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infection control neonates

S Bertolini, A Rosamilia, C Caruso, C Maurella, F Ingravalle, A Quasso, P L Acutis, M Pitti, L Masoero, G Ru
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) causes neonatal mortality and reproductive failure in goats. Despite its impact on herd reproductive performance, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with CpHV-1 infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential herd- and host-level risk factors associated with CpHV-1 prevalence in a goat population with heterogeneous seropositivity for CpHV-1. RESULTS: Blood samples and individual data from 4542 goats were collected from 255 herds in Piedmont, Italy...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Safaa I Tayel, Shimaa E Soliman, Hanan M Elsayed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: increasing prevalence of neonatal sepsis in recent years catch attention to early prevention and management. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism can modulate VDR expression level that greatly influences immunity and susceptibility to microbial infections. We aimed to investigate the association of VDR polymorphism at FokI, rs2228570 T/C, and TaqI, rs731236 C/T gene with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This work carried on 160 subjects classified into 80 cases (40 mothers and their 40 septic neonates) and 80 healthy controls (40 volunteer mothers and their 40 healthy neonates)...
March 9, 2018: Steroids
Qijun Cheng, Bin Zhao, Zhenxiang Huang, Yanhua Su, Biqin Chen, Songjing Yang, Xueqi Peng, Qilin Ma, Xiaoshan Yu, Benhua Zhao, Xiayi Ke
BACKGROUND & AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted to infants, and is related to infants' later disease risk. Epigenetic change (such as DNA methylation) may be mechanism underlying the relationship. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether prenatal HBV infection could alter DNA methylation status in newborns. METHOD: We selected 12 neonates with intrauterine HBV infection whose mothers were HBsAg-positive during pregnancy, relative to 12 HBV-free neonates with HBsAg-negative mothers...
March 8, 2018: Gene
Kaitlin Benedict, Monika Roy, Sarah Kabbani, Evan J Anderson, Monica M Farley, Sasha Harb, Lee H Harrison, Lindsay Bonner, Vijitha Lahanda Wadu, Kaytlyn Marceaux, Rosemary Hollick, Zintar G Beldavs, Alexia Y Zhang, William Schaffner, Caroline R Graber, Gordana Derado, Tom M Chiller, Shawn R Lockhart, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Introduction: Candida is a leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in the United States. Infants and children have unique risk factors for candidemia, and the Candida species distribution in this group is different that among adults; however, candidemia epidemiology in this population has not been described recently. Methods: We conducted active population-based candidemia surveillance in 4 US metropolitan areas between 2009 and 2015. We calculated incidences among neonates (0-30 days old), infants (0-364 days old), and noninfant children (1-19 years old), documented their clinical features and antifungal drug resistance...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Hang Thi Phan, Hang Thi Thuy Tran, Hanh Thi My Tran, Anh Pham Phuong Dinh, Ha Thanh Ngo, Jenny Theorell-Haglow, Christopher J Gordon
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. METHODS: Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene...
March 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rowena L McMullan, Adrienne Gordon
BACKGROUND: Late-onset sepsis is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants, in addition to poorer long-term developmental outcomes and increased length of stay and hospital costs. Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) is the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in hospitalised infants, and prevention of CLABSI is a key objective in neonatal care. Increased frequency of CLABSI around the time of removal of central venous catheters (CVCs) has been reported, and use of antibiotics at the time of removal may reduce the incidence and impact of late-onset sepsis in vulnerable newborn infants...
March 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
L Han, Q B Dong, Y C Wei, A C Zheng, J X Li, K Hong, Y Q Wu, X S Cheng
Objective: To investigate the effect and related mechanism of homocysteine (Hcy) on calcium overload in neonatal rat atrial cells (NRICs). Methods: NRICs were assigned to 9 groups after culture for 3 days: (1) control group; (2) Hcy group (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 μmol/L for 48 hours); (3) antioxidant group (NAC, 10 μmol/L for 24 hours); (4) Hcy+NAC group (500 μmol/L Hcy for 48 hours, then treated with 10 μmol/L NAC for 24 hours); (5) calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase Ⅱδ (CaMKⅡδ) inhibitor group (KN-93, 3 μmol/L KN-93 for 5 hours); (6) specific sodium current inhibitor group (ELE, 1 μmol/L ELE for 5 hours); (7) Hcy+KN-93 group (500 μmol/L Hcy for 48 hours, then treated with 3 μmol/L KN-93 for 5 hours); (8) Hcy+ELE group (500 μmol/L Hcy for 48 hours, then treated with 1 μmol/L ELE for 5 hours; (9) Hcy+KN-93+ELE group (500 μmol/L Hcy for 48 hours, then treated with 3 μmol/L KN-93 and 1 μmol/L ELE for 5 hours)...
