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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417216/pathogenic-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh, Yaghoob Farbood, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Brain injury following stroke results from a complex series of pathophysiological events including excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Moreover, there is a mechanistic link between brain ischemia, innate and adaptive immune cells, intracranial atherosclerosis, and also the gut microbiota in modifying the cerebral responses to ischemic insult. There are very few treatments for stroke injuries, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of the diverse cellular and molecular changes that occur following ischemic stroke and that are responsible for neuronal death...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396623/modified-mediterranean-diet-for-enrichment-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-potential-adjunctive-therapeutic-to-target-immune-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#3
Jamie Joseph, Colin Depp, Pei-An B Shih, Kristen S Cadenhead, Geert Schmid-Schönbein
Growing interest in gut and digestive processes and their potential link to brain and peripheral based inflammation or biobehavioral phenotypes has led to an increasing number of basic and translational scientific reports focused on the role of gut microbiota within the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of dietary modification on specific gut metabolites, in association with immune, metabolic, and psychopathological functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders has not been well characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393748/gut-microbiota-of-mice-putatively-modifies-amino-acid-metabolism-in-the-host-brain
#4
Takahiro Kawase, Mao Nagasawa, Hiromi Ikeda, Shinobu Yasuo, Yasuhiro Koga, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Recently, it has been found that the gut microbiota influences functions of the host brain by affecting monoamine metabolism. The present study focused on the relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain amino acids. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice were used as experimental models. Plasma and brain regions were sampled from mice at 7 and 16 weeks of age, and analysed for free d- and l-amino acids, which are believed to affect many physiological functions. At 7 weeks of age, plasma concentrations of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-glutamine (l-Gln) and taurine were higher in SPF mice than in GF mice, but no differences were found at 16 weeks of age...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#5
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379213/energy-dense-diet-triggers-changes-in-gut-microbiota-reorganization-of-gut%C3%A2-brain-vagal-communication-and-increases-body-fat-accumulation
#6
Alexandra C Vaughn, Erin M Cooper, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Levi J O'Loughlin, Michael E Konkel, James H Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet‑induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375200/low-dose-penicillin-in-early-life-induces-long-term-changes-in-murine-gut-microbiota-brain-cytokines-and-behavior
#7
Sophie Leclercq, Firoz M Mian, Andrew M Stanisz, Laure B Bindels, Emmanuel Cambier, Hila Ben-Amram, Omry Koren, Paul Forsythe, John Bienenstock
There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice...
April 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360846/stress-and-the-emerging-roles-of-chromatin-remodeling-in-signal-integration-and-stable-transmission-of-reversible-phenotypes
#9
REVIEW
Ian C G Weaver, Austin C Korgan, Kristen Lee, Ryan V Wheeler, Amos S Hundert, Donna Goguen
The influence of early life experience and degree of parental-infant attachment on emotional development in children and adolescents has been comprehensively studied. Structural and mechanistic insight into the biological foundation and maintenance of mammalian defensive systems (metabolic, immune, nervous and behavioral) is slowly advancing through the emerging field of developmental molecular (epi)genetics. Initial evidence revealed that differential nurture early in life generates stable differences in offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, in part, through chromatin remodeling and changes in DNA methylation of specific genes expressed in the brain, revealing physical, biochemical and molecular paths for the epidemiological concept of gene-environment interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358020/nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-alterations-of-electro-acupuncture-stimulations-on-chronic-atrophic-gastritis-rats
#10
Jingjing Xu, Xujuan Zheng, Kian-Kai Cheng, Xiaorong Chang, Guiping Shen, Mi Liu, Yadong Wang, Jiacheng Shen, Yuan Zhang, Qida He, Jiyang Dong, Zongbao Yang
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common gastrointestinal disease which has been considered as precancerous lesions of gastric carcinoma. Previously, electro-acupuncture stimulation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of CAG. However the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. In the present study, an integrated histopathological examination along with molecular biological assay, as well as (1)H NMR analysis of multiple biological samples (urine, serum, stomach, cortex and medulla) were employed to systematically assess the pathology of CAG and therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation at Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21), and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoints located in the stomach meridian using a rat model of CAG...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356427/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-modulator-of-host-metabolism-and-appetite
#11
REVIEW
Marcel van de Wouw, Harriët Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut harbors an enormous diversity of microbes that are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. A growing body of evidence supports the role of this microbiota in influencing host appetite and food intake. Individual species within the gut microbiota are under selective pressure arising from nutrients available and other bacterial species present. Each bacterial species within the gut aims to increase its own fitness, habitat, and survival via specific fermentation of dietary nutrients and secretion of metabolites, many of which can influence host appetite and eating behavior by directly affecting nutrient sensing and appetite and satiety-regulating systems...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349974/sex-related-alterations-of-gut-microbiota-composition-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Lorena Coretti, Claudia Cristiano, Ermanno Florio, Giovanni Scala, Adriano Lama, Simona Keller, Mariella Cuomo, Roberto Russo, Raffaela Pero, Orlando Paciello, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Sergio Cocozza, Antonio Calignano, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Francesca Lembo
Alterations of microbiota-gut-brain axis have been invoked in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mouse models could represent an excellent tool to understand how gut dysbiosis and related alterations may contribute to autistic phenotype. In this study we paralleled gut microbiota (GM) profiles, behavioral characteristics, intestinal integrity and immunological features of colon tissues in BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice, a well established animal model of ASD. Sex differences, up to date poorly investigated in animal models, were specifically addressed...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347867/microbiota-differences-between-commercial-breeders-impacts-the-post-stroke-immune-response
#13
Rebecca Sadler, Vikramjeet Singh, Corinne Benakis, Debora Garzetti, David Brea Lopez, Bärbel Stecher, Josef Anrather, Arthur Liesz
Experimental reproducibility between laboratories is a major translational obstacle worldwide, particularly in studies investigating immunomodulatory therapies in relation to brain disease. In recent years increasing attention has been drawn towards the gut microbiota as a key factor in immune cell polarization. Moreover, manipulation of the gut microbiota has been found effective in a diverse range of brain disorders. Within this study we aimed to test the impact of microbiota differences between mice from different sources on the post-stroke neuroinflammatory response...
March 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#14
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341435/the-visceral-brain-bipolar-disorder-and-microbiota
#15
Estela Salagre, Eduard Vieta, Iria Grande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318126/infant-colic-is-still-a-mysterious-disorder-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#16
EDITORIAL
Anna Pärtty, Marko Kalliomäki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316999/does-the-gut-microbiota-influence-immunity-and-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#17
REVIEW
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Aldona Medrek, Paulina Madej, Wirginia Michlicka, Pawel Dobrakowski
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#18
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#20
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
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