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Pineal Gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078855/the-impact-of-electromagnetic-field-at-a-frequency-of-50-hz-and-a-magnetic-induction-of-2-5-mt-on-viability-of-pineal-cells-in-vitro
#1
A Koziorowska, E Pasiud, M Fila, M Romerowicz-Misielak
The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the pineal gland has been described in numerous studies, but many questions still remain unanswered. The aim of the experiment described in this study was to evaluate the effect of EMF on the viability of the pineal gland cells of pig in vitro. Primary culture of the pineal gland cells has been exposed to the influence of an EMF at a frequency of 50 Hz with 1, 2 or 3 hours and for 3 hours every 2 or 3 days. After the experiment, viability of cells was assessed by MTT assay and compared to a control culture not exposed to electromagnetic fields...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061973/the-melatonergic-system-in-anxiety-disorders-and-the-role-of-melatonin-in-conditional-fear
#2
F Huang, Z Yang, C-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to extinction of certain conditioned responses forms the basis of anxieties, phobias, and compulsions. There has been an available effective means of extinction-based exposure psychotherapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has been hypothesized to result from impaired extinction of fear memory. PTSD is considered as a memory disorder within a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction framework. Therefore, the aim of this review was to report the preclinical profile of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, as a potential pharmacological option in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD, tested with the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052648/neurocognitive-and-psychological-functioning-of-children-with-an-intracranial-germ-cell-tumor
#3
Younghee Park, Eun-Seung Yu, Boram Ha, Hyeon-Jin Park, Jong-Heun Kim, Joo-Young Kim
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with intracranial germ cell tumor (IGCT) prior to receiving proton beam therapy (PBT), and to identify differential characteristics of their neurocognitive functioning depending on tumor location. As a secondary object of this study, neurocognitive functions were followed up at 1-2 years after PBT to examine early post-treatment changes. Material and Methods: Between 2008 and 2014, 34 children with IGCT treated who received PBT at National Cancer Center, Korea were enrolled in this study...
January 4, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042087/melatonin-as-a-promising-agent-of-regulating-stem-cell-biology-and-its-application-in-disease-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Shuo Zhang, Simon Chen, Yuan Li, Yu Liu
Stem cells have emerged as an important approach to repair and regenerate damaged tissues or organs and show great therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. However, the low survival of engrafted stem cells still remains a major challenge for stem cell therapy. As a major hormone from the pineal gland, melatonin has been shown to play an important role in regulating the physiological and pathological functions of stem cells, such as promoting proliferation, migration and differentiation. Thus, melatonin combined with stem cell transplantation displayed promising application potential in neurodegenerative diseases, liver cirrhosis, wound healing, myocardial infarction, kidney ischemia injury, osteoporosis, etc...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012610/secondary-to-excessive-melatonin-synthesis-the-consumption-of-tryptophan-from-outside-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-melatonin-over-signaling-in-the-pars-tuberalis-may-be-central-to-the-pathophysiology-of-winter-depression
#5
José Carlos Pereira, Márcia Pradella Hallinan, Rosana Cardoso Alves
Seasonal affective disorder is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania with seasonal onset and remission. In this class of mood disturbances, a unipolar major depressive disorder known as winter depression is common in populations living in northern latitudes far from the equator. Winter depression repeatedly occurs in the autumn or winter and remits in the spring or summer, and its etiopathogenesis is currently unknown. However, one can surmise that excessive melatonin production during the reduced duration of daily sunlight in the autumn and winter plays a role in its pathophysiology...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002522/primary-retroperitoneal-seminoma-embryology-histopathology-and-treatment-particularities
#6
Constantin Virgil Gîngu, Mihaela Mihai, Cătălin Baston, Mugurel Alexandru Crăsneanu, Alexandru Vladimir Dick, Vlad Olaru, Ioanel Sinescu
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992316/glutamate-excitotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-epilepsy-modulatory-role-of-melatonin
#7
Shruti Vishnoi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Suhel Parvez
Epilepsy is thought to be associated with oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The enhanced synthesis and release of oxygen free radicals is linked to the low and oxidative potential of the central nervous system. Glutamate excitotoxicity also contributes significantly to the production of reactive nitrogen species that cause nitrosative stress. A decrease in adenosine triphosphate synthesis, which leads to free radical formation, is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987529/melatonin-promotes-circadian-rhythm-induced-proliferation-through-interaction-of-clock-hdac3-c-myc-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#8
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Dan Luo, Chao Sun
Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and controls circadian rhythm of peripheral adipose tissue, resulting in changes in body weight. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms of circadian rhythm-mediated proliferation in adipose tissue is still limited. Here, we showed that melatonin (20 mg/kg/day) promoted circadian and proliferation processes in white adipose tissue. The circadian amplitudes of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1, p < 0...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960163/melatonin-induces-anti-inflammatory-effects-to-play-a-protective-role-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-acute-pancreatitis
#9
Yina Chen, Jie Zhang, Qian Zhao, Qinfen Chen, Yangjie Sun, Yin Jin, Jiansheng Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melatonin, which is mainly secreted by the pineal gland and released into blood, has anti-inflammatory properties in acute pancreatitis. Many studies show that melatonin can relieve inflammation in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are still undefined, especially the relationship between melatonin and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We explored the anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin in AR42J and rat models...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943459/protective-roles-of-melatonin-in-central-nervous-system-diseases-by-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Xin Yu, Zheng Li, Heyi Zheng, Jeffery Ho, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are immature precursors of the central nervous system (CNS), with self-renewal and multipotential differentiation abilities. Their proliferation and differentiation are dynamically regulated by hormonal and local factors. Alteration in neurogenesis is associated with many neurological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that modulation of NSCs can be a promising therapeutic approach for neural injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Melatonin, a pineal gland-derived hormone, regulates the neuroimmuno-endocrine axis and is functionally important to the circadian rhythm, tumour suppression and immunity...
