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Microbiota brain

Magnus Simrén, Jan Tack
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are a spectrum of disorders characterized by combinations of symptoms attributable to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Most current first-line therapies for IBS and other FBDs target the predominant symptom and mainly affect one symptom in the symptom complex. Additional broadly effective treatment alternatives targeting the entire symptom complex are needed. New drugs for FBDs (such as lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide, prucalopride, eluxadoline and rifaximin) target key mechanisms in the pathophysiology of these disorders and improve both the abnormal bowel habit and other key symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating...
June 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Bojan Zalar, Alexander Haslberger, Borut Peterlin
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional homeostatic route of communication between both of the organs direct via receptors of the CNS or via epigenetic mechanisms of divers metabolites e.g. SCFA, GABA, β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus, a modulation of gut microbiota via nutrition, lifestyle etc. might be effective for emotional status and depressive disorders. The dietary composition has an influence on gut microbiota composition, microbial metabolite profile and the according consequences on emotional status and depression within a system biologic approach...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Erin K Crowley, Caitriona M Long-Smith, Amy Murphy, Elaine Patterson, Kiera Murphy, Denise M O'Gorman, Catherine Stanton, Yvonne M Nolan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar "Western diet" have been associated with health problems such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as metabolic, immune, and psychiatric disorders. It is now recognized that modulating the diversity of gut microbiota, the population of intestinal bacteria, through dietary intervention can significantly impact upon gut health as well as systemic and brain health...
June 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Caroline S Zhu, Ramesh Grandhi, Thomas Tyler Patterson, Susannah E Nicholson
The gut microbiome and its role in health and disease have recently been major focus areas of research. In this review, we summarize the different ways in which the gut microbiome interacts with the rest of the body, with focus areas on its relationships with immunity, the brain, and injury. The gut⁻brain axis, a communication network linking together the central and enteric nervous systems, represents a key bidirectional pathway with feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. The gut microbiota has a central role in this pathway and is significantly altered following injury, leading to a pro-inflammatory state within the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
Chun Hua Huang, Xin Yu, Wen Bo Liao
The gut microbiota is integral to an organism’s digestive structure and has been shown to play an important role in producing substrates for gluconeogenesis and energy production, vasodilator, and gut motility. Numerous studies have demonstrated that variation in diet types is associated with the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota, a relationship that plays a significant role in nutrient absorption and affects gut size. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis states (ETH) that the metabolic requirement of relatively large brains is offset by a corresponding reduction of the other tissues, such as gut size...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Henry Reyer, Michael Oster, Elizabeth Magowan, Eduard Murani, Helga Sauerwein, Dirk Dannenberger, Björn Kuhla, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic responses have not yet been fully elucidated. It is hypothesized that the gut-brain-axis, which is a network of hierarchical anterior regulatory tissues, contributes largely to variations in FE...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Philip Strandwitz
The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Yentl Gautier, Isabelle Luneau, Nicolas Coquery, Paul Meurice, Charles-Henri Malbert, Sylvie Guerin, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Caroline Clouard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Sophie Blat, David Val-Laillet
This study explores the long-term effects of exposure to a maternal Western diet (WD) vs. standard diet (SD) in the Yucatan minipig, on the adult progeny at lean status ( n = 32), and then overweight status. We investigated eating behavior, cognitive abilities, brain basal glucose metabolism, dopamine transporter availability, microbiota activity, blood lipids, and glucose tolerance. Although both groups demonstrated similar cognitive abilities in a holeboard test, WD pigs expressed a higher stress level than did SD pigs (immobility, P < 0...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Olena Prykhodko, Jonna Sandberg, Stephen Burleigh, Inger Björck, Anne Nilsson, Frida Fåk Hållenius
Rye kernel bread (RKB) evening meals improve glucose tolerance, enhance appetite regulation and increase satiety in healthy volunteers. These beneficial effects on metabolic responses have been shown to be associated with increased gut fermentation. The present study aimed to elucidate if RKB evening meals may cause rapid alterations in microbiota composition that might be linked to metabolic-, immune-, and appetite- parameters. Gut-brain axis interaction was also studied by relating microbiota composition to amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood plasma...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Anne-Sophie Delbès, Julien Castel, Raphaël G P Denis, Chloé Morel, Mar Quiñones, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Florence Massiera, Serge H Luquet
Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system which responds to nervous and circulating inputs to adapt food intake and energy expenditure. However, the rewarding and motivational aspect of food is tightly dependent of dopamine (DA) release in mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system and could be operant in uncontrolled caloric intake and obesity. Accumulating evidence indicate that manipulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis through prebiotic supplementation can have beneficial impact of the host appetite and body weight...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Lu Liu, Gang Zhu
