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Shrikanth Muralidharan, Astha Chauhan, Srinivasa Gowda, Rutuja Ambekar, Bhupendra S Rathore, Sakshi Chabra, Afsheen Lalani, Harsh Harani
Introduction: India is home to many tribes which have an interesting and varied history of origins, customs and social practices. Oral health care in tribal areas is limited due to shortage of dental manpower, financial constraints and the lack of perceived need for dental care among tribal masses. Objective: To assess orthodontic treatment need among tribal children of Indore division, Central India. Methods: A cross-sectional house to house survey was carried out among 800 tribal children aged 5 to 15 years old in two major tribal districts of Indore division...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Su-Chieh Pamela Sun, JuanDavid Garcia, Joshua A Hayden
Objectives: To determine the need and impact of repeating critical values in hematology and coagulation. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the need for repeating critical values. The cost of this practice was estimated using a workflow analysis. Retrospective chart review before and after removal of this process was performed to assess the clinical impact of removing this practice. Results: Over 95% of the repeated values remained critical and all but one of the repeats were within the expected analytical precision of the assays...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Anil Kapur, Hema Divakar, Veeraswamy Seshiah
Estimates indicate that south Asia accounts for over two fifths of the global burden of hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) and the ongoing nutritional and epidemiological transition may make the situation worse. Given the high risk all women of south Asian decent require to be tested for HIP. With approximately 37 million births annually in the region at least 37 million women require to be tested annually placing a huge burden on the fragile inadequately resourced health systems in the region with poor awareness and lack of trained manpower...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Siv K Stafseth, Tor Inge Tønnessen, Lisbeth Fagerström
OBJECTIVES: Nurse staffing costs represent approximately 60% of total intensive care unit costs. In order to analyse resource allocation in intensive care, we examined the association between nurse staffing costs and two patient classification systems: the nursing activities score (NAS) and nine equivalents of nursing manpower use score (NEMS). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive correlational analysis of nurse staffing costs and data of 6390 patients extracted from a data warehouse...
February 2, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Charlotta Pisinger, Torben Jørgensen, Ulla Toft
The aim of this paper was to investigate if a multifactorial approach may be used to explain why national smoking rates have levelled off in Denmark after 60 years of decline. 
Methods: Seven hypothetical explanations for stagnation in smoking rate were explored. A period of five years with a declining smoking prevalence (2007-2011) was compared with four years of stalled smoking prevalence (2012-2015). We used individual and national level information sources, mostly cross-sectional data that were collected repeatedly, including large nationally representative surveys, sales stat-istics, nation-wide news and smoking cessation databases and legal information, among others...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Ratnakar Kini, Sabarinathan Ramanathan, Pugazhendhi Thangavel, Premkumar Karunakaran, Kani Shaik Mohamed, Murali Ananthavadivelu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement with fluoroscopic guidance is a commonly used technique to relieve obstruction in patients with esophageal carcinoma. However, it has disadvantages such as radiation exposure. SEMS placement with endoscopic guidance also has the disadvantages of causing discomfort to patients as the endoscope and SEMS assembly are simultaneously used and it needs two experts for the procedure to be performed. To overcome these disadvantages, a simplified technique for SEMS placement was developed that does not require fluoroscopic or endoscopic guidance...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Y Zhang
In Shanxi Province, governed by Yan Xishan during the Republic of China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is in a climate of relative tolerance on the whole, under its supporting policy. A TCM Improving Society was organized by Yan Xishan himself as president. Whereafter, a series of activities are carried out by the Society, such as the establishments of an Affiliated Hospital, a Learning School of TCM, and creation of Medical Magazineetc., all of which was supported by Yan through providing financial resources and manpower...
November 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Jichao Bi, Lu-Xing Yang, Xiaofan Yang, Yingbo Wu, Yuan Yan Tang
This article addresses the tradeoff between the losses caused by a new virus and the size of the team for developing an antivirus against the virus. First, an individual-level virus spreading model is proposed to capture the spreading process of the virus before the appearance of its natural enemy. On this basis, the tradeoff problem is modeled as a discrete optimization problem. Next, the influences of different factors, including the infection force, the infection function, the available manpower, the alarm threshold, the antivirus development effort and the network topology, on the optimal team size are examined through computer simulations...
2018: PloS One
Hye Ran Park, Sukh Que Park, Jae Hyun Kim, Jae Chan Hwang, Gwang Soo Lee, Jae-Chil Chang
Objective: In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Methods: Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas...
January 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
I X Y Wu, J C Y Kee, D E Threapleton, R Ma, V C K Lam, E K P Lee, S Y S Wong, V C H Chung
Patient education and behavioural interventions for self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are effective but place demands on manpower resources. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effectiveness of smartphone technologies (STs) for improving glycaemic control among T2DM patients. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and ScienceDirect were searched through December 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing STs with usual diabetes care among T2DM patients and reporting change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level were included...
