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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641975/engendering-drug-problems-materialising-gender-in-the-dudit-and-other-screening-and-diagnostic-apparatuses
#2
Robyn Dwyer, Suzanne Fraser
It is widely accepted that alcohol and other drug consumption is profoundly gendered. Just where this gendering is occurring, however, remains the subject of debate. We contend that one important and overlooked site where the gendering of substance consumption and addiction is taking place is through AOD research itself: in particular, through the addiction screening and diagnostic tools designed to measure and track substance consumption and problems within populations. These tools establish key criteria and set numerical threshold scores for the identification of problems...
June 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641217/the-aggressor-at-the-mirror-psychiatric-correlates-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-male-prison-inmates
#3
N Verdolini, A Murru, L Attademo, R Garinella, I Pacchiarotti, C Del Mar Bonnin, L Samalin, L Pauselli, M Piselli, A Tamantini, R Quartesan, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, A Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version...
April 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632095/transgressing-gender-norms-in-addiction-treatment-transgender-rights-to-access-within-gender-segregated-facilities
#4
Sara Matsuzaka
Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder and co-occurring health and mental health issues compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to accessing and engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat substance-dependent heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender-segregated housing, bathrooms, and treatment sessions. The heteronormative structural and programmatic barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic and prejudicial attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631520/striatal-changes-underlie-mpep-mediated-suppression-of-the-acquisition-and-expression-of-pramipexole-induced-place-preference-in-an-alpha-synuclein-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Simon Loiodice, Portia McGhan, Vitalina Gryshkova, Renaud Fleurance, David Dardou, Aziz Hafidi, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Durif
Impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease patients have been described as behavioural or substance addictions including pathological gambling or compulsive medication use of dopamine replacement therapy. A substantial gap remains in the understanding of these disorders. We previously demonstrated that the rewarding effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was enhanced after repeated exposure to L-dopa and alpha-synuclein mediated dopaminergic nigral loss with specific transcriptional signatures suggesting a key involvement of the glutamatergic pathway...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#6
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622616/treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-effects-on-patients-with-higher-or-lower-levels-of-ptsd-symptoms
#7
Carol E M Wieferink, Hein A de Haan, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Martine Fledderus, Tim Kok
While guidelines advise integrated treatment of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), recent studies and reviews find no convincing evidence of different outcomes following treatment between non-trauma focused integrated programs and SUD treatment alone. In this study, we analyzed whether SUD patients with higher levels of PTSD symptoms receiving standard, non-integrated SUD treatment (N=145) differed in outcomes compared to patients with lower levels of PTSD symptoms (N=152)...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622206/bupropion-augmentation-in-a-case-of-compulsive-buying-disorder
#8
Gianna Sepede, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Fiori, Massimo Di Giannantonio
BACKGROUND: Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622030/age-of-initiation-and-internet-gaming-disorder-the-role-of-self-esteem
#9
Charlotte L Beard, Amie L Haas, Robert E Wickham, Vasileios Stavropoulos
The link between early initiation and problematic use has been observed for substance use disorders; however, this link has not been as clearly established for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Available studies indicate that individuals who initiate Internet use at younger ages exhibit an increased risk for general Internet addiction. Prior research also suggests unique cognitive processes in online gaming, such that an individual's overall sense of self-worth can become contingent upon self-esteem derived from the gaming environment...
June 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620208/bacterial-diversity-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-revealed-by-16s-rrna-gene-deep-sequencing
#10
Yu Xu, Zhenrong Xie, Huawei Wang, Zongwen Shen, Youbing Guo, Yunhong Gao, Xin Chen, Qiang Wu, Xuejun Li, Kunhua Wang
Substance abuse and addiction are worldwide concerns. In China, populated with over 1.3 billion people, emerging studies show a steady increase in substance abuse and substance-related problems. Some of the major challenges include a lack of an effective evaluation platform to determine the health status of substance-addicted subjects. It is known that the intestinal microbiota is associated to the occurrence and development of human diseases. However, the changes of bacterial diversity of intestinal microbiota in substance-addicted subjects have not been clearly characterized...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618284/differences-in-biomarkers-of-crack-cocaine-adolescent-users-before-after-abstinence
#11
Thiago Gatti Pianca, Ronaldo Lopes Rosa, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Bianca Wollenhaupt de Aguiar, Rafaela Carvalho de Abrahão, Patrícia Mafra Lazzari, Flávio Kapczinski, Flávio Pechansky, Luis Augusto Rohde, Cláudia Maciel Szobot
AIMS: To measure the variation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and interleukin (IL) levels in crack-cocaine dependent adolescents after 21days of abstinence, comparing to levels found in a group of healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nested on a short follow-up study. SETTING: Two inpatient treatment units for adolescents, and a low-income neighborhood. PARTICIPANTS: 90 adolescents, of both genders, with diagnosis of crack cocaine dependence, and 81 healthy adolescents...
