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infection control neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646647/successful-maintenance-of-key-physiological-parameters-in-preterm-lambs-treated-with-ex%C3%A2-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy-for-a-period-of-1-week
#1
Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Yuichiro Miura, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Hideyuki Ikeda, Shinichi Sato, Takushi Hanita, Tadashi Matsuda, Alan H Jobe, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants born at the border of viability (22-24 weeks' gestation) have high rates of death and lasting disability. Ex vivo uterine environment therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy that provides gas exchange using parallel membranous oxygenators connected to the umbilical vessels, sparing the extremely preterm cardiopulmonary system from ventilation-derived injury. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to refine our ex vivo uterine environment therapy platform to eliminate fetal infection and inflammation, while simultaneously extending the duration of hemodynamically stable ex vivo uterine environment therapy to 1 week...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638850/probiotic-lactobacillus-species-strengthen-intestinal-barrier-function-and-tight-junction-integrity-in-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#2
Brian P Blackwood, Carrie Y Yuan, Douglas R Wood, Joseph D Nicolas, Justyna S Grothaus, Catherine J Hunter
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal disease that occurs in newborn infants. It is associated with major morbidity and affects 5% of all infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Probiotics have variable efficacy in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis. Tight junctions (TJ) are protein complexes that maintain epithelial barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum strengthen intestinal barrier function, promote TJ integrity, and protect against experimental NEC...
April 2017: J Probiotics Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633098/high-prevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-surgical-intestinal-specimens-from-infants-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-spontaneous-intestinal-perforation-a-retrospective-observational-study
#3
Soley Omarsdottir, Margret Agnarsdottir, Charlotte Casper, Abiel Orrego, Mireille Vanpée, Afsar Rahbar, Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe, often fatal gastrointestinal emergency that predominantly affects preterm infants, and there is evidence that neonatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may in some cases contribute to its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in infants with NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy intestinal specimens from 61 infants with NEC, spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), or related surgical complications were collected at Karolinska University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#4
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629849/analysis-of-archived-newborn-dried-blood-spots-dbs-identifies-congenital-cytomegalovirus-as-a-major-cause-of-unexplained-pediatric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#5
Lucy Meyer, Bazak Sharon, Tina C Huang, Abby C Meyer, Kristin E Gravel, Lisa A Schimmenti, Elizabeth C Swanson, Hannah E Herd, Nelmary Hernandez-Alvarado, Kirsten R Coverstone, Mark McCann, Mark R Schleiss
PURPOSE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, accurate diagnosis of cCMV as the etiology of SNHL is problematic beyond the neonatal period. This study therefore examined whether cCMV infection could be identified retrospectively in children presenting with unexplained SNHL to a multidisciplinary diagnostic outpatient otolaryngology clinic at an academic medical center in Minnesota. METHODS: Over a 4-year period, 57 patients with an age range of 3months to 10years with unexplained SNHL were recruited to participate in this study...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628889/the-innate-immune-response-to-lower-respiratory-tract-e-coli-infection-and-the-role-of-the-ccl2-ccr2-axis-in-neonatal-mice
#6
Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Roland Ndeh, Joseph M Collaco, Amy K Poupore, Dustin Dikeman, Qiong Zhong, Benjamin D Singer, Franco D'Alessio, Alan Scott
Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2(-/-) C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E...
June 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625478/a-neonatal-mouse-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection-for-anti-viral-evaluation
#7
Shuxuan Li, Huan Zhao, Lisheng Yang, Wangheng Hou, Longfa Xu, Yangtao Wu, Wei Wang, Chunye Chen, Junkai Wan, Xiangzhong Ye, Zhenglun Liang, Qunying Mao, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Epidemiological data indicate that coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and in recent years has often been found to co-circulate with other enteroviruses, which poses a challenge for the prevention and control of HFMD. Although most CVA10-associated HFMD cases present mild symptoms, severe manifestations and even death can also occur. However, the study of the pathogenesis and the development of drugs and vaccines for CVA10 infection is still far from complete...
June 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622279/hydrogen-sulphide-in-exhaled-gases-from-ventilated-septic-neonates-and-children-a-preliminary-report
#8
Natalie Bee, Ruth White, Andy J Petros
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing interest in hydrogen sulphide as a marker of pathologic conditions or predictors of outcome. We speculate that as hydrogen sulphide is a diffusible molecule, if there is an increase in plasma hydrogen sulphide in sepsis, it may accumulate in the alveolar space and be detected in exhaled gas. "We wished to determine whether we could detect hydrogen sulphide in exhaled gases of ventilated children and neonates and if the levels changed in sepsis." DESIGN: Prospective, observational study...
