Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbiome brain

Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari, Benoit Labonte, Orna Issler, Catherine J Pena, Efrain A Ribeiro, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler
Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Walter J Lukiw
The human microbiome consists of ~3.8 × 10(13) symbiotic microorganisms that form a highly complex and dynamic ecosystem: the gastrointestinal (GI) tract constitutes the largest repository of the human microbiome by far, and its impact on human neurological health and disease is becoming increasingly appreciated. Bacteroidetes, the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria in the GI tract microbiome, while generally beneficial to the host when confined to the GI tract, have potential to secrete a remarkably complex array of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins that include surface lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and toxic proteolytic peptides...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bjoern O Schroeder, Fredrik Bäckhed
The ecosystem of the human gut consists of trillions of bacteria forming a bioreactor that is fueled by dietary macronutrients to produce bioactive compounds. These microbiota-derived metabolites signal to distant organs in the body, which enables the gut bacteria to connect to the immune and hormone system, to the brain (the gut-brain axis) and to host metabolism, as well as other functions of the host. This microbe-host communication is essential to maintain vital functions of the healthy host. Recently, however, the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of diseases, ranging from obesity and inflammatory diseases to behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
Stephanie L Schnorr, Harriet A Bachner
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Derek Fleming, Jennifer Kesey, Kendra Rumbaugh, Sharmila Dissanaike
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are widely used in healthy and nonhealthy individuals to maintain a favorable gut microbiome and inhibit pathogen takeover. Currently, there are many varieties of probiotic delivery vehicles on the market, with no real research indicating which is the most effective at allowing for colon colonization. In this study, we sought to determine if probiotic preparation influences the ability of Lactobacillus species, one of the most common genera of probiotic bacteria, to survive gastric acidity...
September 29, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
It has been hypothesized that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota might be associated with the onset of certain human pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease, a neurodegenerative syndrome associated with cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β fibrils. It has been shown that bacteria populating the gut microbiota can release significant amounts of amyloids and lipopolysaccharides, which might play a role in the modulation of signaling pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
E G Severance, D Tveiten, L H Lindström, R H Yolken, K L Reichelt
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune phenotypes are prevalent in major psychiatric disorders. Disequilibria of cellular processes occurring in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract likely contribute to immune dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. As the venue of a complex community of resident microbes, the gut in a homeostatic state equates with a functional digestive system, cellular barrier stability and properly regulated recognition of self and non-self antigens. When gut processes become disrupted as a result of environmental or genetic factors, autoimmunity may ensue...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Anthony J Hannan
Is that a rumbling I feel in my stomach? Or perhaps it is the trillions of bacteria down there who are in revolt, fomenting (or fermenting!) a microbial revolution? No active biologist or medical researcher can easily ignore the revolution in gut microbiome research in recent years. It seems that the gut microbiome, the entire microbial ecosystem occupying the gastrointestinal ecological niche, can impact almost every organ in the human body, not least of which being the brain. The gut microbiome has been found to signal to both the developing and adult mammalian brain, modulating both health and disease states (Cryan and Dinan, 2012; Mayer et al...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Daniel J Davis, Patrick M Hecht, Eldin Jasarevic, David Q Beversdorf, Matthew J Will, Kevin Fritsche, Catherine H Gillespie
Dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on reducing the symptoms associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that the vast repertoire of commensal bacteria within the gut plays a critical role in regulating various biological processes in the brain and may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease risk...
September 9, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Javier R Caso, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, Tomás Palomo, Borja García-Bueno
BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia still remains elusive. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify novel targets for the development of new interventions and elucidate related biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of potentially responsive patients. In this sense, several hypotheses involving immune/inflammatory changes and the consequent oxidative/nitrosative stress, as well as a dysregulation in the immuno-inflammatory response have come into sight...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Christopher Newell, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer, Dustin S Hittel, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbial composition disturbances have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines whether gut microbiome disturbances are present in the BTBR(T + tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and if the ketogenic diet, a diet previously shown to elicit therapeutic benefit in this mouse model, is capable of altering the profile. FINDINGS: Juvenile male C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were fed a standard chow (CH, 13 % kcal fat) or ketogenic diet (KD, 75 % kcal fat) for 10-14 days...
2016: Molecular Autism
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
BACKGROUND: Many lines of scientific research suggest that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) may be associated with alterations in the enteric ecosystem, including alterations of the enteric macrobiome (i.e. helminthes and fungi) and changes in predominant microbiome species, particularly a reduction in microbiome diversity. METHODS: We performed and comprehensive review of the literature and summarized the major findings. RESULTS: These alterations are believed to be due to a variety of factors including changes in the post-industrial society related to decreased exposure to symbiotic organisms, increased human migration, overuse of antibiotics and changes in dietary habits...
September 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Rong Xu, QuanQiu Wang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. While significant progress has been made in understanding genetic, molecular, behavioral, and neurological aspects of AD, relatively little is known about which environmental factors are important in AD etiology and how they interact with genetic factors in the development of AD. Here, we propose a data-driven, hypotheses-free computational approach to characterize which and how human gut microbial metabolites, an important modifiable environmental factor, may contribute to various aspects of AD...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Ehsan Azimi, Jimmy Xia, Ethan A Lerner
A multitude of exogenous environmental stimuli and endogenous molecular and cellular components interface directly or indirectly with the free nerve endings of sensory nerves in the skin. Environmental stimuli include substances derived from the microbiome and materials, such as allergens, that otherwise come in contact with the skin. Endogenous stimuli include components of or mediators derived from the epidermal barrier, keratinocytes, mast cells, and additional resident and skin-homing immune cells. The sensation of itch is ultimately provoked by mediators that interact with and activate pruriceptors on the sensory nerve fibers...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"