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infection control neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522856/diagnosing-congenital-malaria-in-a-high-transmission-setting-clinical-relevance-and-usefulness-of-p-falciparum-hrp2-based-testing
#1
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Delwendé Florence Ouedraogo, Hermann Sorgho, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Elisa Serra-Casas, M Athanase Somé, Maminata Coulibaly-Traoré, Petra F Mens, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Congenital malaria diagnosis is challenging due to frequently observed low parasite density infections, while their clinical relevance during early infancy is not well characterized. In Nanoro health district (Burkina Faso), we determined the prevalence of congenital malaria by real-time quantitative PCR and we assessed the performance of rapid diagnosis test (RDT) and light microscopy (LM) to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections in cord-blood samples. In addition, we examined the usefulness of P. falciparum Histidine Rich Protein2 (PfHRP2) as surrogate biomarker of infection and explored association between congenital malaria and clinical outcomes...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516821/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-attributed-to-hospital-tap-water
#2
Cara Bicking Kinsey, Samir Koirala, Benjamin Solomon, Jon Rosenberg, Byron F Robinson, Antonio Neri, Alison Laufer Halpin, Matthew J Arduino, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Judith Noble-Wang, Nora Chea, Carolyn V Gould
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit. DESIGN Infection control assessment, environmental evaluation, and case-control study. SETTING Newly built community-based hospital, 28-bed neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS Neonatal intensive care unit patients receiving care between June 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. METHODS Case finding was performed through microbiology record review. Infection control observations, interviews, and environmental assessment were performed...
May 18, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511634/human-factors-considerations-in-designing-for-infection-prevention-and-control-in-neonatal-care-findings-from-a-pre-design-inquiry
#3
Chantal Trudel, Sue Cobb, Kathryn Momtahan, Janet Brintnell, Ann Mitchell
Qualitative data collection methods drawn from the early stages of human-centred design frameworks combined with thematic analysis were used to develop an understanding of infection prevention practice within an existing neonatal intensive care unit. Findings were used to generate a framework of understanding which in turn helped inform a baseline approach for future research and design development. The study revealed that a lack of clarity between infection transmission zones and a lack of design attributes needed to uphold infection prevention measures may be undermining healthcare workers' understanding and application of good practice...
May 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508419/case-control-study-shows-that-neonatal-pneumococcal-meningitis-cannot-be-distinguished-from-group-b-streptococcus-cases
#4
Alexandra Arfi, Robert Cohen, Emmanuelle Varon, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Corinne Levy
AIM: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is sometimes implicated in neonatal bacterial meningitis. This study described the demographic, clinical and biological features of neonatal S. pneumoniae meningitis and compared pneumococcal and group B streptococcal (GBS) neonatal meningitis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study that compared neonates, aged one to 28 days with S. pneumoniae meningitis or GBS meningitis. Each case with S. pneumoniae was randomly matched to four control patients with GBS by age group and study year...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503359/maintaining-maternal-and-child-health-services-during-the-ebola-outbreak-experience-from-pujehun-sierra-leone
#5
GianLuca Quaglio, Damiano Pizzol, David Bome, Atiba Kebbie, Zainab Bangura, Vandi Massaquoi, Clara Frasson, Donata Dalla Riva, Giovanni Putoto
BACKGROUND: During the Ebola outbreak the overall confidence of the population in the national health system declined in Sierra Leone, with a reduction in the use of health services. The objective of this study is to provide information on understanding of how Ebola impacted maternal and child health services in Sierra Leone. Data come from an operational setting which is representative of the communities affected by the outbreak. METHODS: By integrating hospital registers and contact tracing form data with healthcare workers and local population interviews, the transmission chain was reconstructed...
June 2, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502131/diagnostic-value-of-presepsin-in-neonatal-sepsis
#6
Hala AbdEL-Mageed Tabl, Neveen Tawfik Abed
Presepsin has recently been described as biomarker of sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and discriminating sepsis from non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The study included 70 full term neonates divided into three groups: 1) Sepsis group (22 patients with clinically suspected sepsis and positive blood cultures) 2) Non-infectious SIRS group (28 patients with clinically suspected sepsis and persistently negative blood cultures) 3) Control group (20 healthy neonates without any clinical signs of infection)...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501490/colistin-use-in-critically-ill-neonates-a%C3%A2-case-control-study
#7
Mehmet Sah İpek, Fesih Aktar, Nilufer Okur, Muhittin Celik, Erdal Ozbek
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of colistin use in critically ill neonates. METHODS: This was a case-control study that included newborn infants with proven or suspected nosocomial infections between January 2012 and October 2015, at two centers in Diyarbakir, Turkey. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes of patients who received colistin therapy were reviewed and compared to patients who were treated with antimicrobial agents other than colistin during the same period...