Humans have over 100 trillion bacteria, highly abundant in the intestinal tract. Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota is associated with the neuro-endocrine-immune pathways and can be associated with various mood disorders. This review summarizes findings from studies looking into neurobiochemical, neuroendocrine, and neuroimmune system mechanisms of the gut-brain axis to determine the relationship between intestinal microbiota and mood disorders. The effect of prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics on mood disorders are also discussed, with the aim to propose some new therapeutic strategies for mood disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Leszek Rudzki, Agata Szulc
Interaction between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and brain functions has recently become a topic of growing interest in psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so-called gut-brain axis or more precisely, the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The GI tract is the largest immune organ in the human body and is also the largest surface of contact with the external environment. Its functions and permeability are highly influenced by psychological stress, which are often a precipitating factor in the first episode, reoccurrence and/or deterioration of symptoms of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Emma Flanagan, Michael Müller, Michael Hornberger, David Vauzour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the most recent evidence regarding the effects of dietary flavonoids on age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that plant-derived flavonoids may exert powerful actions on mammalian cognition and protect against the development of age-related cognitive decline and pathological neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been suggested to be due to interactions with the cellular and molecular architecture of brain regions responsible for memory...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Vincent C Lombardi, Kenny L De Meirleir, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, Sam M Nourani, Ruben K Dagda, Shannon L Delaney, András Palotás
The gut-brain-axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. Mounting evidence supports the premise that the intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in its function and has led to the more common and perhaps more accurate term gut-microbiota-brain axis. Numerous studies have identified associations between an altered microbiome and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. In most cases, it is unknown if these associations are cause or effect; notwithstanding, maintaining or restoring homeostasis of the microbiota may represent future opportunities when treating or preventing these diseases...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Valentina Caputi, Maria Cecilia Giron
Parkinson&rsquo;s disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by &alpha;-synucleinopathy, which involves all districts of the brain-gut axis, including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. The highly bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is markedly influenced by the microbiome through integrated immunological, neuroendocrine and neurological processes. The gut microbiota and its relevant metabolites interact with the host via a series of biochemical and functional inputs, thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Edward Dorfman, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
There has been growing interest in the role of intestinal microbiome in brain disorders. We examined whether dysbiosis can predispose to epilepsy. The study was performed in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. To induce dysbiosis, the rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (two 2-h long sessions per day, over 2 weeks). Cecal content from stressed and sham-stressed donors was transplanted via oral gavage to recipients, in which commensal microbiota had been depleted by the antibiotics. The study included the following groups: (1) Sham stress, no microbiota transplant; (2) Stress, no microbiota transplant; (3) Sham-stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from sham-stressed donors; (4) Stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from sham-stressed donors; (5) Sham-stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from stressed donors; and (6) Stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from stressed donors...
June 2018: Epilepsia open
Narjis Kraimi, Ludovic Calandreau, Manon Biesse, Sylvie Rabot, Edouard Guitton, Philippe Velge, Christine Leterrier
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated an effect of the gut microbiota on brain development and behavior leading to the concept of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, its effect on behavior in birds is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the absence of gut microbiota on emotional reactivity in birds by comparing germ-free (GF) quails to those colonized (COL) with gut microbiota. Material and Methods: From hatching, the quails of both groups GF ( n = 36) and COL ( n = 36) were reared in sterile isolators...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Y Bhattarai
The gastrointestinal barrier and the blood brain barrier represent an important line of defense to protect the underlying structures against harmful external stimuli. These host barriers are composed of epithelial and endothelial cells interconnected by tight junction proteins along with several other supporting structures. Disruption in host barrier structures has therefore been implicated in various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. While there are several factors that influence host barrier, recently there is an increasing appreciation of the role of gut microbiota and their metabolites in regulating barrier integrity...
June 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Taha Ceylani, Ewa Jakubowska-Doğru, Rafig Gurbanov, Hikmet Taner Teker, Ayse Gul Gozen
Recent studies carried on germ -free (GF) animal models suggest that the gut microbiota (GM) may play a role in the regulation of anxiety, mood, and cognitive abilities such as memory and learning processes. Consistently, any treatment disturbing the gut microbiota, including the overuse of antibiotics, may influence the brain functions and impact behavior. In the present study, to address this issue, two wide-spectrum antibiotics (ampicillin and cefoperazone, 1 g/l) were repeatedly applied throughout a 6-week period to initially 21-day-old male BALB/c mice...
June 2018: Heliyon
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