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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044140/therapeutic-potential-of-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-a1-for-preventing-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Yodai Kobayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Kousuke Shimada, Eri Mitsuyama, Tetsuya Kuhara, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao
It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039142/microbiota-brain-gut-axis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036812/altered-gut-microbiota-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Ling Zhang, Ying Wang, Xia Xiayu, Changhua Shi, Wei Chen, Nan Song, Xinjing Fu, Rui Zhou, Yan-Feng Xu, Lan Huang, Hua Zhu, Yunlin Han, Chuan Qin
The topic of gut microbiota is currently attracting considerable interest as a potential factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent and time course of alterations in the gut microbiota, and their effects on AD pathology remain uncertain. Herein, we compared the fecal microbiomes and fecal short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) between wild-type and AD model mice at different ages under strictly controlled specific pathogen free conditions, and also conducted microscopic investigations of intestinal structures...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032502/gut-microbiota-changes-in-the-extreme-decades-of-human-life-a-focus-on-centenarians
#4
REVIEW
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#5
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024170/steroids-stress-and-the-gut-microbiome-brain-axis
#6
REVIEW
Marc J Tetel, Geert J de Vries, Roberto C Melcangi, GianCarlo Panzica, Siobhain M O'Mahony
It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota, and in turn how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behavior. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#7
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016169/the-microbiome-as-a-novel-paradigm-in-studying-stress-and-mental-health
#8
Richard T Liu
At the intersection between neuroscience, microbiology, and psychiatry, the enteric microbiome has potential to become a novel paradigm for studying the psychobiological underpinnings of mental illness. Several studies provide support for the view that the enteric microbiome influences behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent findings are suggestive of the possibility that dysregulation of the enteric microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and associated bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium may be involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, particularly depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993728/age-drives-distortion-of-brain-metabolic-vascular-and-cognitive-functions-and-the-gut-microbiome
#9
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993208/intestinal-microbiota-impact-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-via-the-vagus-nerve
#10
Suyan Li, Jian Lv, Jianguo Li, Zhaolong Zhao, Hui Guo, Yanni Zhang, Shichao Cheng, Jianbin Sun, Hongming Pan, Shaopeng Fan, Zhongxin Li
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly understood. Vagus nerve plays an important role in gut-microbiota-brain axis. This study aimed to investigate whether vague nerve is a key mediator of the impact of intestinal microbiota on SAE. METHODS: Male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=20): SHAM (SH) group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) +LPS group, and vagotomy (VGX)+LPS+FMT group...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992428/inflammatory-mediators-in-mood-disorders-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Ménard, Scott J Russo
Mood disorders such as depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, but they are inadequately treated in a substantial proportion of patients. Accordingly, neuropsychiatric research has pivoted from investigation of monoaminergic mechanisms to exploration of novel mediators, including the role of inflammatory processes. Subsets of mood disorder patients exhibit immune-related abnormalities, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation; dysregulation of neuroglia and blood-brain barrier function; and disruption of gut microbiota...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986601/microbiome-health-interactions-in-older-people
#12
REVIEW
Paul W O'Toole, Ian B Jeffery
Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome have been implicated in a range of conditions and diseases. Culture-dependent and culture-independent studies both showed that older people harbour a gut microbiome that differs in composition from that of younger adults. Detailed analyses have identified discrete microbiota subtypes that characterize intermediates between a high diversity microbiota found in healthy community-dwelling subjects and a low diversity microbiota typical for elderly living in long-term residential care...
