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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330454/dynamic-malaria-hotspots-in-an-open-cohort-in-western-kenya
#1
Alyssa Platt, Andrew A Obala, Charlie MacIntyre, Barasa Otsyula, Wendy Prudhomme O' Meara
Malaria hotspots, defined as areas where transmission intensity exceeds the average level, become more pronounced as transmission declines. Targeting hotspots may accelerate reductions in transmission and could be pivotal for malaria elimination. Determinants of hotspot location, particularly of their movement, are poorly understood. We used spatial statistical methods to identify foci of incidence of self-reported malaria in a large census population of 64,000 people, in 8,290 compounds over a 2.5-year study period...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328509/high-refuge-availability-on-coral-reefs-increases-the-vulnerability-of-reef-associated-predators-to-overexploitation
#2
Alice Rogers, Julia L Blanchard, Steven P Newman, Charlie S Dryden, Peter J Mumby
Refuge availability and fishing alter predator-prey interactions on coral reefs, but our understanding of how they interact to drive food web dynamics, community structure and vulnerability of different trophic groups is unclear. Here, we apply a size-based ecosystem model of coral reefs, parameterized with empirical measures of structural complexity, to predict fish biomass, productivity and community structure in reef ecosystems under a broad range of refuge availability and fishing regimes. In unfished ecosystems, the expected positive correlation between reef structural complexity and biomass emerges, but a non-linear effect of predation refuges is observed for the productivity of predatory fish...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317619/phf8-histone-demethylase-deficiency-causes-cognitive-impairments-through-the-mtor-pathway
#3
Xuemei Chen, Shuai Wang, Ying Zhou, Yanfei Han, Shengtian Li, Qing Xu, Longyong Xu, Ziqi Zhu, Youming Deng, Lu Yu, Lulu Song, Adele Pin Chen, Juan Song, Eiki Takahashi, Guang He, Lin He, Weidong Li, Charlie Degui Chen
Epigenomic abnormalities caused by genetic mutation in epigenetic regulators can result in neurodevelopmental disorders, deficiency in neural plasticity and mental retardation. As a histone demethylase, plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (Phf8) is a candidate gene for syndromal and non-specific forms of X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here we report that Phf8 knockout mice displayed impaired learning and memory, and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without gross morphological defects...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317214/case-series-use-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-patches-to-improve-peripheral-circulation-in-children-with-severe-neurodisability
#4
Frances Morrison, Jack Fairhurst, Charlie Fairhurst
AIM: Evaluation of topical Glyceryl trinitrate as a therapeutic option to improve peripheral circulation in 16 children with severe complex neurodisability, poor capillary return and signs of vascular insufficiency, including discomfort. METHODS: If insufficient improvement in capillary return was obtained using conservative measures, a 5 mg GTN patch was placed each day on the front of the tibia of each leg. Children were reviewed clinically for up to 12 months of treatment...
December 31, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301278/theaflavin-3-3-digallate-enhances-the-inhibitory-effect-of-cisplatin-by-regulating-the-copper-transporter-1-and-glutathione-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#5
Haibo Pan, Eunhye Kim, Gary O Rankin, Yon Rojanasakul, Youying Tu, Yi Charlie Chen
Ovarian cancer has the highest fatality rate among the gynecologic cancers. The side effects, high relapse rate, and drug resistance lead to low long-term survival rate (less than 40%) of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), a black tea polyphenol, showed less cytotoxicity to normal ovarian cells than ovarian cancer cells. We aimed to investigate whether TF3 could potentiate the inhibitory effect of cisplatin against human ovarian cancer cell lines. In the present study, combined treatment with TF3 and cisplatin showed a synergistic cytotoxicity against A2780/CP70 and OVCAR3 cells...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300187/a-treatment-planning-comparison-between-a-novel-rotating-gamma-system-and-robotic-linear-accelerator-based-intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery-radiotherapy
#6
Muhammad Mohsin Fareed, Ahmed A Eldib, Stephanie E Weiss, Shelly B Hayes, Jinsheng Li, Chang-Ming Charlie Ma
Purpose: To compare the dosimetric parameters of a novel Rotating Gamma Ray System (RGS) with well-established CyberKnife system (CK) for treating malignant brain lesions. Materials and Methods: RGS has a treatment head of 16 cobalt-60 sources focused to the isocenter, which can rotate 360° on the ring gantry and swing 35° in the superior direction. We compared several dosimetric parameters in 10 patients undergoing brain stereotactic radiosurgery including plan normalization, the number of beams and nodes for CK and shots for RGS, collimators used, estimated treatment time, D 2 cm and conformity index (CI) among two modalities...
