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infection control neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919877/pharmacist-driven-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-stewardship-service-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#1
Sara E Rostas, Christopher McPherson
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of a pharmacist-driven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis stewardship program in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are described. SUMMARY: An RSV prophylaxis stewardship service was created in the NICU at Brigham and Women's Hospital to align with the newly updated 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations for palivizumab. The service comprised two NICU clinical pharmacists with oversight from the NICU medical director and the chair of the NICU infection control committee...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919407/incidence-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-infants-with-antenatally-diagnosed-hydronephrosis-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#2
Sofia Visuri, Timo Jahnukainen, Seppo Taskinen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of AHN patients admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2013 were identified. Altogether 192 patients with nonrefluxing hydronephrosis (HN, n=135), nonrefluxing hydroureteronephrosis (HUN, n=21), or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, n=36) were identified. Patients with complex anomalies or neonatal decompression of the urinary tract were excluded...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917737/a-pediatric-approach-to-ventilator-associated-events-surveillance
#4
Noelle M Cocoros, Gregory P Priebe, Latania K Logan, Susan Coffin, Gitte Larsen, Philip Toltzis, Thomas J Sandora, Marvin Harper, Julia S Sammons, James E Gray, Donald Goldmann, Kelly Horan, Michael Burton, Paul A Checchia, Matthew Lakoma, Shannon Sims, Michael Klompas, Grace M Lee
OBJECTIVE Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children. DESIGN Retrospective cohort SETTING Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals PATIENTS Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day METHODS We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria...
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916444/influence-of-weight-at-enterostomy-reversal-on-surgical-outcomes-in-infants-after-emergent-neonatal-stoma-creation
#5
Lindsay J Talbot, Robert D Sinyard, Kristy L Rialon, Brian R Englum, Elizabeth T Tracy, Henry E Rice, Obinna O Adibe
PURPOSE: Neonates after emergent enterostomy creation frequently require reversal at low weight because of complications including cholestasis, dehydration, dumping, failure to thrive, and failure to achieve enteral independence. We investigated whether stoma reversal at low weight (< 2.5kg) is associated with poor surgical outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent enterostomy reversal from 2005 to 2013 at less than 6months old were identified in our institutional database...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#6
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#7
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903736/t-and-b-cell-markers-in-dried-blood-spots-of-neonates-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-b-cell-numbers-at-birth-are-associated-with-long-term-outcomes
#8
Roberta Rovito, Marjolein J Korndewal, Menno C van Zelm, Dimitrios Ziagkos, Els Wessels, Mirjam van der Burg, Aloys C M Kroes, Anton W Langerak, Ann C T M Vossen
Congenital CMV infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection that can cause long-term impairment (LTI). The pathogenesis of LTI is not completely understood. Fetal immunity may play a role in controlling the infection and preventing LTI, although immune activation may also contribute to fetal immunopathology. In this study, we analyzed various molecular markers of T and B cell numbers in neonatal dried blood spots of 99 children with cCMV and 54 children without cCMV: δRec-ψJα signal joints on TCR excision circles, intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element signal joints on Igκ-deleting recombination excision circles, genomic intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element coding joint, genomic Vδ1-Jδ1, and Vδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891340/dual-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-by-burkholderia-cepacia-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-neonate-a-case-report
#9
Neeta Gade, Sanjay Singh Negi, Atul Jindal, Ujjwala Gaikwad, Padma Das, Anudita Bhargava
Burkholderia cepacia (B.cepacia) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A.baumannii), the highly intrinsically resistant nonfermenters are known to cause frequent infections in immunocomproimsed or hospitalized patients with significant mortality rate. In this rare clinical presentation, both were simultaneously isolated from a case of neonatal sepsis with respiratory failure. The prompt early diagnosis and antibiogram of these nonfermenters were proved to be of tremendous help in the present case with successful treatment outcome of dual infection of B...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890454/effect-of-phototherapy-on-b-and-t-lymphocytes-in-egyptian-infants-suffering-from-neonatal-jaundice
#10
I K Eyada, A L El Saie, G A Ibrahem, N M Riad
BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common problems that affect newborn infants, and phototherapy is usually used for treatment. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the effect of phototherapy on neonatal immune system through measuring the percentage of B and T lymphocytes and determining the frequency of development of infections and need for hospitalisation during the first six months of life. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 50 full term new-borns; 25 with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia and treated with conventional phototherapy and 25 healthy matched neonates as untreated controls...