January 17, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lotte Vestjens, Jane M Cramm, Anna P Nieboer
BACKGROUND: High-quality care delivery for frail older persons, many of whom have multiple complex needs, is among the greatest challenges faced by healthcare systems today. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) may guide quality improvement efforts for primary care delivery to frail older populations. Objectives of this study were to assess the implementation of interventions in CCM dimensions, and to investigate the quality of primary care as perceived by healthcare professionals, in practices following the Finding and Follow-up of Frail older persons (FFF) integrated care approach and those providing usual care...
January 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Madeleine Huei Tze Kho, Keng Sheng Chew, Muhaimin Noor Azhar, Mohd Lotfi Hamzah, Kee Man Chuah, Aida Bustam, Hiang Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: While emergency airway management training is conventionally conducted via face-to-face learning (F2FL) workshops, there are inherent cost, time, place and manpower limitations in running such workshops. Blended learning (BL) refers to the systematic integration of online and face-to-face learning aimed to facilitate complex thinking skills and flexible participation at a reduced financial, time and manpower cost. This study was conducted to evaluate its effectiveness in emergency airway management training...
January 15, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Yuzeng Shen, Lin Hui Lee
Prolonged wait times at the emergency department (ED) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient satisfaction. Reducing wait times at the ED is challenging. The objective of this study is to determine if the implementation of a series of interventions would help decrease the wait time to consultation (WTC) for patients at the ED within 6 months. Interventions include creation of a common board detailing work output, matching manpower to patient arrivals and adopting a team-based model of care...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Baban S Kolte, Sanjay R Londhe, Bhushan R Solanki, Rajesh N Gacche, Rohan J Meshram
Finding novel chemical agents for targeting disease associated drug targets often requires screening of large number of new chemical libraries. In silico methods are generally implemented at initial stages for virtual screening. Filtering of such compound libraries on physicochemical and substructure ground is done to ensure elimination of compounds with undesired chemical properties. Filtering procedure, is redundant, time consuming and requires efficient bioinformatics/computer manpower along with high end software involving huge capital investment that forms a major obstacle in drug discovery projects in academic setup...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Dong Cheol Lee, Se Youp Lee, Yu Cheol Kim
The prevalence of myopia has been increasing worldwide. Its causes are not completely clear, although genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Data were collected by the Korean Military Manpower Administration. Frequency analysis was used for comparisons of general characteristics. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to verify the correlations between possible risk factors and the prevalence of myopia or high myopia. The prevalence of myopia (50.6-53.0%) and high myopia (11...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karla J Kopp, Marie R Passow, Kristina M Del Rosario, Michael R Christensen, John W O'Shaughnessy, Mary K Bartholet, Mary E Francis, Thomas J Flotte
BACKGROUND: The amount of time available to pathologists with which to perform research is becoming limited due to an increasing manpower shortage in pathology, decreased reimbursement, and increased workload. This is occurring at the same time as demands escalate for pathologists to develop new companion tests, correlate the molecular findings with traditional methods, and assist in the development of individualized medicine. This study examined whether cytotechnologists may be integrated into a research team that uses their expertise in understanding pathology and clinical disease to provide interpretations of experiments that traditionally were performed by pathologists...
January 9, 2018: Cancer
Hsun-Kuei Ko, Chi-Chun Chin, Min-Tao Hsu
BACKGROUND: The problems of nurse burnout and manpower shortage relate to moral distress. Thus, having a good understanding of moral distress is critical to developing strategies that effectively improve the clinical ethical climate and improve nursing retention in Taiwan. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to reconstruct the model of moral distress using the grounded theory. METHODS: Twenty-five staff nurses at work units who attend to the needs of adult, pediatric, acute, and critical disease or end-of-life-care patients were recruited as participants using theoretical sampling from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan...
February 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Albert Pall Sigurdsson
This article discusses endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. This treatment is vascular medicine's most significant leap in years. This treatment is complicated, and various technical aspects are discussed. Close cooperation is required between different specialties since patient selection for treatment is complex. Interventionists need close collaboration with stroke neurologists. Government needs to be involved as this treatment mandates structural changes which will incur more manpower and financial resources...
January 2018: Læknablađiđ
M A Bashar, Sonu Goel
Background: A Sub-Centre (SC) is most peripheral and first point of contact between the primary healthcare system and the community in the rural areas. The success of any nationwide program largely depends on well-functioning SCs providing services of acceptable standards to people. Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) for SCs was prepared keeping in view the minimum standards required to provide quality and need sensitive health care to the community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ambala District of Haryana to assess the availability of physical infrastructure, manpower, drugs and equipment in the SCs...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Mojtaba Dorri, Maria José Martinez-Zapata, Tanya Walsh, Valeria Cc Marinho, Aubrey Sheiham Deceased, Carlos Zaror
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a sugar-dependent disease that damages tooth structure and, due to loss of mineral components, may eventually lead to cavitation. Dental caries is the most prevalent disease worldwide and is considered the most important burden of oral health. Conventional treatment methods (drill and fill) involve the use of rotary burs under local anaesthesia. The need for an electricity supply, expensive handpieces and highly trained dental health personnel may limit access to dental treatment, especially in underdeveloped regions...
December 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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