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614987/role-of-amino-acid-supplementation-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates-a-review-of-current-evidences
#9
Bhawan Deep Garg, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acute and fatal gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with mortality range from 15-30%. NEC is likely due to multifactorial process such as oxidative injury, ischemic necrosis and over reactive inflammatory response to intestinal microbes. AIMS: To evaluate the role of amino acid supplementation for reduction of neonatal NEC in preterm neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other data base...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611102/effect-on-neonatal-mortality-of-newborn-infection-management-at-health-posts-when-referral-is-not-possible-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-ethiopia
#10
Tedbabe Degefie Hailegebriel, Brian Mulligan, Simon Cousens, Bereket Mathewos, Steve Wall, Abeba Bekele, Jeanne Russell, Deborah Sitrin, Biruk Tensou, Joy Lawn, Joseph de Graft Johnson, Hailemariam Legesse, Sirak Hailu, Assaye Nigussie, Bogale Worku, Abdullah Baqui
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recently provided guidelines for outpatient treatment of possible severe bacterial infections (PSBI) in young infants, when referral to hospital is not feasible. This study evaluated newborn infection treatment at the most peripheral level of the health system in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomized trial in 22 geographical clusters (11 allocated to intervention, 11 to control). In both arms, volunteers and government-employed Health Extension Workers (HEWs) conducted home visits to pregnant and newly delivered mothers; assessed newborns; and counseled caregivers on prevention of newborn illness, danger signs, and care seeking...
June 12, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609805/syphilis-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-syphilis-reality-in-a-portuguese-central-university-hospital
#11
Magda Magalhães, Lígia Basto, Ana Luísa Areia, Sofia Franco, Maria Eugénia Malheiro, Maria Eulália Afonso, Paulo Moura
Purpose To evaluate maternal-fetal surveillance and follow-up of infants at risk for congenital syphilis (CS). Methods Retrospective cohort study in a Portuguese Tertiary Referral Hospital. The main inclusion criterion was a positive syphilis serology. The study included all pregnant women that delivered in our hospital between January 2004 and December 2013. The neonates were classified according to their probability of infection based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Results Among the 27 pregnancies at risk for CS, 48...
June 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592313/impact-of-community-initiated-kangaroo-mother-care-on-survival-of-low-birth-weight-infants-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Sarmila Mazumder, Sunita Taneja, Suresh Kumar Dalpath, Rakesh Gupta, Brinda Dube, Bireshwar Sinha, Kiran Bhatia, Sachiyo Yoshida, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Rajiv Bahl, Halvor Sommerfelt, Nita Bhandari, Jose Martines
BACKGROUND: Around 70% neonatal deaths occur in low birth weight (LBW) babies. Globally, 15% of babies are born with LBW. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) appears to be an effective way to reduce mortality and morbidity among LBW babies. KMC comprises of early and continuous skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby as well as exclusive breastfeeding. Evidence derived from hospital-based studies shows that KMC results in a 40% relative reduction in mortality, a 58% relative reduction in the risk of nosocomial infections or sepsis, shorter hospital stay, and a lower risk of lower respiratory tract infections in babies with birth weight <2000 g...