December 12, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942944/the-suprapineal-recess-of-the-third-ventricle-an-anatomic-study-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: The suprapineal recess (SPR) is a small, backward extension of the third ventricle. Few radiological studies have investigated the morphology of the SPR. Here, we explore the SPR with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: A total of 124 patients underwent thin-slice MR imaging examinations with T2-weighted imaging and the constructive interference steady-state (CISS) sequence. Imaging data were transferred to a workstation for analysis. RESULTS: The pineal gland (P) was delineated in 99% of the patients on T2-weighted imaging and 100% of the patients on the CISS sequence...
December 9, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942881/predictors-of-early-in-hospital-death-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-swollen-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#12
Jarle Sundseth, Antje Sundseth, Eva Astrid Jacobsen, Are Hugo Pripp, Wilhelm Sorteberg, Marianne Altmann, Karl-Fredrik Lindegaard, Jon Berg-Johnsen, Bente Thommessen
BACKGROUND: Swollen middle cerebral artery infarction is a life-threatening disease and decompressive craniectomy is improving survival significantly. Despite decompressive surgery, however, many patients are not discharged from the hospital alive. We therefore wanted to search for predictors of early in-hospital death after craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction. METHODS: All patients operated with decompressive craniectomy due to swollen middle cerebral artery infarction at the Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, between May 1998 and October 2010, were included...
December 10, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921213/pediatric-intracranial-primary-anaplastic-ganglioglioma
#13
Wolf Lüdemann, Rouzbeh Banan, Christian Hartmann, Helmut Bertalanffy, Concezio Di Rocco
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors in the pediatric patient group. Most of them present with symptoms of elevated pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. Extraaxial location is far more common than axial location. On MRI examination, they mimic pilocytic astrocytomas. The outcome after surgery depends mainly on the possible amount of surgical resection, and oncological therapy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the disease. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old boy presented with headache and double vision due to obstructive hydrocephalus...
December 5, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900599/melatonin-attenuates-manganese-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-activation-of-bv2-microglia
#15
Euteum Park, Hong Sung Chun
Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878256/melatonin-attenuates-tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#16
Na Yu, Yi-Tian Sun, Xin-Ming Su, Miao He, Bing Dai, Jian Kang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common interstitial lung disease. However, the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland, it has a strong antioxidant effect, and exerts an anti-fibrosis effect. Whether melatonin attenuates pulm -onary fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) requires further research. The present study aimed to investigate whether melatonin prevents transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1)‑induced EMT and underlying signaling pathways using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence...
December 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870848/genetically-blocking-the-zebrafish-pineal-clock-affects-circadian-behavior
#17
Zohar Ben-Moshe Livne, Shahar Alon, Daniela Vallone, Yared Bayleyen, Adi Tovin, Inbal Shainer, Laura G Nisembaum, Idit Aviram, Sima Smadja-Storz, Michael Fuentes, Jack Falcón, Eli Eisenberg, David C Klein, Harold A Burgess, Nicholas S Foulkes, Yoav Gothilf
The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862951/characterization-and-evolution-of-the-spotted-gar-retina
#18
Joshua M Sukeena, Carlos A Galicia, Jacob D Wilson, Tim McGinn, Janette W Boughman, Barrie D Robison, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Deborah L Stenkamp, Peter G Fuerst
In this study, we characterize the retina of the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a ray-finned fish. Gar did not undergo the whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of the teleost fish lineage, which includes the model species zebrafish and medaka. The divergence of gars from the teleost lineage and the availability of a high-quality genome sequence make it a uniquely useful species to understand how genome duplication sculpted features of the teleost visual system, including photoreceptor diversity...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861587/cellular-basis-of-pineal-gland-development-emerging-role-of-microglia-as-phenotype-regulator
#19
María P Ibañez Rodriguez, Stephen C Noctor, Estela M Muñoz
The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858294/sleep-quality-morningness-eveningness-preference-mood-profile-and-levels-of-serum-melatonin-in-migraine-patients-a-case-control-study
#20
Hasan Hüseyin Kozak, Murat Boysan, Ali Ulvi Uca, Adem Aydın, İbrahim Kılınç, Emine Genç, Mustafa Altaş, Dilara Cari Güngör, Keziban Turgut, Nejla Özer
The melatonin as the pineal gland's secretory product is implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. Melatonin has critical functions in human physiology, and research underscores the importance of melatonin in circadian rhythm, sleep, and mood regulation. Clinical observations have indicated that migraine attacks have a seasonal, menstrual, and circadian timing, suggesting that chronobiological mechanisms and their alterations may causally involve in the etiology of the disease. However, the topic has received relatively little attention in the migraine literature...
November 17, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
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