March 27, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497058/impact-of-an-intensive-perinatal-handwashing-promotion-intervention-on-maternal-handwashing-behavior-in-the-neonatal-period-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-rural-bangladesh
#8
Pavani Kalluri Ram, Sharifa Nasreen, Kelly Kamm, Jelena Allen, Swapna Kumar, Mohammad Anisur Rahman, K Zaman, Shams El Arifeen, Stephen P Luby
One-quarter of neonatal deaths are attributed to infections. Maternal handwashing with soap may prevent neonatal sepsis. We examined impact of intensive handwashing promotion on handwashing behavior of mothers of neonates. In Matlab, Bangladesh, we randomly allocated pregnant women at 28-32 weeks' gestation to intensive handwashing promotion or control. Behavior change communicators used a participatory approach to motivate maternal handwashing with soap and provided soap and handwashing stations. In the neonatal period, we observed soap and water at handwashing places and, at the end of the neonatal period, we estimated impact on maternal handwashing by structured observation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495266/maternal-pre-pregnancy-infection-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Jue Liu, Shikun Zhang, Min Liu, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child death in children younger than 5 years. Large cohort studies in developed countries have shown that maternal hepatitis B virus infection is associated with preterm birth, but there is little reliable evidence from China and other developing countries, where hepatitis B virus prevalence is intermediate or high. Hence, we designed this study to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy hepatitis B virus infection and risk of preterm and early preterm birth...
June 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493473/dysregulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-quality-control-by-hiv-1-tat-in-cardiomyocytes
#10
Farzaneh G Tahrir, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Tijana Knezevic, Manish K Gupta, Christopher D Kontos, Joseph M McClung, Muniswamy Madesh, Jennifer Gordon, Arthur M Feldman, Joseph Y Cheung, Kamel Khalili
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients, even in those whose viral loads are well controlled with antiretroviral therapy. However, the underlying molecular events responsible for the development of cardiac disease in the setting of HIV remain unknown. The HIV encoded Tat protein plays a critical role in the activation of HIV gene expression and profoundly impacts homeostasis in both HIV infected cells and uninfected cells that have taken up released Tat via a bystander effect...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493377/neonatal-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-show-reduced-apoptosis-and-immunosuppressive-activity-upon-infection-with-escherichia-coli
#11
Anja Leiber, Julian Schwarz, Natascha Köstlin, Bärbel Spring, Birgit Fehrenbach, Nenad Katava, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to infection during the neonatal period and reduced control of inflammation in neonates are attributed to immunosuppression persisting from fetal life. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid progenitors with suppressive activity and increased numbers in cord blood. We hypothesized that MDSCs contribute to innate host defence in neonates, paralleled by anti-inflammatory signalling. METHODS: Phagocytic activity, infection induced apoptosis, expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family proteins, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine production and T-cell suppression of neonatal granulocytic-MDSCs (G-MDSCs) after infection with Escherichia coli (E...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490591/deletion-of-a-197-amino-acid-region-in-the-n-terminal-domain-of-spike-protein-attenuates-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-piglets
#12
Yixuan Hou, Chun-Ming Lin, Masaru Yokoyama, Boyd L Yount, Douglas Marthaler, Arianna L Douglas, Shristi Ghimire, Yibin Qin, Ralph S Baric, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
We previously isolated a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain PC177, by blind serial passaging the intestinal contents of a diarrheic piglet in Vero cell culture. Compared with a US highly virulent PEDV strain PC21A, the tissue culture-adapted PC177 (TC-PC177) contains a 197 aa-deletion in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein. We orally inoculated neonatal, conventional suckling piglets with TC-PC177 or PC21A to compare the pathogenicity. Within 7 days post-inoculation, TC-PC177 caused mild diarrhea and lower fecal viral RNA shedding, with no mortality, whereas PC21A caused severe clinical signs and 55% mortality...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486369/zika-risk-and-pregnancy-in-clinical-practice-ongoing-experience-as-the-outbreak-evolves
#13
Rashmi Rao, Stephanie L Gaw, Christina S Han, Lawrence D Platt, Neil S Silverman
OBJECTIVE: To describe a single U.S. perinatal center's ongoing experience with evaluating pregnant patients with potential exposure to Zika virus infection. METHODS: This is an institutional review board-approved longitudinal observational study from January to August 2016 from a single perinatal referral center. Patients who had traveled to or had sexual contact with a person who traveled to a region with documented local Zika virus transmission were included in the study...