November 24, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887754/meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-acquisition-risk-in-an-endemic-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-with-an-active-surveillance-culture-and-decolonization-programme
#11
R Pierce, J Lessler, V O Popoola, A M Milstone
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Decolonization may eliminate bacterial reservoirs that drive MRSA transmission. AIM: To measure the association between colonization pressure from decolonized and non-decolonized neonates and MRSA acquisition to inform use of this strategy for control of endemic MRSA. METHODS: An eight-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a level-4 NICU that used active surveillance cultures and decolonization for MRSA control...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886039/use-of-personal-digital-assistants-to-detect-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-egypt
#12
Elham Am El-Feky, Doa'a A Saleh, Jehan El-Kholy, Ahmed Mahmoud Sayed, Yasmeen Mansi, Mohamed Hashem
INTRODUCTION: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) used in electronic laboratory-based surveillance are a promising alternative to conventional surveillance to detect healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to monitor, detect, and analyze HAIs using PDAs in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODOLOGY: In this descriptive study, 1,053 neonates admitted to the NICU in the obstetrics and gynecology ward at the Cairo University hospital were included and evaluated for HAIs by collecting data using PDAs programmed by Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, with the definitions for HAIs provided by the National Healthcare Safety Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885741/zika-and-pregnancy-a-comprehensive-review
#13
Adrija Hajra, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Lyndsey R Heise, Rajarshi Bhadra, Somedeb Ball, Shyamal Kumar Hajra
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a well-nurtured topic for healthcare personnel nowadays. Central nervous system involvement including microcephaly and ocular involvements has already been reported in neonates of affected pregnant ladies. In this article, we have discussed these effects on the newborns of ZIKV-infected mothers. The proposed pathogenesis, modes of transmission of this infection from mothers to the fetuses, diagnosis of the cases and precaution for the pregnant ladies have also been discussed. We have gathered the recently available data on the risk of ZIKV for expectant mothers from PubMed, https://www...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884950/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-the-amniotic-cavity-of-women-with-intra-amniotic-infection-a-new-mechanism-of-host-defense
#14
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Ronald Unkel, Majid Shaman, Suzanne M Jacques, Bogdan Panaitescu, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Sonia S Hassan
OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) control microbial infections through their antimicrobial activities attributed to DNA, histones, granules, and cytoplasmic proteins (eg, elastase). Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid neutrophils form NETs in this inflammatory process. METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples from women with intra-amniotic infection (n = 15) were stained for bacteria detection using fluorescent dyes...
November 23, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884010/less-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-term-newborns-than-in-adults
#15
Patrick Lipp, Johanna Ruhnau, Anja Lange, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Newborns are prone to infections, which are independent predictors of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of chromatin and antimicrobial molecules that capture and kill pathogens. NETs may play an important role in the innate immune system and, thus, might be associated with impaired neonatal immune function. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare NET formation between term neonates and healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882439/obstetric-and-perinatal-outcome-of-babies-born-from-sperm-selected-by-macs-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Laura Romany, Nicolas Garrido, Ana Cobo, Belen Aparicio-Ruiz, Vicente Serra, Marcos Meseguer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess outcomes after magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) technology on obstetric and perinatal outcomes compared with those achieved after swim up from randomized controlled trial. METHODS: This is a two-arm, unicentric, prospective, randomized, and triple-blinded trial and has a total of 237 infertile couples, between October 2010 and January 2013. A total of 65 and 66 newborns from MACS and control group, respectively, were described...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#17
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines were evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early and late onset disease (EOD and LOD, respectively) plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870104/clinical-experience-with-daptomycin-in-pediatrics
#18
Katie C Namtu, Julianna C Crain, Allison F Messina, Juan A Dumois, David M Berman
INTRODUCTION: The management of Gram-positive infections has been complicated in recent years by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, leaving fewer options for therapy. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used for the systemic treatment of Gram-positive infections and has a distinct mechanism of action, favorable side effect profile, and requires once daily dosing. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic data in neonatal and pediatric patients...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865262/soluble-forms-of-cd46-are-detected-in-bos-taurus-plasma-and-neutralize-bvdv-the-bovine-pestivirus
#19
Nidal Alzamel, Calixte Bayrou, Annabelle Decreux, Daniel Desmecht
The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is known to bind to the CD46 molecule, which subsequently promotes entry of the virus. Mapping of the BVD-virion-binding site has shown that two peptides, 66EQIV69 and 82GQVLAL87, located on antiparallel beta sheets in the most distal complement control protein module (CCP1), provide the attachment platform. In the present study, we reveal new CD46-encoding transcripts that are predicted to encode CCP1-containing soluble forms. Further, we show that the serum of most adult cattle contains soluble CD46 (sCD46) and that a recombinant soluble isoform neutralizes BVDV infectivity in an in vitro assay...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835694/occult-hbv-infection-in-immunized-neonates-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers-a-prospective-and-follow-up-study
#20
Ying Lu, Ya-Lin Liu, Jing-Jing Nie, Xiao-Feng Liang, Ling Yan, Fu-Zhen Wang, Xiang-Jun Zhai, Jian-Xun Liu, Feng-Cai Zhu, Zhan-Jun Chang, Jie Li
OBJECTIVE: Occult HBV infection (OBI) has been reported in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers despite immunization. This study aims to determine the maintenance of this status in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS: A total of 158 neonates born to HBsAg-positive mothers were enrolled. All received passive-active immunization against HBV according to a 0-1-6 schedule. Sera were collected at 7 months of age. Those diagnosed with OBI were serially followed up at 12, 24 and 36 months of age...
2016: PloS One
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