days the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: standard light/dark regimen (LD), constant light (LL) and constant darkness (DD). Age-related antioxidant system (AOS) changes in liver tissues, alteration of immunoreactivity in blood smears were investigated, pubescence and lifespan of the animals were determined...
September 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Martin Grosshans, Christian Vollmert, Sabine Vollstaedt-Klein, Ingo Nolte, Emanuel Schwarz, Xenija Wagner, Markus Leweke, Jochen Mutschler, Falk Kiefer, Jan Malte Bumb
BACKGROUND: In obese individuals impaired sleep and neuroendocrine alterations such as melatonin deficits are associated with circadian rhythm disruption, altered circadian clock gene expression, and bright light at night. While the relation of pineal gland volume (PGV) and melatonin levels has recently been documented in humans, surprisingly little is known about the possible interference of the PGV and the pathophysiology of obesity in humans. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We therefore compared the PGV of obese with non-obese individuals; both groups were matched by age and gender...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
M Májovský, D Netuka, V Beneš
INTRODUCTION: The pineal region is a deep-seated part of the brain surrounded by highly eloquent structures. Differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in this region encompasses pineal gland cysts, pineal gland tumours, metastases, germ cell tumours, meningiomas, gliomas, hemangioblastomas and neuroectodermal tumours. A treatment strategy is based mainly on tumour anatomical characteristics and histological type. Except germinatous tumours, a surgical excision is the treatment of choice...
2016: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Nan Jiang, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
The avian pineal gland is a master clock that can receive external photic cues and translate them into output rhythms. To clarify whether a shift in light wavelength can influence the circadian expression in chick pineal gland, a total of 240 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) or blue light (BL). After 2weeks light illumination, circadian expressions of seven core clock genes in pineal gland and the level of melatonin in plasma were examined. The results showed after illumination with monochromatic light, 24h profiles of all clock gene mRNAs retained circadian oscillation, except that RL tended to disrupt the rhythm of cCry2...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Masahiro Nitta, Akio Hoshi, Taro Higure, Yuki Shimizu, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Kazuya Hanai, Yoshiaki Kawamura, Toshiro Terachi
A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with advancing paraplegia. Under the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, steroid pulse therapy was administered and plasmapheresis was performed. However, the paraplegia gradually progressed. Subsequently, a spinal cord tumor was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pathological diagnosis, obtained by open biopsy, confirmed a mixed germ cell tumor in the spinal cord. Multiple lung and lymph nodes metastases were also detected upon computed tomography, along with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (33...
2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
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