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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536537/-gestaltomics-systems-biology-schemes-for-the-study-of-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Nora A Gutierrez Najera, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Humberto Nicolini
The integration of different sources of biological information about what defines a behavioral phenotype is difficult to unify in an entity that reflects the arithmetic sum of its individual parts. In this sense, the challenge of Systems Biology for understanding the "psychiatric phenotype" is to provide an improved vision of the shape of the phenotype as it is visualized by "Gestalt" psychology, whose fundamental axiom is that the observed phenotype (behavior or mental disorder) will be the result of the integrative composition of every part...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509434/new-liver-fresh-microbiome-implications-on-brain-function
#2
EDITORIAL
Thomas Reiberger, Jonel Trebicka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#3
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506555/gut-microbiota-in-parkinson-disease-in-a-northern-german-cohort
#4
Franziska Hopfner, Axel Künstner, Stefanie H Müller, Sven Künzel, Kirsten E Zeuner, Nils G Margraf, Günther Deuschl, John F Baines, Gregor Kuhlenbäumer
Pathologic and epidemiologic studies suggest that Parkinson disease (PD) may in some cases start in the enteric nervous system and spread via the vagal nerve to the brainstem. Mounting evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the communication between gut and brain and that alteration of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including Parkinson disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether Parkinson disease is associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in the gut microbiome...
May 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489816/endothelial-tlr4-and-the-microbiome-drive-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#6
Alan T Tang, Jaesung P Choi, Jonathan J Kotzin, Yiqing Yang, Courtney C Hong, Nicholas Hobson, Romuald Girard, Hussein A Zeineddine, Rhonda Lightle, Thomas Moore, Ying Cao, Robert Shenkar, Mei Chen, Patricia Mericko, Jisheng Yang, Li Li, Ceylan Tanes, Dmytro Kobuley, Urmo Võsa, Kevin J Whitehead, Dean Y Li, Lude Franke, Blaine Hart, Markus Schwaninger, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Leslie Morrison, Helen Kim, Issam A Awad, Xiangjian Zheng, Mark L Kahn
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are a cause of stroke and seizure for which no effective medical therapies yet exist. CCMs arise from the loss of an adaptor complex that negatively regulates MEKK3-KLF2/4 signalling in brain endothelial cells, but upstream activators of this disease pathway have yet to be identified. Here we identify endothelial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the gut microbiome as critical stimulants of CCM formation. Activation of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacteria or lipopolysaccharide accelerates CCM formation, and genetic or pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 signalling prevents CCM formation in mice...
May 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457228/differences-in-gut-microbial-composition-correlate-with-regional-brain-volumes-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Jennifer S Labus, Emily B Hollister, Jonathan Jacobs, Kyleigh Kirbach, Numan Oezguen, Arpana Gupta, Jonathan Acosta, Ruth Ann Luna, Kjersti Aagaard, James Versalovic, Tor Savidge, Elaine Hsiao, Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical evidence supports the concept of bidirectional brain-gut microbiome interactions. We aimed to determine if subgroups of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subjects can be identified based on differences in gut microbial composition, and if there are correlations between gut microbial measures and structural brain signatures in IBS. METHODS: Behavioral measures, stool samples, and structural brain images were collected from 29 adult IBS and 23 healthy control subjects (HCs)...
May 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386215/microbial-immuno-communication-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Bevan S Main, Myles R Minter
Neuro-inflammation is a critical process by which the brain coordinates chemokine-regulated cellular recruitment, cytokine release, and cell-mediated removal of pathogenic material to protect against infection or brain injury. Dysregulation of this immune response is involved in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, however the precise contribution of neuro-inflammation to the exacerbation and progression of these diseases remains unclear. Evidence now suggests that commensal micro-organisms populating the host and their metabolites, collectively termed the microbiome, regulate innate immunity by influencing peripheral immune cell populations, and modulating microglial phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#9
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379213/energy-dense-diet-triggers-changes-in-gut-microbiota-reorganization-of-gut%C3%A2-brain-vagal-communication-and-increases-body-fat-accumulation
#10
Alexandra C Vaughn, Erin M Cooper, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Levi J O'Loughlin, Michael E Konkel, James H Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet‑induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#11
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#12
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318994/more-flavor-for-flavonoid-based-interventions
#13
Nadeem O Kaakoush, Margaret J Morris
Poor diets are associated with obesity and a decline in cognitive function. Flavonoids are plant compounds that have been associated with improved metabolic parameters in obesity and reversal of cognitive decline. Given that microbial flavonoid conversion is important for bioactivity, flavonoid-derived neuroactive compounds may be functionally crucial in the gut microbiome-brain axis.
March 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303750/the-gut-microbiome-obesity-and-weight-control-in-women-s-reproductive-health
#14
K Leigh Greathouse, Mary Ann Faucher, Marie Hastings-Tolsma
The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#15
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298911/autoantibodies-against-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subunit-nr1-untangling-apparent-inconsistencies-for-clinical-practice
#16
REVIEW
Hannelore Ehrenreich
This viewpoint review provides an integrative picture of seemingly contradictory work published on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) autoantibodies (AB). Based on the present state of knowledge, it gives recommendations for the clinical decision process regarding immunosuppressive treatment. Brain antigen-directed AB in general and NMDAR1-AB in particular belong to a preexisting autoimmune repertoire of mammals including humans. Specific autoimmune reactive B cells may get repeatedly (perhaps transiently) boosted by various potential stimulants (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293926/prenatal-maternal-distress-and-allergic-diseases-in-offspring-review-of-evidence-and-possible-pathways
#17
REVIEW
Dong In Suh, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Eun Lee, Song I Yang, Soo Jong Hong
Recent studies have suggested a close association between prenatal maternal distress and allergic diseases in the offspring. We selected relevant birth-cohort or national registry studies using a keyword search of the PubMed database and summarized current evidence on the impact of prenatal maternal distress on the development of offspring's allergic diseases. Moreover, we postulated possible pathways linking prenatal distress and allergic diseases based on relevant human and animal studies. Both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oxidative stress may cause structural (altered brain/lung development) and functional (skewed immune development) changes, which may predispose the fetus to developing allergic diseases during childhood...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. The observed change of intestinal bacteria in MS patients regulate immune functions involved in MS pathogenesis. These functions include: systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity (including peripheral regulatory T cell function), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS-resident cell activity. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283098/from-bugs-to-brains-the-microbiome-in-neurological-health
#19
EDITORIAL
Kyla A McKay, Kaarina Kowalec, Fiona Brinkman, B Brett Finlay, Marc Horwitz, Amee R Manges, Lisa Osborne, Helen Tremlett
Knowledge surrounding the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut has bloomed exponentially in recent years, and the emerging concept of a gut-brain axis represents a major shift in how we think about neurological health. A recent workshop at the University of British Columbia, Canada brought together multi-disciplinary leaders in the field of microbiomics and brain health and aimed to serve as a springboard for future combined endeavors in these areas. This article provides the motivation for, and overview of, the workshop, and the next steps in establishing a cross-disciplinary initiative on Brain Health and the Microbiome...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244666/when-the-low-fodmap-diet-does-not-work
#20
REVIEW
Emma P Halmos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is heterogeneous. Patients need proper assessment and explanation of IBS pathophysiology and appropriate therapies. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet effectively reduces symptoms in 75% of patients. Best treatment for those nonresponsive will depend on the pathophysiological basis for symptom genesis, with the following possible abnormalities: (i) Visceral hypersensitivity and/or enhanced gut-brain communication: a low FODMAP diet is mainly targeted for this patient group...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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