June 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591973/-the-application-of-internal-iliac-artery-balloon-occlusion-in-pernicious-placenta-previa
#13
Xiao-Rong Qi, Xing-Hui Liu, Yong You, Xiao-Dong Wang, Rong Zhou, Ai-Yun Xing, Li Zhang, Gang Ning, Fu-Min Zhao, Kai-Ming Li
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical application value of internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in pernicious placenta previa. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients of pernicious placenta previa in a single center from Jan, 2010 to Jan, 2015. The patients were divided into two groups, internal iliac artery balloon occlusion group and the control group without endovascular intervention. Blood loss in operation, volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, operating time, hospital days after operation and postoperative morbidity were compared between the two groups...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587570/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gr-1-supernatant-on-cytokine-and-chemokine-output-from-human-amnion-cells-treated-with-lipoteichoic-acid-and-lipopolysaccharide
#14
Rebecca J E Koscik, Gregor Reid, Sung O Kim, Wei Li, John R G Challis, Alan D Bocking
Preterm birth occurs in 9% to 13% of all human pregnancies and accounts for 80% of all neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Approximately 40% of all preterm births are idiopathic and about half are associated with infection and/or an activated inflammatory process. Further to studies showing anti-inflammatory effects of supernatant from the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (GR-1), we tested its ability to modulate cytokine and chemokine production from amnion cells in response to stimulation by bacterial wall components, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584431/hospital-acquired-infection-prevalence-and-outcome-in-infants-undergoing-open-heart-surgery-in-the-present-era
#15
Manoj Kumar Sahu, Ch Bharat Siddharth, Velayudham Devagouru, Sachin Talwar, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Shiv Chaudhary, Balram Airan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the causal relation between hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and clinical outcomes following cardiac surgery in neonates and infants and to identify the risk factors for the development of HAI in this subset of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After Ethics committee approval, one hundred consecutive infants undergoing open heart surgery (OHS) between June 2015 and June 2016 were included in this prospective observational study...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582313/outbreaks-in-the-neonatal-icu-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
Julia Johnson, Caroline Quach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonates in the neonatal ICU (NICU) are uniquely vulnerable to colonization and infection with pathogens such as multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, which in turn are associated with increased infection-related morbidities and higher case-fatality rates. We reviewed the English, French, and German language literature published between 2015 and 2017, for reports of NICU outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 39 outbreaks in NICUs were reported with Gram-negative bacteria (n = 21; 54%) causing most, and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms being the most frequent resistance mechanism reported (n = 5)...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580433/limited-impact-of-neonatal-or-early-infant-schedules-of-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-papua-new-guinean-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Celestine Aho, Audrey Michael, Mition Yoannes, Andrew Greenhill, Peter Jacoby, John Reeder, William Pomat, Gerard Saleu, Pioto Namuigi, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Amanda J Leach, Peter Richmond, Deborah Lehmann
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, the most common cause of childhood death. Papua New Guinean children experience high rates of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization within weeks of birth, predisposing them to pneumococcal disease. In a trial to determine the safety and immunogenicity of early infant vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV), we investigated the impact of early schedules on pneumococcal carriage. Infants were randomized at birth to receive 7vPCV in a 0-1-2-month (n = 101) or a 1-2-3-month (n = 105) schedule or no 7vPCV (n = 106)...
December 2016: Vaccine Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579520/live-imaging-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-neonates-reveals-differential-tlr2-dependent-activation-patterns-in-sterile-inflammation-and-infection
#18
Melanie Lalancette-Hébert, Joel Faustino, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Sophorn Chip, Zinaida S Vexler, Jasna Kriz
Activation of microglial cells in response to brain injury and/or immune stimuli is associated with a marked induction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While in adult brain, the contribution of individual TLRs, including TLR2, in pathophysiological cascades has been well established, their role and spatial and temporal induction patterns in immature brain are far less understood. To examine whether infectious stimuli and sterile inflammatory stimuli trigger distinct TLR2-mediated innate immune responses, we used three models in postnatal day 9 (P9) mice, a model of infection induced by systemic endotoxin injection and two models of sterile inflammation, intra-cortical IL-1β injection and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
June 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578731/bacterial-infections-in-neonates-following-mupirocin-based-mrsa-decolonization-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#19
Rebecca Pierce, Kristina Bryant, Alexis Elward, Justin Lessler, Aaron M Milstone
OBJECTIVE To characterize the risk of infection after MRSA decolonization with intranasal mupirocin. DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from 3 urban hospitals in the United States ranging in size from 45 to 100 beds. METHODS MRSA-colonized neonates were identified from NICU admissions occurring from January 2007 to December 2014, during which a targeted decolonization strategy was used for MRSA control. In 2 time-to-event analyses, MRSA-colonized neonates were observed from the date of the first MRSA-positive surveillance screen until (1) the first occurrence of novel gram-positive cocci in sterile culture or discharge or (2) the first occurrence of novel gram-negative bacilli in sterile culture or discharge...
June 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578174/maternal-marijuana-use-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-neonatal-morbidity
#20
Torri D Metz, Amanda A Allshouse, Carol J Rowland Hogue, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, Michael W Varner, Deborah L Conway, George R Saade, Robert M Silver
BACKGROUND: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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