January 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298688/enhanced-response-rate-to-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinomas-harbouring-brca1-and-brca2-aberrations
#7
Robert L Hollis, Alison M Meynert, Michael Churchman, Tzyvia Rye, Melanie Mackean, Fiona Nussey, Mark J Arends, Andrew H Sims, Colin A Semple, C Simon Herrington, Charlie Gourley
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10-15% of ovarian carcinomas (OC) are attributed to inherited susceptibility, the majority of which are due to mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2). These patients display superior clinical outcome, including enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Here, we seek to investigate whether BRCA1/2 status influences the response rate to single-agent pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in high grade serous (HGS) OC. METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight patients treated with single-agent PLD were identified retrospectively from the Edinburgh Ovarian Cancer Database...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298459/embolisation-for-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformation
#8
REVIEW
Charlie C-T Hsu, Gigi Nc Kwan, Hannah Evans-Barns, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal direct connections between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein which result in a right-to-left shunt. They are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality mainly from the effects of paradoxical emboli. Potential complications include stroke, cerebral abscess, pulmonary haemorrhage and hypoxaemia. Embolisation is an endovascular intervention based on the occlusion of the feeding arteries the pulmonary arteriovenous malformations thus eliminating the abnormal right-to-left-shunting...
January 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289499/an-infectious-way-to-teach-students-about-outbreaks
#9
Íde Cremin, Oliver Watson, Alastair Heffernan, Natsuko Imai, Norin Ahmed, Sandra Bivegete, Teresia Kimani, Demetris Kyriacou, Preveina Mahadevan, Rima Mustafa, Panagiota Pagoni, Marisa Sophiea, Charlie Whittaker, Leo Beacroft, Steven Riley, Matthew C Fisher
The study of infectious disease outbreaks is required to train today's epidemiologists. A typical way to introduce and explain key epidemiological concepts is through the analysis of a historical outbreak. There are, however, few training options that explicitly utilise real-time simulated stochastic outbreaks where the participants themselves comprise the dataset they subsequently analyse. In this paper, we present a teaching exercise in which an infectious disease outbreak is simulated over a five-day period and subsequently analysed...
December 9, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287919/when-and-how-to-treat-an-imrt-patient-on-a-second-accelerator-without-replanning
#10
Teh Lin, Murshed Hossain, Jiajin Fan, C-M Charlie Ma
When a linear accelerator is unavailable for treatment, a clinical decision is imminent regarding whether a patient should be treated on a linear accelerator other than the machine the patient was scheduled on, or whether treatment should be postponed until the original Linac becomes available. This work investigates the feasibility of switching patients to different accelerators for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of photon beams from different Linac models and vendors...
December 26, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287229/murine-norovirus-inhibits-b-cell-development-in-the-bone-marrow-of-stat1-deficient-mice
#11
Charlie C Hsu, Stacey M Meeker, Sabine Escobar, Thea L Brabb, Jisun Paik, Heon Park, Brian M Iritani, Lillian Maggio-Price
Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans and it was recently revealed that noroviruses can infect B cells. We demonstrate that murine norovirus (MNV) infection can significantly impair B cell development in the bone marrow in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) dependent, but interferon signaling independent manner. We also show that MNV replication is more pronounced in the absence of STAT1 in ex vivo cultured B cells. Interestingly, using bone marrow transplantation studies, we found that impaired B cell development requires Stat1-/- hematopoietic cells and Stat1-/- stromal cells, and that the presence of wild-type hematopoietic or stromal cells was sufficient to restore normal development of Stat1-/- B cells...
December 26, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282714/bottom-up-processes-mediated-by-social-systems-drive-demographic-traits-of-coral-reef-fishes
#12
Brett M Taylor, Simon J Brandl, Maia Kapur, William D Robbins, Garrett Johnson, Charlie Huveneers, Phil Renaud, J Howard Choat
Ectotherms exhibit considerable plasticity in their life-history traits. This plasticity can reflect variability in environmental and social factors, but the causes of observed patterns are often obscured with increasing spatial scales. We surveyed dichromatic parrotfishes across the northern Great Barrier Reef to examine variation in body size distributions and concomitant size at sex change (L∆50 ) against hypotheses of directional influence from biotic and abiotic factors known to affect demography. By integrating top-down, horizontal, and bottom-up processes, we demonstrate a strong association between exposure regimes (which are known to influence nutritional ecology and mating systems) and both body size distribution and L∆50 (median length at female-to-male sex change), with an accompanying lack of strong empirical support for other biotic drivers previously hypothesized to affect body size distributions...
December 28, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275794/being-adaptive-to-pain-enhances-sham-acupuncture-analgesia-a-crossover-healthy-human-study
#13
Zhen Zheng, Dawn Wong Lit Wan, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Dong Y Yao, Genevieve Iversen, Charlie C Xue, Kelun Wang
We have reported a model that distinguishes pain adaptive individuals (PA) from those who are pain non-adaptive (PNA). The present randomised, cross-over, participant-assessor blinded study aimed to determine the impact of pain adaptability on individuals' response to real and sham acupuncture. Healthy volunteers (nine PA and 13 PNA) were randomly allocated to receive real and sham acupuncture on the left hand and forearm in two separate acupuncture sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured at bilateral forearms and right leg before, immediately after and 20 minutes after the end of acupuncture...