February 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Maide Ozen, Hui Zhao, Flora Kalish, Yang Yang, Ann Folkins, Irina Burd, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
PROBLEM: Infection during pregnancy can disrupt regulatory/effector immune system balance, resulting in adverse pregnancy and fetal-neonatal outcomes. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a major regulatory enzyme in the immune system. We observed maternal immune response dysregulation during late gestational inflammation (LGI), which may be mediated by HO-1. Here, we extend these studies to examine the immune response of offspring. METHOD OF STUDY: Pregnant wild-type (Wt) and HO-1 heterozygote (Het) dams were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle at E15...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Henry H Cheng, Satish K Rajagopal, Arnold J Sansevere, Erica McDavitt, Daniel Wigmore, Jessica Mecklosky, Kristofer Andren, Kathryn Williams, Amy Danehy, Janet S Soul
BACKGROUND: While therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an effective neuroprotective therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, TH has not been demonstrated to improve outcome in other pediatric populations. Patients with acquired or congenital heart disease (CHD) are at high risk of both cardiac arrest and neurodevelopmental impairments, and therapies are needed to improve neurologic outcome. The primary goal of our study was to compare safety/efficacy outcomes in post-arrest CHD patients treated with TH versus controls not treated with TH...
February 21, 2018: Resuscitation
Vidit Bhargava, Lovya George, Michael Malloy, Rafael Fonseca
OBJECTIVE:  Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line removal is associated with bloodstream infections and clinical sepsis. We aim to investigate the role of a single prophylactic dose of vancomycin in decreasing the incidence of central line associated bloodstream infection associated with PICC removal. METHODS:  A retrospective chart review of patients in the neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. Patients were divided into two study groups based on whether a single dose of vancomycin was administered (exposed) or not (nonexposed)...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Lotta Hallamaa, Yin Bun Cheung, Kenneth Maleta, Mari Luntamo, Ulla Ashorn, Melissa Gladstone, Teija Kulmala, Charles Mangani, Per Ashorn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We showed earlier that presumptive infection treatment in pregnancy reduced the prevalence of neonatal stunting in a rural low-income setting. In this article, we assess how these gains were sustained and reflected in childhood growth, development, and mortality. METHODS: We enrolled 1320 pregnant Malawian women in a randomized trial and treated them for malaria and other infections with either 2 doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (control), monthly SP, or monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and 2 doses of azithromycin (AZI-SP)...
February 22, 2018: Pediatrics
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
Kassam Mahomed, Kellie Wild, Christopher R Weekes
BACKGROUND: Pre-labour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is a common event with early induction of labour reducing infectious morbidity without increasing the caesarean rate. Syntocinon is commonly used for induction but prostaglandins are also routinely used. Large studies have shown no difference in the maternal and neonatal outcomes with either method. AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of vaginal prostaglandin (PG) compared to syntocinon for induction of labour in term-PROM...
February 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gabriella Comunián-Carrasco, Guiomar E Peña-Martí, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane Review on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition...
February 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rupal M Patel, Larry K Kociolek, Emily Merrick, Caroline Reuter, Kenny Kronforst, Xiaotian Zheng, Sameer J Patel
Transitioning from administration of monthly palivizumab to a single dose at discharge was associated with substantial pharmacy cost savings. With the concurrent adoption of private hospital rooms and visitor restriction policies, hospital-wide and neonatal intensive care unit healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus infections decreased following these changes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
February 21, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Devra D Huey, Brad Bolon, Krista M D La Perle, Priya Kannian, Steven Jacobson, Lee Ratner, Patrick L Green, Stefan Niewiesk
Chronic infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). In contrast, infection with HTLV2 does not lead to leukemia, potentially because of distinct virus-host interactions and an active immune response that controls virus replication and, therefore, leukemia development. We created a humanized mouse model by injecting human umbilical-cord stem cells into the livers of immunodeficient neonatal NSG mice, resulting in the development of human lymphocytes that cannot mount an adaptive immune response...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Toshihiko Nakamura, Daisuke Hatanaka, Michiko Kusakari, Kohei Kashima, Yuji Takizawa, Hidehiro Takahashi, Toshiro Yoshioka, Naoto Takahashi, Takashi Kamohara
Leukemoid reaction (LR) is a reactive disease that exhibits abnormal blood values similar to leukemia, but not due to leukemia. One report showed that neonatal LR (NLR) was associated with elevated serum granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in only 30% of the study neonates. NLR is not always associated with the elevation of serum G-CSF. NLR was defined as a white blood cell count of ≥ 40 × 103 /μL and/or blast cell concentration of > 2%. We have focused on NLR with fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS), defined as a fetal systemic inflammatory reaction triggered by intrauterine infection...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kiana Shirani, Kamyar Mostafavizadeh, Behrouz Ataei, Khatere Akhani
Background: Due to the high incidence and prevalence of infection in neonatal ward, especially Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) reported by different studies and the important role of colonization with hospital germs in the development of nosocomial infections, we intended to evaluate the risk of colonization with hospital germs in neonates and its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2016 in a Teaching Center in Iran...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Kirsten Glaser, Christine Silwedel, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Birgit Henrich, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Christian P Speer
Generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pathogenicity of Ureaplasma has often been considered low. Controversy remains concerning the clinical relevance of Ureaplasma infection in the pathogenesis of inflammation-related morbidities. Recently, we demonstrated Ureaplasma-driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in human monocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma may induce further inflammatory mediators. Using qRT-PCR and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed the expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in term neonatal and adult monocytes exposed to Ureaplasma urealyticum serovar 8 (Uu8) and U...
February 15, 2018: Cytokine
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