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Noritoshi Fukushima, Makiko Kitabayashi, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Sasai, Koichiro Oka, Yoshio Nakata, Shigeho Tanaka, And Shigeru Inoue
OBJECTIVE: The times spent in sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are independently associated with health outcomes; however, objective data on physical activity levels including SB among different occupations is limited. We compared accelerometer-measured times spent in SB, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and MVPA, and the patterns associated with prolonged bouts of SB between white- and blue-collar workers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 102 full-time plant workers (54 white-collar and 48 blue-collar) who wore a triaxial accelerometer during waking hours for 5 working days...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Debasish Deb, Ankita Shrestha, Indu B Maiti, Nrisingha Dey
Development of disease-resistant plant varieties achieved by engineering anti-microbial transgenes under the control of strong promoters can suffice the inhibition of pathogen growth and simultaneously ensure enhanced crop production. For evaluating the prospect of such strong promoters, we comprehensively characterized the full-length transcript promoter of Cassava Vein Mosaic Virus (CsVMV; -565 to +166) and identified CsVMV8 (-215 to +166) as the highest expressing fragment in both transient and transgenic assays...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kinley Dorji, Sonam Phuntsho, Pempa, Suthasinee Kumluang, Sarayuth Khuntha, Wantanee Kulpeng, Sneha Rajbhandari, Yot Teerawattananon
BACKGROUND: Due to competing health priorities and limited resources, many low-income countries, even those with a high disease burden, are not able to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-utility of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) compared to no vaccination in Bhutan. METHODS: A model-based cost-utility analysis was performed in the Bhutanese context using a government perspective...
February 22, 2018: Vaccine
Wenting Dang, Libu Manjakkal, William Taube Navaraj, Leandro Lorenzelli, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Ravinder Dahiya
Sensor-laden wearable systems that are capable of providing continuous measurement of key physiological parameters coupled with data storage, drug delivery and feedback therapy have attracted huge interest. Here we report a stretchable wireless system for sweat pH monitoring, which is able to withstand up to 53% uniaxial strain and more than 500 cycles to 30% strain. The stretchability of the pH sensor patch is provided by a pair of serpentine-shaped stretchable interconnects. The pH sensing electrode is made of graphite-polyurethane composite, which is suitable for biosensor application...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Thalita Pedon de Araujo, Isabelle Moura Fittipaldi, Danilo Cesar Galindo Bedor, Maira Ludna Duarte, Sarah F Cordery, Richard H Guy, M Begonã Delgado-Charro, Davi Pereira de Santana, Leila Bastos Leal
The topical bioavailabilities of metronidazole from a commercially available 'reference' product (Rozex® ) and two extemporaneous test formulations were compared. With the reference drug product, a full skin pharmacokinetic profile, in vivo in human volunteers (following a 6-hour uptake and clearance over the subsequent 22 hours), was obtained using an improved stratum corneum (SC) sampling procedure. Then, a two-time point SC sampling method enabled the bio(in)equivalence of the test formulations to Rozex® to be evaluated...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Elin Lindström, Anders Sundin, Carlos Trampal, Lars Lindsjö, Ezgi Ilan, Torsten Danfors, Gunnar Antoni, Jens Sörensen, Mark Lubberink
Resolution and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) are highly influenced by the reconstruction method. Penalized likelihood estimation algorithms allow for fully convergent iterative reconstruction, generating a higher image contrast while limiting noise compared to ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM). In this study, block-sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM) was compared to time-of-flight OSEM (TOF-OSEM). Various strengths of noise penalization factor β were tested along with scan durations and transaxial field of views (FOVs) with the aim to evaluate the performance and clinical use of BSREM for 18 F-FDG-PET-computed tomography (CT), both in quantitative terms and in a qualitative visual evaluation...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
R Godoy-Diana, B Thiria
Questions of energy dissipation or friction appear immediately when addressing the problem of a body moving in a fluid. For the most simple problems, involving a constant steady propulsive force on the body, a straightforward relation can be established balancing this driving force with a skin friction or form drag, depending on the Reynolds number and body geometry. This elementary relation closes the full dynamical problem and sets, for instance, average cruising velocity or energy cost. In the case of finite-sized and time-deformable bodies though, such as flapping flyers or undulatory swimmers, the comprehension of driving/dissipation interactions is not straightforward...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Ellen Johansson, Tobias E Holmin, Bengt R Johansson, Magnus Braide
Peer-assisted learning has gained momentum in a variety of disciplines, including medical education. In Gothenburg, Sweden, medical students who have finished their compulsory anatomy courses have the option of working as teaching assistants (TAs). Teaching assistants provide small group teaching sessions as a complement to lectures given by faculty. Previously, TAs were left to handle the role as junior teachers by themselves, but since 2011, a continuation course in anatomy has been developed with the aim of providing the TAs better anatomy knowledge and guidance for teaching...
February 14, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
T Kuriyama, N Sakai, M Beppu, C Sakai, H Imamura, K Masago, N Katakami, H Isoda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Innovative techniques and device-related advances have improved the outcomes of neuroendovascular treatment. 3D imaging has previously used 2 × 2 binning, but 1 × 1 binning has recently been made available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative ability of conebeam CT for stent delineation and to investigate its effectiveness in the clinical environment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four acquisition groups of 3D MIP images acquired using conebeam CT with varying conditions (acquisition time, 10 or 20 seconds and binning, 1 × 1 or 2 × 2) were compared...
