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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#1
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#2
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#3
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722709/regulation-of-inflammation-by-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host
#4
REVIEW
J Magarian Blander, Randy S Longman, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#5
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716445/feeding-systems-and-the-gut-microbiome-gut-brain-interactions-with-relevance-to-psychiatric-conditions
#6
REVIEW
Brittany L Mason
BACKGROUND: Physical and mental health is dependent on the environment, and feeding is a prime example of this environmental exchange. While the hypothalamus controls both feeding behavior and the stress response, the integration of the neural control centers and the peripheral gut allows for disruption in the gastrointestinal systems and dysfunctional communication to the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinicians with the physiology controlling feeding behavior and its implications for psychiatric conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and depression...
June 8, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712376/grape-pomace-improves-performance-antioxidant-status-fecal-microbiota-and-meat-quality-of-piglets
#7
I Kafantaris, D Stagos, B Kotsampasi, A Hatzis, A Kypriotakis, K Gerasopoulos, S Makri, N Goutzourelas, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, K Petrotos, S Kokkas, P Goulas, V Christodoulou, D Kouretas
In the present study, grape pomace (GP) was used as feed additive in the diet of weaned piglets in order to develop innovative feedstuffs and to investigate their potential beneficial effects on welfare, productivity and meat quality. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the experimental feeds, 24 piglets of 20 days old were assigned to two experimental groups receiving standard or experimental diet for 30 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed at four different time-points, 2, 20, 35 and 50 days post birth...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706993/high-frequency-of-intestinal-th17-cells-correlates-with-microbiota-alterations-and-disease-activity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Ilaria Cosorich, Gloria Dalla-Costa, Chiara Sorini, Roberto Ferrarese, Maria Josè Messina, Jayashree Dolpady, Elisa Radice, Alberto Mariani, Pier Alberto Testoni, Filippo Canducci, Giancarlo Comi, Vittorio Martinelli, Marika Falcone
T helper 17 (TH17) cells are key players in multiple sclerosis (MS), and studies in animal models demonstrated that effector TH17 cells that trigger brain autoimmunity originate in the intestine. We validate in humans the crucial role of the intestinal environment in promoting TH17 cell expansion in MS patients. We found that increased frequency of TH17 cells correlates with high disease activity and with specific alterations of the gut mucosa-associated microbiota in MS patients. By using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, we analyzed the microbiota isolated from small intestinal tissues and found that MS patients with high disease activity and increased intestinal TH17 cell frequency showed a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, increased relative abundance of Streptococcus, and decreased Prevotella strains compared to healthy controls and MS patients with no disease activity...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698775/gut-feelings-on-parkinson-s-and-depression
#9
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut-brain axis is one of the new frontiers of neuroscience. Microbiota (the collective bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms that live in the digestive tract), sometimes referred to as the "second genome" or the "second brain," may influence our health in ways that scientists are just now beginning to understand. Scientists now believe that the microbiota and all that it involves may be a way to treat any number of disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.