December 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275629/inhibitors-of-lexa-autoproteolysis-and-the-bacterial-sos-response-discovered-by-an-academic-industry-partnership
#14
Charlie Y Mo, Matthew J Culyba, Trevor Selwood, Jeffrey M Kubiak, Zachary M Hostetler, Anthony J Jurewicz, Paul M Keller, Andrew J Pope, Amy Quinn, Jessica L Schneck, Katherine L Widdowson, Rahul M Kohli
The RecA/LexA axis of the bacterial DNA damage (SOS) response is a promising, yet non-traditional drug target. The SOS response is initiated upon genotoxic stress, when RecA, a DNA damage sensor, induces LexA, the SOS repressor, to undergo autoproteolysis, thereby de-repressing downstream genes that can mediate DNA repair and accelerate mutagenesis. As genetic inhibition of the SOS response sensitizes bacteria to DNA damaging antibiotics and decreases acquired resistance, inhibitors of the RecA/LexA axis could potentiate our current antibiotic arsenal...
December 24, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273579/a-decade-of-outpatient-antimicrobial-use-in-older-adults-in-ontario-a-descriptive-study
#15
Charlie Tan, Erin Graves, Hong Lu, Anna Chen, Shudong Li, Kevin L Schwartz, Nick Daneman
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to community-dwelling older adults. Our aim was to examine the prevalence, quantity and indications of antimicrobial prescriptions to older residents of Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a population-based analysis of outpatient antimicrobial prescriptions to residents of Ontario aged 65 years or more from 2006 to 2015. Antimicrobial prescriptions, infectious disease diagnoses and prescriber information were determined from linked health care databases...
December 21, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273477/transfusion-requirements-in-cardiac-surgery-iii-trics-iii-study-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Nadine Shehata, Richard Whitlock, Dean A Fergusson, Kevin E Thorpe, Charlie MacAdams, Hilary P Grocott, Fraser Rubens, Stephen Fremes, Francois Lellouche, Sean Bagshaw, Alistair Royse, Peter M Rosseel, Greg Hare, Etienne De Medicis, Christopher Hudson, Emilie Belley-Cote, Daniel Bainbridge, Blaine Kent, Andrew Shaw, Kelly Byrne, Summer Syed, Colin F Royse, Shay McGuiness, Judith Hall, C David Mazer
OBJECTIVES: To determine if a restrictive transfusion threshold is noninferior to a higher threshold as measured by a composite outcome of mortality and serious morbidity. DESIGN: Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery (TRICS) III was a multicenter, international, open-label randomized controlled trial of two commonly used transfusion strategies in patients having cardiac surgery using a noninferiority trial design (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02042898). SETTING: Eligible patients were randomized prior to surgery in a 1:1 ratio...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250486/systemic-therapy-in-metastatic-or-unresectable-well-differentiated-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma
#17
REVIEW
Yevette McGovern, Charlie D Zhou, Robin L Jones
Liposarcoma is one of the most common subtypes of soft-tissue sarcoma and consists of three main subtypes, of which well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma account for 40-45%. The current mainstay of systemic treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable disease remains doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide in the first-line setting. Recently, eribulin and trabectedin have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for recurrent liposarcomas and progress in molecular characterization of these tumors has opened up new and potential novel treatment targets...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239495/comparisons-between-traditional-medicines-and-pharmacotherapies-for-alzheimer-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Brian H May, Mei Feng, Anna J Hyde, Helmut Hügel, Su-Yueh Chang, Lin Dong, Xinfeng Guo, Anthony L Zhang, Chuanjian Lu, Charlie C Xue
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical evidence for traditional medicines (TMs) used in East Asia on measures of cognition in Alzheimer disease, determine the effect sizes at different time points for the TMs and pharmacotherapies, and assess the tolerability of the TMs. METHODS: We searched 12 databases in English, Chinese, and Japanese for eligible randomised controlled trials that compared orally administered TMs with pharmacotherapy and reported cognitive outcomes...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239160/facing-up-to-limits-a-lesson-from-the-charlie-gard-case
#19
Alberto Giannini, Paola Cogo, Bruno Bembi, Paolo Biban, Ezio Bonanomi, Daniela Codazzi, Daniela Concolino, Cristina Giugni, Andrea Messeri, Rossella Parini, Andrea Pettenazzo, Corrado Viafora, Cristina Zaggia, Martin Langer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238597/effects-of-nine-weeks-isokinetic-training-on-power-golf-kinematics-and-driver-performance-in-pre-elite-golfers
#20
James Parker, Charlie Lagerhem, John Hellström, M Charlotte Olsson
Background: It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers. Methods: Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than -3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT)...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
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