October 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983086/can-intestinal-microbiota-be-associated-with-non-intestinal-cancers
#13
Camille Jacqueline, Lionel Brazier, Dominique Faugère, François Renaud, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
While the role of intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized in the etiology of digestive cancers, its effects on the development of cancer in other parts of the body have been little studied. Through new-generation sequencing, we aimed to identify an association between the structure of intestinal microbiota and the presence of eye disc tumor in Drosophila larvae. First, we observed a parental effect on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities. Second, we identified a bacterial signature (at the family level) of cancer: cancerous larvae host a significantly lower relative abundance of Bacillaceae than individuals that did not develop the tumor...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976454/the-gut-and-its-microbiome-as-related-to-central-nervous-system-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-psychosomatic-medicine
#14
Emeran A Mayer, Elaine Y Hsiao
Accumulating evidence indicates bidirectional associations between the brain and the gut microbiome with both top-down and bottom-up processes. This article describes new developments in brain-gut interactions as an introduction to a special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, based on a joint symposium of the American Psychosomatic Society and the American Gastroenterological Association. Literature review articles indicate that several psychiatric disorders are associated with altered gut microbiota, whereas evidence linking functional gastrointestinal disorders and dysbiosis has not been firmly established...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973392/association-between-gut-microbiota-and-bone-health-potential-mechanisms-and-prospective
#15
Yuan-Cheng Chen, Jonathan Greenbaum, Hui Shen, Hong-Wen Deng
Context: It has been well established that the human gut microbiome plays a critical role in the regulation of important biological processes and the mechanisms underlying numerous complex diseases. Although researchers have only recently begun to study the relationship between the gut microbiota and bone metabolism, early efforts have provided increased evidence to suggest an important association. Evidence Acquisition: Here, we attempt to comprehensively summarize the relationship between the gut microbiota and bone metabolism by detailing the regulatory effects of the microbiome on various biological processes including nutrient absorption and the intestinal mucosal barrier, immune system functionality, the gut-brain axis, and excretion of functional byproducts...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966571/cross-talk-the-microbiota-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
John R Kelly, Chiara Minuto, John F Cryan, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
Humans evolved within a microbial ecosystem resulting in an interlinked physiology. The gut microbiota can signal to the brain via the immune system, the vagus nerve or other host-microbe interactions facilitated by gut hormones, regulation of tryptophan metabolism and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), to influence brain development, function and behavior. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may play a role in shaping cognitive networks encompassing emotional and social domains in neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965876/microbiota-related-changes-in-bile-acid-tryptophan-metabolism-are-associated-with-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism
#17
Anna V Golubeva, Susan A Joyce, Gerard Moloney, Aurelijus Burokas, Eoin Sherwin, Silvia Arboleya, Ian Flynn, Dmitry Khochanskiy, Angela Moya-Pérez, Veronica Peterson, Kieran Rea, Kiera Murphy, Olga Makarova, Sergey Buravkov, Niall P Hyland, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, Cormac G M Gahan, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental conditions worldwide. There is growing awareness that ASD is highly comorbid with gastrointestinal distress and altered intestinal microbiome, and that host-microbiome interactions may contribute to the disease symptoms. However, the paucity of knowledge on gut-brain axis signaling in autism constitutes an obstacle to the development of precision microbiota-based therapeutics in ASD. To this end, we explored the interactions between intestinal microbiota, gut physiology and social behavior in a BTBR T(+)Itpr3(tf)/J mouse model of ASD...
September 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964773/effects-of-gut-microbiota-disturbance-induced-in-early-life-on-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-rats
#18
Liang Liang, Heng Zhou, Shiying Zhang, Jingping Yuan, Hao Wu
Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota disturbance significantly increases the risk of emotional disorders via the gut-brain axis, but the mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits were reported to be implicated in the development of depression and amnesia, but the alterations in the GABA-A receptor subunits that are involved in the pathogenetic process have not been fully elucidated. This study used juvenile rats that were fed ampicillin-Na to establish degree III dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and examined emotional change via the tail suspension test, forced swim test and Morris water maze...
September 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948467/post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Yeong Yeh Lee, Chandramouli Annamalai, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is characterized by persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea, typically following an episode of infectious gastroenteritis. The mechanisms that underlie IBS-D remain elusive, but PI-IBS provides a mechanistic model of this disorder. This review provides an up-to-date appraisal of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management approaches for PI-IBS. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered immune reactions and release of cytokines with resultant gut inflammation and dysfunction appear to be key features of PI-IBS...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946927/food-and-the-gut-relevance-to-some-of-the-autisms
#20
Paul Whiteley
Complex, diverse and rarely appearing without comorbidity, the autism spectrum disorders continue to be a source of research interest. With core symptoms variably impacting on social communication skills, the traditional focus of many research efforts has centred on the brain and how genetic and environmental processes impact on brain structure, function and/or connectivity to account for various behavioural presentations. Alongside emerging ideas on autistic traits being present in various clinical states, the autisms, and the overrepresentation of several comorbid conditions impacting on quality of life, other research avenues have opened up...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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