March 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694176/anxiogenic-effects-of-a-lactobacillus-inulin-and-the-synbiotic-on-healthy-juvenile-rats
#10
Camila Barrera-Bugueño, Ornella Realini, Jorge Escobar-Luna, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Martin Gotteland, Marcela Julio-Pieper, Javier A Bravo
Gut microbiota interventions, including probiotic and prebiotic use can alter behavior in adult animals and healthy volunteers. However, little is known about their effects in younger individuals. To investigate this, male Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 21, PND21) received Lactobacillus casei 54-2-33 (10(4)cfu/ml), inulin as prebiotic (16mg/ml), or both together (synbiotic) via drinking water for 14days. Control rats received water alone. Open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) behaviors were evaluated at PND34 and 35, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#12
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683293/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#13
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680792/using-animal-models-to-study-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-autism
#14
REVIEW
Jess Nithianantharajah, Gayathri K Balasuriya, Ashley E Franks, Elisa L Hill-Yardin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly also suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction; however, few animal model studies have systematically examined both ASD and GI dysfunction. In this review, we highlight studies investigating GI dysfunction and alterations in gut microbiota in animal models of ASD with the aim of determining if routinely used microbiology and enteric neurophysiology assays could expand our understanding of the link between the two...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680065/nopal-opuntia-ficus-indica-protects-from-metabolic-endotoxemia-by-modifying-gut-microbiota-in-obese-rats-fed-high-fat-sucrose-diet
#15
Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Claudia Pérez-Cruz, Edgar Pichardo-Ontiveros, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres
Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N)...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676349/immunoregulatory-effect-of-mast-cells-influenced-by-microbes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
Francesco Girolamo, Coppola Cristiana Coppola, Domenico Ribatti
When related to central nervous system (CNS) health and disease, brain mast cells (MCs) can be a source of either beneficial or deleterious signals acting on neural cells. We review the current state of knowledge about molecular interactions between MCs and glia in neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy. We also discuss the influence on MC actions evoked by the host microbiota, which has a profound effect on the host immune system, inducing important consequences in neurodegenerative disorders...
July 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668353/salsa-a-dance-on-a-slippery-floor-with-changing-partners
#17
M P Reichhardt, U Holmskov, S Meri
It is becoming increasingly clear that the connections between our immune system and the microbiota colonizing us have a tremendous impact on human health. A number of innate molecular defence mechanisms cooperate to selectively target unwanted microorganisms at the mucosal surfaces. Amongst others these include the complement system, IgA and the SALSA molecule. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (SAG) or gp340 is a multifunctional molecule with important functions in innate immunity, inflammation and epithelial homeostasis...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661940/brain-structure-and-response-to-emotional-stimuli-as-related-to-gut-microbial-profiles-in-healthy-women
#18
Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran Mayer, Arpana Gupta, Zafar Gill, Rémi Brazeilles, Boris Le Nevé, Johan E T van Hylckama Vlieg, Denis Guyonnet, Muriel Derrien, Jennifer S Labus
OBJECTIVE: Brain-gut-microbiota interactions may play an important role in human health and behavior. However, while rodent models have demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on emotional, nociceptive and social behaviors, there is little translational human evidence to date. In this study we identify brain and behavioral characteristics of healthy women clustered by gut microbiota profiles. METHODS: Forty women supplied fecal samples for 16s rRNA profiling...
June 28, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652571/discovery-of-long-range-inhibitory-signaling-to-ensure-single-axon-formation
#19
Tetsuya Takano, Mengya Wu, Shinichi Nakamuta, Honda Naoki, Naruki Ishizawa, Takashi Namba, Takashi Watanabe, Chundi Xu, Tomonari Hamaguchi, Yoshimitsu Yura, Mutsuki Amano, Klaus M Hahn, Kozo Kaibuchi
A long-standing question in neurodevelopment is how neurons develop a single axon and multiple dendrites from common immature neurites. Long-range inhibitory signaling from the growing axon is hypothesized to prevent outgrowth of other immature neurites and to differentiate them into dendrites, but the existence and nature of this inhibitory signaling remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that axonal growth triggered by neurotrophin-3 remotely inhibits neurite outgrowth through long-range Ca(2+) waves, which are delivered from the growing axon to the cell body...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649603/the-gut-brain-axis-is-intestinal-inflammation-a-silent-driver-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#20
Madelyn C Houser, Malú G Tansey
The state of the intestinal environment can have profound effects on the activity of the central nervous system through the physiological contributions of the microbiota, regulation of intestinal barrier function, and altered activity of peripheral neurons. The common language employed for much of the gut-brain communication is the modulation of immune activity. Chronic proinflammatory immune activity is increasingly being recognized as a fundamental element of neurodegenerative disorders, and in Parkinson's disease, inflammation in the intestine appears particularly relevant in pathogenesis...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
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