Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbiome brain

Matthew C B Tsilimigras, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Michael Sioda, Laura Gray, Anthony A Fodor, Mark Lyte
OBJECTIVE: Animal models are frequently used to examine stress response but experiments seldom include females. The connection between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behavioral stress response is investigated here using a mixed-sex mouse cohort. METHODS: CF-1 mice underwent alternating days of restraint and forced swim for 19 days (Male N=8, Female N=8) with matching numbers of control animals at which point the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiota were sequenced...
March 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kai G Kahl, Tillmann Krüger, Gabriel Eckermann, Heiner Wedemeyer
Depression and liver disease are closely associated. Every third patient with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis shows depressive symptoms. On the other hand, every third patient with depressive disorder develops an alcohol disorder at some point during his / her life. A crucial link between depression and hepatic disease seems to be inflammatory processes in which the microbiome and increased intestinal permeability of the intestine play a pivotal role. Depression as well as liver disease, alcohol consumption, stress, and aging processes disturb the delicate balance of intestinal microbiota resulting in increased intestinal permeability...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Sarah E Cusick, Michael K Georgieff, Raghavendra Rao
Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Women of reproductive age and young children are particularly vulnerable. Iron deficiency in late prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to long-term neurobehavioral deficits, despite iron treatment. This may occur because screening and treatment of iron deficiency in children is currently focused on detection of anemia and not neurodevelopment. Anemia is the end-stage state of iron deficiency. The brain becomes iron deficient before the onset of anemia due to prioritization of the available iron to the red blood cells (RBCs) over other organs...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
Paul R Giacomin, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Eduardo A Albornoz, Shuting Jin, Mia Bengtsson, Richard Gordon, Trent M Woodruff, Tim Urich, Zoltán Sarnyai, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Helminth infections in children are associated with impaired cognitive development, however the biological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Using a murine model of gastrointestinal helminth infection, we demonstrate that early-life exposure to helminths promotes local and systemic inflammatory responses and transient changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Behavioural and cognitive analyses performed 9-months post-infection revealed deficits in spatial recognition memory and an anxiety-like behavioural phenotype in worm-infected mice, which was associated with neuropathology and increased microglial activation within the brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jian Kong, Jiliang Fang, Joel Park, Shaoyuan Li, Peijing Rong
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder, and its treatment is far from satisfactory. There is an urgent need to develop a new treatment for depression. Although still at its early stage, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has shown promising potential for treating depression. In this article, we first summarize the results of clinical studies on the treatment effect of taVNS on depression. Then, we re-analyze a previous study to identify the specific symptoms taVNS can relieve as indicated by subscores of the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale in patients with depression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yuri Milaneschi, W Kyle Simmons, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Brenda Wjh Penninx
Depression and obesity are common conditions with major public health implications that tend to co-occur within individuals. The relationship between these conditions is bidirectional: the presence of one increases the risk for developing the other. It has thus become crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the intertwined downward physiological spirals associated with both conditions. The present review focuses specifically on shared biological pathways that may mechanistically explain the depression-obesity link, including genetics, alterations in systems involved in homeostatic adjustments (HPA axis, immuno-inflammatory activation, neuroendocrine regulators of energy metabolism including leptin and insulin, and microbiome) and brain circuitries integrating homeostatic and mood regulatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Sarah M Hutchison, Louise C Mâsse, Jodi L Pawluski, Tim F Oberlander
The long-term impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment during pregnancy and postpartum on offspring outcomes is still not clear. Specifically, perinatal SSRI exposure may have long-term consequences for body weight and related health outcomes in the newborn period and beyond. This review focuses on the impact of perinatal SSRI exposure on weight using human and animal findings. The impact of maternal mood is also explored. We propose potential mechanisms for weight changes, including how early alterations in serotonin signaling may have implications for weight via changes in metabolism and motor development...
February 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Tobias Rees, Thomas Bosch, Angela E Douglas
Today, the three classical biological explanations of the individual self--the immune system, the brain, the genome--are being challenged by the new field of microbiome research. Evidence shows that our resident microbes orchestrate the adaptive immune system, influence the brain, and contribute more gene functions than our own genome. The realization that humans are not individual, discrete entities but rather the outcome of ever-changing interactions with microorganisms has consequences beyond the biological disciplines...