May 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484220/electrophysiological-properties-and-viability-of-neonatal-rat-ventricular-myocyte-cultures-with-inducible-chr2-expression
#14
Qince Li, Rong Ruby Ni, Huixian Hong, Kah Yong Goh, Michael Rossi, Vladimir G Fast, Lufang Zhou
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-based optogenetic technique has been increasingly applied to cardiovascular research. However, the potential effects of ChR2 protein overexpression on cardiomyocytes are not completely understood. The present work aimed to examine how the doxycycline-inducible lentiviral-mediated ChR2 expression may affect cell viability and electrophysiological property of neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM) cultures. Primary NVRMs were infected with lentivirus containing ChR2 or YFP gene and subjected to cytotoxicity analysis...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483249/effect-of-gentamicin-and-levels-of-ambient-sound-on-hearing-screening-outcomes-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-pilot-study
#15
Angela C Garinis, Selena Liao, Campbell P Cross, Johnathan Galati, Jessica L Middaugh, Jess C Mace, Anna-Marie Wood, Lindsey McEvoy, Lauren Moneta, Troy Lubianski, Noe Coopersmith, Nicholas Vigo, Christopher Hart, Artur Riddle, Olivia Ettinger, Casey Nold, Heather Durham, Carol MacArthur, Cynthia McEvoy, Peter S Steyger
OBJECTIVE: Hearing loss rates in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) run at 2-15%, compared to 0.3% in full-term births. The etiology of this difference remains poorly understood. We examined whether the level of ambient sound and/or cumulative gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) exposure affect NICU hearing screening results, as either exposure can cause acquired, permanent hearing loss. We hypothesized that higher levels of ambient sound in the NICU, and/or gentamicin dosing, increase the risk of referral on the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) assessments and/or automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) screens...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479017/reduced-nosocomial-infection-rate-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-during-a-4-year-surveillance-period
#16
Yong-Chuan Chen, Chen-Fu Lin, Yun-Jiau Fuh Rehn, Juei-Chao Chen, Po-Yen Chen, Chao-Huei Chen, Teh-Ming Wang, Fang-Liang Huang
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the study was to investigate the change of nosocomial infection rate in a NICU during a 4-year surveillance period. METHODS: We investigated the changes in nosocomial infection rates, infection sites, and microorganism species in a NICU before and after the unit was moved to a new location, extending from November 2008 to October 2012...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471985/the-clinical-significance-of-scd14-st-for-blood-biomarker-in-neonatal-hematosepsis-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#17
Ting Xiao, Li-Ping Chen, Li-Hua Zhang, Fu-Huang Lai, Li Zhang, Qun-Feng Qiu, Rong-Liang Que, SiSi Xie, Ding-Chang Wu
Hematosepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with suspected or confirmed infection, which is the most common infectious disease in clinical neonatal intensive care unit. As the rapid development of neonatal hematosepsis caused by various basic diseases, the mortality rate is high, and there are some sequelae.We report the lasted study to date with 96 cases from Fujian Longyan First Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The aim of our study is to explore the value of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 subtype (sCD14-ST) in whole blood for differential diagnosis of neonatal hematosepsis at an early stage, and used in evaluation of the severity about sepsis combined with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte (WBC)...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468901/0-2-chlorhexidine-acetate-as-skin-disinfectant-prevents-skin-lesions-in-extremely-preterm-infants-a-preliminary-report
#18
Lisanne M A Janssen, Alma Tostmann, Joost Hopman, Kian D Liem
OBJECTIVE: The skin disinfectant '0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol' (0.5% CHG-70% alc) may cause skin lesions in extremely preterm infants (gestational age <26 weeks). In April 2013, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution in acetate (0.2% CHG-acetate) was introduced as skin disinfectant for extremely preterm infants in our neonatal intensive care units. We aimed to compare the incidence of skin lesions and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) among extremely preterm infants when using 0...
May 3, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468285/immune-tolerant-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-unrecognized-risks
#19
REVIEW
Patrick T F Kennedy, Samuel Litwin, Grace E Dolman, Antonio Bertoletti, William S Mason
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) progresses through multiple phases, including immune tolerant, immune active, immune control, and, in a subset of patients who achieve immune control, reactivation. The first, the immune tolerant phase, is considered to be prolonged in duration but essentially benign in nature, lacking long-term consequences, and thus not recommended for antiviral therapy. This review challenges the notion that the immune tolerant phase is truly benign and considers the possibility that events during this phase may contribute significantly to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the premature death of 25% of HBV carriers worldwide...
April 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461572/group-b-streptococci-induce-proinflammatory-responses-via-a-protein-kinase-d1-dependent-pathway
#20
Kirtikumar Upadhyay, Jeoung-Eun Park, Tae Won Yoon, Priyanka Halder, Young-In Kim, Victoria Metcalfe, Ajay J Talati, B Keith English, Ae-Kyung Yi
Group B streptococci (GBS) are one of the leading causes of life-threatening illness in neonates. Proinflammatory responses to GBS mediated through host innate immune receptors play a critical role in the disease manifestation. However, the mechanisms involved in proinflammatory responses against GBS, as well as the contribution of signaling modulators involved in host immune defense, have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase D (PKD)1 in the proinflammatory responses to GBS...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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