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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330778/intratracheal-lps-administration-attenuates-the-acute-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-role-of-brainstem-il-1%C3%AE-receptors
#1
A P Ribeiro, C A Mayer, C G Wilson, R J Martin, P M MacFarlane
Perinatal inflammation and infection are commonly associated with various respiratory morbidities in preterm infants including apnea of prematurity. In this study, we investigated whether pulmonary inflammation via intra-tracheal micro-injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into neonatal rats modifies respiratory neural control via an IL-1β receptor-dependent mechanism. Prior to an intra-tracheal micro-injection of LPS (1mg/kg), 10day old (Postnatal age, P10) rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracisternal (i...
March 19, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323880/randomized-controlled-trials-in-central-vascular-access-devices-a-scoping-review
#2
Mari Takashima, Gillian Ray-Barruel, Amanda Ullman, Samantha Keogh, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. METHOD: A scoping review (January 2006-December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323086/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants-receiving-epinephrine-during-delivery-room-resuscitation
#3
Malvi Savani, Kirtikumar Upadhyay, Ajay J Talati
Background Delivery room resuscitation of very low birth weight infants can involve use of endotracheal or intravenous epinephrine. Data of the past 19 years were reviewed to identify the usage of epinephrine in delivery room and identify characteristics of these babies. METHODS: Neonates with ≤1500gm birthweight from January 1996 to August 2014 were reviewed. Infants born alive and admitted to NICU were eligible. Characteristics such as demographics, survival and outcomes were recorded...
March 17, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#4
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316465/chicken-egg-yolk-antibodies-igy-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-rotavirus-diarrhea-in-human-and-animal-neonates-a-concise-review
#5
Hlaing Myat Thu, Theingi Win Myat, Mo Mo Win, Kyaw Zin Thant, Shofiqur Rahman, Kouji Umeda, Sa Van Nguyen, Faustino C Icatlo, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Koki Taniguchi, Takao Tsuji, Keiji Oguma, Sang Jong Kim, Hyun Suk Bae, Hyuk Joon Choi
The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300495/hospital-acquired-infections-in-paediatric-medical-wards-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#6
Kevin B Spicer, Jennifer Green, Barnesh Dhada
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on HAIs in sub-Saharan Africa and data specific to paediatrics are especially limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of HAIs in the paediatric medical units at Grey's Hospital, a tertiary government hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) team collects data on all laboratory-confirmed infections, including from paediatric patients in two medical units (52 beds), the paediatric intensive/high-care unit (PICU, 8 beds) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, 23 beds)...
March 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300026/effects-of-racecadotril-on-weight-loss-and-diarrhea-due-to-human-rotavirus-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs-sus-scrofa-domesticus
#7
Tammy Bui Guohua Li Inyoung Kim Ke Wen Erica L Twitchell Shaohua Lei Ashwin K Ramesh Mariah D Weiss Xingdong Yang Sherrie G Clark-Deener Robert Km Choy And Lijuan Yuan
Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acutewatery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection. Medicines to specifically reduce diarrhea would be a desirable adjunctive treatment to supportive fluid therapy to decrease the mortality rate of diarrheal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an antisecretory drug, racecadotril, in treating human rotavirus (HRV)-induced diarrhea in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285752/fluconazole-doses-used-for-prophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infection-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-network-meta-analysis
#8
Letícia Paula Leonart, Fernanda Stumpf Tonin, Vinicius Lins Ferreira, Suelem Tavares da Silva Penteado, Fábio de Araújo Motta, Roberto Pontarolo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of different doses of fluconazole used for invasive prophylaxis of fungal infection in neonates. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic search was conducted with PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. A manual search was performed as well. Only randomized controlled trials of neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who received fluconazole prophylaxis for invasive fungal infection, regardless of the dose or therapeutic regimen, were included in this review...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282433/the-cause-specific-morbidity-and-mortality-and-referral-patterns-of-all-neonates-admitted-to-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-the-northern-provinces-of-vietnam-over-a-one-year-period
#9
Merinda Miles, Khu Thi Khanh Dung, Le Thi Ha, Nguyen Thanh Liem, Khu Ha, Rod W Hunt, Kim Mulholland, Chris Morgan, Fiona M Russell
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cause-specific morbidity and mortality, and referral patterns of all neonates admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the northern provinces of Vietnam. DESIGN: A prospective hospital based observational study. SETTING: The Neonatal Department, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam. PATIENTS: All admissions to the Neonatal Department over a 12 month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cause-specific morbidity and mortality; deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277917/is-procalcitonin-to-c-reactive-protein-ratio-useful-for-the-detection-of-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#10
Won-Ho Hahn, Joon-Hwan Song, Ho Kim, Suyeon Park
Procalcitonin (PCT) has been reported as a sensitive marker for neonatal bacterial infections. Recently, small numbers of studies reported usefulness of PCT/C-reactive protein (CRP) ratio in detection of infectious conditions in adults. Thus, we conducted this study to evaluate PCT/CRP ratio in late onset neonatal sepsis. Serum PCT and CRP was measured in blood samples from 7-60 days after birth in 106 of neonates with late onset sepsis and 212 of controls who were matched with gestational age, postnatal age, birth weight and gender...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257640/risk-factors-for-candida-parapsilosis-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-case-control-study
#11
Carmine Garzillo, Maria Bagattini, Lidija Bogdanović, Anna Di Popolo, Vita Dora Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Francesco Raimondi, Maria Triassi, Raffaele Zarrilli
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is increasingly responsible for invasive candidiasis in neonates. This study investigates phenotypic and genotypic features of C. parapsilosis microbial isolates and underlying clinical conditions associated with acquisition of C. parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Italy. METHODS: Identification of C. parapsilosis was performed by VITEK® 2 and MALDI TOF and confirmed by analysis of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences...