February 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Luca Sorrentino, Alessandra Sartani, Gaia Pietropaolo, Daniela Bossi, Serena Mazzucchelli, Marta Truffi, Diego Foschi, Fabio Corsi
BACKGROUND: The equipment to detect indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer is not widely accessible nor optimal. The fluorescence appears as a poorly defined white shine on a black background, and dimmed lighting is required. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, accuracy and healthcare costs of a novel approach for SLN biopsy by a video-assisted ICG-guided technique. METHODS: The technique for detecting SLN was radioisotope (RI) in 194 cases, video-assisted ICG-guided in 70 cases and a combined method in 71 cases...
February 5, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Daniel F Battafarano, Marcia Ditmyer, Marcy B Bolster, John D FitzGerald, Chad Deal, Anne R Bass, Rodolfo Molina, Alan R Erickson, Jonathan S Hausman, Marisa Klein-Gitelman, Lisa F Imundo, Benjamin J Smith, Karla Jones, Kamilah Greene, Seetha U Monrad
OBJECTIVE: Describe the character and composition of the 2015 U.S. adult rheumatology workforce; evaluate workforce trends; and project supply and demand for clinical rheumatology care 2015-2030. METHODS: The 2015 Workforce Study of Rheumatology Specialists in the U.S. used primary and secondary data sources to estimate the baseline adult rheumatology workforce and determine demographic and geographic factors relevant to workforce modeling. Supply and demand was projected through 2030, utilizing data-driven estimations regarding the proportion and clinical full-time equivalent (FTE) of academic vs...
February 5, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Marcy B Bolster, Anne R Bass, Jonathan S Hausmann, Chad Deal, Marcia Ditmyer, Kamilah L Greene, Seetha U Monrad, Daniel F Battafarano
OBJECTIVE: Graduate medical education (GME), through fellowship training, plays a critical role in providing new rheumatologists into our workforce and is an essential component when addressing the gap of excess demand for adult rheumatology care. METHODS: Primary and secondary data sources were used to develop an integrated workforce model. Factors specific to new graduates entering the workforce included available and filled fellowship positions, gender shifts, planned work schedules (part-time, full- time), practice settings (academic, non-academic private practice), and number of international medical graduates (IMGs) projecting U...
February 5, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
A N Murphy, N P Sheehy, P V Kavanagh
AIM: To describe and quantify the range of non-interpretive tasks engaged in by consultant radiologists in Ireland today. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multiple-choice electronic survey was circulated to over 200 Irish consultant radiologists and results were analysed. RESULTS: Responses were received from approximately 40% of the 267 full-time equivalent consultants in Ireland at the time of the survey. There was a wide sub-specialty mix, and responses from both clinical directors and those without designated administrative responsibility...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Hope M Tiesman, Melody Gwilliam, Srinivas Konda, Jeff Rojek, Suzanne Marsh
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014. METHODS: Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey...
January 26, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rahul Verma, Matteo Icardi, Maša Prodanović
Understanding of pore-scale physics for multiphase flow in porous media is essential for accurate description of various flow phenomena. In particular, capillarity and wettability strongly influence capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships. Wettability is quantified by the contact angle of the fluid-fluid interface at the pore walls. In this work we focus on the non-trivial interface equilibria in presence of non-neutral wetting and complex geometries. We quantify the accuracy of a volume-of-fluid (VOF) formulation, implemented in a popular open-source computational fluid dynamics code, compared with a new formulation of a level set (LS) method, specifically developed for quasi-static capillarity-dominated displacement...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Paul Bastide, Cécile Ané, Stéphane Robin, Mahendra Mariadassou
To study the evolution of several quantitative traits, the classical phylogenetic comparative framework consists of a multivariate random process running along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process is sometimes preferred to the simple Brownian Motion (BM) as it models stabilizing selection toward an optimum. The optimum for each trait is likely to be changing over the long periods of time spanned by large modern phylogenies. Our goal is to automatically detect the position of these shifts on a phylogenetic tree, while accounting for correlations between traits, which might exist because of structural or evolutionary constraints...
January 27, 2018: Systematic Biology
Akira Ehara
To measure the geographic accessibility of pediatric inpatient medical services in Japan, the proportion of children who lived within 5, 10, 20, and 30 km of the nearest hospital providing inpatient services for children and staffed by at least five full-time equivalent pediatricians was calculated. Geographic information systems were used to assess the location of the hospitals, and the latitude, longitude, and child population of 219,100 residential "blocks" in Japan. The population and proportion of children in over- and under-populated prefectures were compared to show differences in accessibility...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Jennifer Cronly, Alistair J Duff, Kristin A Riekert, Ivan J Perry, Anthony P Fitzgerald, Aine Horgan, Elaine Lehane, Barbara Howe, Muireann Ni Chroinin, Eileen Savage
OBJECTIVE: To compare online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in CF clinics in Ireland and through the Cystic Fibrosis Ireland online community. PARTICIPANTS: 160 adult patients aged 18 or above were recruited. Of these, 147 were included in the analysis; 83 online and 64 paper-based. The remaining 13 were excluded because of incomplete data...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Jaganmohan R Jangamreddy, Michel K C Haagdorens, M Mirazul Islam, Philip Lewis, Ayan Samanta, Per Fagerholm, Aneta Liszka, Monika K Ljunggren, Oleksiy Buznyk, Emilio I Alarcon, Nadia Zakaria, Keith M Meek, May Griffith
Short collagen-like peptides (CLPs) are being proposed as alternatives to full-length collagen for use in tissue engineering, on their own as soft hydrogels, or conjugated to synthetic polymer for mechanical strength. However, despite intended clinical use, little is known about their safety and efficacy, mechanism of action or degree of similarity to the full-length counterparts they mimic. Here, we show the functional equivalence of a CLP conjugated to polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) to full-length recombinant human collagen in vitro and in promoting stable regeneration of corneal tissue and nerves in a pre-clinical mini-pig model...
January 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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