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Microbiota brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830091/bacteriocins-and-bacteriophage-a-narrow-minded-approach-to-food-and-gut-microbiology
#1
Susan Mills, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Bacteriocins and bacteriophage (phage) are biological tools which exhibit targeted microbial killing, a phenomenon which until recently was seen as a major drawback for their use as antimicrobial agents. However, in an age when the deleterious consequences of broad-spectrum antibiotics on human health have become apparent, there is an urgent need to develop narrow-spectrum substitutes. Indeed, disruption of the microbial communities which exist on and in our bodies can generate immediate and long-term negative effects and this is particularly borne out in the gut microbiota community whose disruption has been linked to a number of disorders reaching as far as the brain...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#2
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816544/animal-inflammation-based-models-of-depression-and-their-application-to-drug-discovery
#3
Li Ma, Konstantin A Demin, Tatyana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Kharsko, Xiaokang Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Cai Song, Darya A Meshalkina, Brian E Leonard, Li Tian, Allan V Kalueff
Depression, anxiety and other affective disorders are globally widespread and severely debilitating human brain diseases. Despite their high prevalence and mental health impact, affective pathogenesis is poorly understood, and often remains recurrent and resistant to treatment. The lack of efficient antidepressants and presently limited conceptual innovation necessitate novel approaches and new drug targets in the field of antidepressant therapy. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the emerging role of neuro-immune interactions in affective pathogenesis, which can become useful targets for CNS drug discovery, including modulating neuroinflammatory pathways to alleviate affective pathogenesis...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808780/non-cns-pathogenic-origin-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Humdoon Choudhry, Lawrence C Perlmuter
The gut with its variety of microbiota may serve as an etiological origin of diseases. Gut microbes may also play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases beyond their simple nutritional maintenance and support. For example, gut protein aggregation, possibly aided by microbes as well as nasal influences, might be linked to disease that may move to the brain through the vagus nerve. To this end, Braak has offered a "dual-hit" hypothesis that proposes a novel etiology for Parkinson's disease (PD). The hypothesis places the initial origin of the disease in the nose and the gastrointestinal tract (GI) after infection by an unknown pathogen that could aggregate in the gut and then eventually spread to the brain via the autonomic plexuses...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806201/brain-gut-microbiota-axis-and-mental-health
#5
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
OBJECTIVE: The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications which enables gut microbes to communicate with the brain, and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and pre-clinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders...
August 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#7
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793975/infant-gut-microbiome-associated-with-cognitive%C3%A2-development
#8
Alexander L Carlson, Kai Xia, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Barbara D Goldman, Mihye Ahn, Martin A Styner, Amanda L Thompson, Xiujuan Geng, John H Gilmore, Rebecca C Knickmeyer
BACKGROUND: Studies in rodents provide compelling evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut influence neurodevelopment. In particular, experimental manipulations that alter intestinal microbiota impact exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. In humans, the first years of life are a dynamic time in gut colonization and brain development, but little is known about the relationship between these two processes. METHODS: We tested whether microbial composition at 1 year of age is associated with cognitive outcomes using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and with global and regional brain volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 2 years of age...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790932/the-effects-of-weaning-methods-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-horse-physiology
#9
Núria Mach, Aline Foury, Sandra Kittelmann, Fabrice Reigner, Marco Moroldo, Maria Ballester, Diane Esquerré, Julie Rivière, Guillaume Sallé, Philippe Gérard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Léa Lansade
Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i) the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii) how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P) or an abrupt (A) weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768369/recent-developments-in-understanding-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-brain-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Eoin Sherwin, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders...
August 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767318/the-gut-microbiome-and-mental-health-implications-for-anxiety-and-trauma-related-disorders
#11
Stefanie Malan-Muller, Mireia Valles-Colomer, Jeroen Raes, Christopher A Lowry, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders...
August 2, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759308/vasopressin-deletion-is-associated-with-sex-specific-shifts-in-the-gut-microbiome
#12
Christopher T Fields, Benoit Chassaing, Matthew J Paul, Andrew T Gewirtz, Geert J de Vries
Brattleboro rats harbor a spontaneous deletion of the arginine-vasopressin (Avp) gene. In addition to diabetes insipidus, these rats exhibit low levels of anxiety and depressive behaviors. Recent work on the gut-brain axis has revealed that gut microbiota can influence anxiety behaviors. Therefore, we studied the effects of Avp gene deletion on gut microbiota. Since Avp gene expression is sexually different, we also examined how Avp deletion affects sex differences in gut microbiota. Males and females show modest but differentiated shifts in taxa abundance across 3 separate Avp deletion genotypes: wildtype (WT), heterozygous (Het) and AVP-deficient Brattleboro (KO) rats...
July 31, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756077/-the-gut-microbiota-a-new-cardiovascular-risk-factor
#13
Caroline Chong-Nguyen, Henri Duboc, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota is considered as our other "brain" and is implicated in several regulation of physiological metabolisms. The circulating level of TMAO, a metabolite of the gut microbiota, is directly correlated to the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Bile acids are protective metabolites against cardiovascular diseases through their anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. The disturbance in the metabolism and the composition of the gut microbiota is called "dysbiosis". Understanding the implication of the gut microbiota and developing new therapeutic strategies are promising research fields to manage metabolic and cardiovascular diseases...
July 26, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743600/sex-determines-effect-of-physical-activity-on-diet-preference-association-of-striatal-opioids-and-gut-microbiota-composition
#14
Jenna R Lee, Julie E Muckerman, Anna M Wright, Daniel J Davis, Tom E Childs, Catherine E Gillespie, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Frank W Booth, Aaron C Ericsson, Matthew J Will
Previous studies suggest an interaction between the level of physical activity and diet preference. However, this relationship has not been well characterized for sex differences that may exist. The present study examined the influence of sex on diet preference in male and female Wistar rats that were housed under either sedentary (no wheel access) (SED) or voluntary wheel running access (RUN) conditions. Following a 1 week acclimation period to these conditions, standard chow was replaced with concurrent ad libitum access to a choice of 3 pelleted diets (high-fat, high-sucrose, and high-corn starch) in the home cage...
July 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#15
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736331/microbial-regulation-of-hippocampal-mirna-expression-implications-for-transcription-of-kynurenine-pathway-enzymes
#16
Gerard M Moloney, Olivia F O'Leary, Eloisa Salvo-Romero, Lieve Desbonnet, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
Increasing evidence points to a functional role of the enteric microbiota in brain development, function and behaviour including the regulation of transcriptional activity in the hippocampus. Changes in CNS miRNA expression may reflect the colonisation status of the gut. Given the pivotal impact of miRNAs on gene expression, our study was based on the hypothesis that gene expression would also be altered in the germ-free state in the hippocampus. We measured miRNAs in the hippocampus of Germ free (GF), conventional (C) and Germ free colonised (exGF) Swiss Webster mice...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#17
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#18
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#19
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722709/regulation-of-inflammation-by-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host
#20
REVIEW
J Magarian Blander, Randy S Longman, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
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