February 2018: PLoS Biology
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Brian C Davis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Recent advances have led to a greater understanding of how alcohol alters the brain, both in acute stages (intoxication and alcohol withdrawal) and in chronic misuse. This review focuses on the current understanding of how alcohol affects the brain in cirrhosis patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy. Chronic alcohol use is associated with nutritional deficiencies, dementia, cirrhosis, and decompensating events such as hepatic encephalopathy. Direct toxicity on brain tissue, induction of neuro-inflammation, and alcohol's alterations of the gut microbiome are possible mechanisms for the clinical features of hepatic encephalopathy associated with alcohol use...
February 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Agnieszka Mika, Michelle Gaffney, Rachel Roller, Abigail Hills, Courtney A Bouchet, Kristina A Hulen, Robert S Thompson, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Tanya T Nguyen, Tomasz Kosciolek, Lisa T Eyler, Rob Knight, Dilip V Jeste
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are among the leading causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. In addition to being serious mental illnesses, these disorders are associated with considerable systemic physiological dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. The advent of sophisticated sequencing techniques has led to a growing interest in the potential role of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Advances in this area have transformed our understanding of a number of medical conditions and have generated a new perspective suggesting that gut microbiota might be involved in the development and maintenance of brain/mental health...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Antoine Louveau, Jonathan Kipnis
Microglia are brain-resident macrophages whose function affects a myriad of physiological processes and can in turn be affected by peripheral factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Garel, Ginhoux and colleagues describe how gender, developmental stage, and microbiome contribute to the transcriptome of microglia (Thion et al., 2018).
January 22, 2018: Developmental Cell
Gal Winter, Robert A Hart, Richard P G Charlesworth, Christopher F Sharpley
Gut microbiome diversity has been strongly associated with mood-relating behaviours, including major depressive disorder (MDD). This association stems from the recently characterised bi-directional communication system between the gut and the brain, mediated by neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and sensory neural pathways. While the link between gut microbiome and depression is well supported by research, a major question needing to be addressed is the causality in the connection between the two, which will support the understanding of the role that the gut microbiota play in depression...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Nicholas Dopkins, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
The importance of the gut microbiome in the regulation of non-infectious diseases has earned recently an unprecedented interest from biomedical researchers. Widespread use of next generation sequencing techniques have prepared a foundation for further research by correlating the presence of specific bacterial species with an onset or severity of a disease state, heralded paradigm-shifting results. This review covers the mechanisms through which a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the pathological symptoms in an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder, Multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
February 2, 2018: Immunology
Xiaomei Cong, Divya Ramesh, Mallory Perry, Wanli Xu, Katherine M Bernier, Erin E Young, Stephen Walsh, Angela Starkweather
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder that typically manifests in early adult years. IBS patients report that pain is the most distressing symptom with the greatest impact on quality of life. Pain-sensitivity genes and the gut microbiome may influence severity of symptoms as well as response to self-management (SM) interventions. Based on current understanding of the science of SM, pain neurophysiology, and the gut-brain axis, our team developed a pain SM intervention to be added to evidence-based self-management instruction to increase the individual's SM knowledge and skills (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and goal-setting)...
February 1, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Joseph Verdino
The microbial environment of the human gut has powerful influence on immunity, metabolism, and obesity. There is now emerging evidence that the microbiome of our gastrointestinal system may also be a key factor impacting our emotional and behavioral health. The purpose of this article is to elucidate how this emerging area of science can further educate and encourage mental health professionals to explore an additional means to treatment. Since much of this research is found in the biological and neuroscientific literature, it can be quite cumbersome for clinicians to digest and apply, who would critically benefit from a concise discussion of the gut-brain connection...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
Atsushi Toyoda, Hikari Shimonishi, Mizuho Sato, Kento Usuda, Natsuki Ohsawa, Kentaro Nagaoka
Diverse commercially available feeds are used in animal studies according to the purpose of the studies. We sought to understand the relationship between feed ingredients and their effects on animal physiology and behaviors. Here, we investigated how male laboratory mice (C57BL/6J ("B6") mice) were affected by chronic feeding with two commercially available diets, a non-purified diet (MF) and a semi-purified diet (AIN-93G). In B6 mice, both diets similarly induced spontaneous activities in the home cage and the open field box, anxiety in the elevated plus maze test, and depressive-like behaviors in tail-suspension and forced-swimming tests, and with both diets, similar data were obtained on calorie intake, water intake, body weight gain, and plasma corticosterone levels...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"