January 19, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257562/planned-early-birth-versus-expectant-management-for-women-with-preterm-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-prior-to-37-weeks-gestation-for-improving-pregnancy-outcome
#12
REVIEW
Diana M Bond, Philippa Middleton, Kate M Levett, David P van der Ham, Caroline A Crowther, Sarah L Buchanan, Jonathan Morris
BACKGROUND: Current management of preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (PPROM) involves either initiating birth soon after PPROM or, alternatively, adopting a 'wait and see' approach (expectant management). It is unclear which strategy is most beneficial for mothers and their babies. This is an update of a Cochrane review published in 2010 (Buchanan 2010). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of planned early birth versus expectant management for women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation for fetal, infant and maternal well being...
March 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256367/impact-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-on-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-following-pregnancy-a-meta-analysis-of-studies-published-between-years-2001-2016
#13
REVIEW
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Mohammad Zafooruddin Sani Soogund, Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous research has already shown systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to have severe consequences on pregnancy outcomes. However, insufficient number of participants, which were mainly limited to one particular region, limited outcomes analyzed and lack of evidence based analysis to support systematic reviews of the literature were the limitations observed. Therefore, by improving these limitations, we aimed to systematically show the impact of SLE on maternal and fetal outcomes following pregnancy...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250672/utility-of-cytokine-adhesion-molecule-and-acute-phase-proteins-in-early-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis
#14
M A Fattah, Al Fadhil A Omer, S Asaif, R Manlulu, T Karar, A Ahmed, A Aljada, Ayman M Saleh, Shoeb Qureshi, A Nasr
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Neonatal infection, including bacterial sepsis, is a major health care issue with an annual global mortality in excess of one million lives. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP), E-selectin, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukins-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) both independently and in combination for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in its earliest stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 320 subjects were included in this study...
January 2017: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250440/postnatal-development-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-drives-age-dependent-regio-selective-susceptibility-to-escherichia-coli-k1-infection
#15
George M H Birchenough, Fatma Dalgakiran, Luci A Witcomb, Malin E V Johansson, Alex J McCarthy, Gunnar C Hansson, Peter W Taylor
The strong age dependency of neonatal systemic infection with Escherichia coli K1 can be replicated in the neonatal rat. Gastrointestinal (GI) colonization of two-day-old (P2) rats leads to invasion of the blood within 48 h of initiation of colonization; pups become progressively less susceptible to infection over the P2-P9 period. We show that, in animals colonized at P2 but not at P9, E. coli K1 bacteria gain access to the enterocyte surface in the mid-region of the small intestine and translocate through the epithelial cell monolayer by an intracellular pathway to the submucosa...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250116/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a6-infection-for-evaluation-of-antiviral-and-vaccine-efficacy
#16
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qingjuan Wei, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus 71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD, however, a third enterovirus A species, CoxsackievirusA6 (CVA6), has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We have developed and characterized a murine model of CVA6 infection which was employed to evaluate the antiviral activities of different drugs and the protective efficacies of CVA6-inactivated vaccines...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244059/medical-errors-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-at-benha-university-hospital-egypt
#17
REVIEW
Ahmed N El-Shazly, Mahmoud A Al-Azzouny, Doaa R Soliman, Neveen T Abed, Sameh S Attia
This study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of Benha University Hospital, Egypt from 1 August 2012 to the 31 January 2013 to identify medical errors and to determine the risk factors and consequences of these errors. Errors were detected by follow-up of neonates and review of reports including nursing followup sheets, resident progression notes and investigation reports. We detected 3819 errors that affected 97% of neonates. Types of errors included 403 medication errors (10.55% of total errors), 652 errors in daily routine procedures (17...
February 21, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243937/zika-virus-an-emerging-flavivirus
#18
REVIEW
Sang-Im Yun, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a previously little-known flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, all of which are primarily transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes. Since its discovery in Uganda in 1947, ZIKV has continued to expand its geographic range, from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands, then further afield to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Currently, ZIKV is actively circulating not only in much of Latin America and its neighbors but also in parts of the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia...
March 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241924/primary-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-infection-in-pregnancy
#19
Horst Buxmann, Klaus Hamprecht, Matthias Meyer-Wittkopf, Klaus Friese
BACKGROUND: In 0.5-4% of pregnancies, the prospective mother sustains a primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). An HCMV infection of the fetus in the first or second trimester can cause complex post-encephalitic impairment of the infant brain, leading to motor and mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, retinal defects, and progressive hearing loss. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications from January 2000 to October 2016 that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed employing the terms "cytomegalovirus and pregnancy" and "congenital cytomegalovirus...
January 27, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237500/prospects-for-preventing-infant-invasive-gbs-disease-through-maternal-vaccination
#20
Shabir A Madhi, Ziyaad Dangor
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, with the highest incidence (1.3 per 1000 live births) reported from Africa. Although the incidence of invasive GBS disease is reportedly low in South Asia, there is disconnect between prevalence of maternal recto-vaginal colonization and the incidence of early-onset disease (EOD). This is possibly due to case-ascertainment biases that omit investigation of newborns dying on day-0 of life, which accounts for >90% of EOD. Furthermore, GBS is associated with approximately 15% of all infection related stillbirths...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
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