June 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617388/-substance-abuse-a-relationship-with-childhood-traumas
#12
A A Portnova, Yu P Sivolap
Childhood maltreatment contributes to poor mental and physical health and besides, in some cases, not only in early age but also throughout the life of the individual. Adverse effects of childhood trauma, along with depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, include predisposition to substance abuse. A reduction of child abuse may decrease the prevalence of mental disorders, including addictive disorders, and improve mental health.
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617097/involuntary-civil-commitment-for-substance-use-disorder-legal-precedents-and-ethical-considerations-for-social-workers
#13
Matthew T Walton, Martin T Hall
Although each state in the United States legally authorizes involuntary civil commitment on the grounds of severe mental illness, a considerable number do not have comparable laws to mandate drug addiction treatment. This discrepancy is due, in part, to differing ethical positions regarding whether a substance use disorder diagnosis provides sufficient justification to suspend individual liberty rights. This article chronicles some of the legal and ethical thinking on the subject and applies them to a social work-specific context...
June 15, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604354/mental-health-insurance-parity-and-provider-wages
#14
Ezra Golberstein, Susan H Busch
BACKGROUND: Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601497/comparison-of-long-acting-and-oral-antipsychotic-treatment-effects-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-comorbid-substance-abuse-and-a-history-of-recent-incarceration-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-pride-study
#15
H Lynn Starr, Jason Bermak, Lian Mao, Steve Rodriguez, Larry Alphs
INTRODUCTION: Comorbid substance abuse is known to blunt response to treatment for underlying psychiatric disorders, but it has not been investigated in schizophrenia when comparing the effects of long-acting injectable antipsychotics with those of oral antipsychotics. METHODS: This exploratory analysis compared once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) with daily oral antipsychotics on time to treatment failure in patients with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597664/-addictive-substances-in-fatal-cases-of-fall-jump-from-height
#17
Martin Zdarílek, Peter Očko, Ján Šikuta, Ľuboš Nižnanský, Jozef Šidlo
The aim of the study is to analyse causes of fatal cases of falls from height focusing on the occurrence of addictive substances. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of cases dealing with falls/jumps autopsied at the Institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bratislava in the years 2005-2014 accounting for a catchment area with approximately 1.2 m population. Selection criteria were met in 360 cases, i.e. approximately 4 % of all cases autopsied. There were 68 % of men and 32 % of women involved. The age interval ranged from 10 up to 93 years (mean age 50 years)...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594602/randomized-pilot-of-an-anxiety-sensitivity-based-intervention-for-individuals-in-a-substance-use-day-program
#18
Blaise L Worden, Marla Genova, David F Tolin
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the tendency to appraise physical symptoms as intolerable or dangerous, may maintain the cycle between co-occurring anxiety and substance use disorders. This study examined preliminary efficacy of a brief intervention targeting AS for individuals with heterogeneous substance use disorders. Forty-one patients with high AS entering an addictions day program were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or to TAU plus a nine-hour AS-focused intervention that consisted of interoceptive exposures, psychoeducation about the cycle of problematic substance use and anxiety, and a single session of cognitive challenging (e...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581535/differential-criteria-for-binge-eating-disorder-and-food-addiction-in-the-context-of-causes-and-treatment-of-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Monika Bąk-Sosnowska
OBJECTIVES: To establish the differential criteria for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). METHODS: We performed a detailed analysis of comparative diagnostic criteria for BED and Substance use disorder contained in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-V. We applied the diagnostic criteria for both disorders to scientific publications on the issue of excessive eating in obese people, during the years 2005-2016, available on PubMed...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576510/the-role-of-the-habenula-in-the-transition-from-reward-to-misery-in-substance-use-and-mood-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Albert Batalla, Judith R Homberg, Tatiana V Lipina, Guillaume Sescousse, Maartje Luijten, Svetlana A Ivanova, Arnt F A Schellekens, Anton J M Loonen
The habenula (Hb) is an evolutionary well-conserved structure located in the epithalamus. The Hb receives inputs from the septum, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and projects to several midbrain centers, most importantly the inhibitory rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and the excitatory interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), which regulate the activity of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The Hb is postulated to play a key role in reward and aversion processing across species, including humans, and to be implicated in the different stages of transition from recreational drug intake to addiction and co-morbid mood disorders...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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