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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920821/protective-effect-of-vitamin-c-vitamin-b12-and-omega-3-on-lead-induced-memory-impairment-in-rat
#1
Saeedeh Alsadat Moosavirad, Mohammad Rabbani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad
Lead belongs to the heavy metal group and is considered as an environmental contaminant. Acute or chronic contact to lead can change the physiological function of human organs. One of the most important disorders following the lead exposure is neurotoxicity. Lead neurotoxicity consists of the neurobehavioral disturbances like cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamin C (Vit C), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), omega 3 (ω-3), or their combination on the lead-induced memory disorder...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920777/physical-interaction-of-t-cells-with-dendritic-cells-is-not-required-for-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-edible-mushroom-agaricus-subrufescens
#2
Ruud H P Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Jan van de Velde, Geert Smant, Debbie R van Raaij, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Jaap Bakker, Arjen Schots
Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC's cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918829/identification-of-novel-endogenous-anti-lymph-angiogenic-factors-in-the-aqueous-humor
#3
Felix Bock, Jasmine Onderka, Gabriele Braun, Ann-Charlott Schneider, Deniz Hos, Yanlong Bi, Björn O Bachmann, Claus Cursiefen
Purpose: The avascular cornea is in direct contact with aqueous humor (AqH). Here we investigate whether AqH exerts anti(lymph)angiogenic effects and thereby may contribute to corneal (lymph)angiogenic privilege. Methods: Using the murine model of suture-induced inflammatory corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis, the potential anti(lymph)angiogenic effect of AqH was analyzed by applying murine AqH as eyedrops. Anti(lymph)angiogenic effects were measured using morphometric analysis of flat mounts stained with CD31 as panendothelial and LYVE-1 as specific lymphatic endothelial marker...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917896/astragaloside-iv-ameliorates-allergic-inflammation-by-inhibiting-key-initiating-factors-in-the-initial-stage-of-sensitization
#4
Kai-Fan Bao, Xi Yu, Xiao Wei, Li-Li Gui, Hai-Liang Liu, Xiao-Yu Wang, Yu Tao, Guo-Rong Jiang, Min Hong
To illuminate the anti-allergy mechanism of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), we assessed its effects in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). AS-IV administered in the sensitization phase, rather than in the elicitation phase, dramatically alleviated the symptoms of allergic inflammation. We hypothesized that AS-IV exerts its anti-allergy effects by regulating the production of key pro-allergic cytokines based on the fact that interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels increase significantly in the initial stage of the sensitization phase...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917448/lithium-reversibly-inhibits-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-without-inducing-myelin-loss
#5
Gonzalo Piñero, Randall Berg, Natalia Denise Andersen, Patricia Setton-Avruj, Paula Virginia Monje
This study was undertaken to examine the bioactivity, specificity, and reversibility of lithium's action on the growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation of cultured Schwann cells (SCs). In isolated SCs, lithium promoted a state of cell cycle arrest that featured extensive cell enlargement and c-Jun downregulation in the absence of increased expression of myelin-associated markers. In addition, lithium effectively prevented mitogen-induced S-phase entry without impairing cell viability. When lithium was administered together with differentiating concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogs, a dramatic inhibition of the expression of the master regulator of myelination Krox-20 was observed...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915168/interactions-of-long-chain-homologues-of-colchicine-with-tubulin
#6
Ana Marzo-Mas, Pascale Barbier, Gilles Breuzard, Diane Allegro, Eva Falomir, Juan Murga, Miguel Carda, Vincent Peyrot, J Alberto Marco
Several colchicine analogues in which the N-acetyl residue has been replaced by aliphatic, straight-chain acyl moieties, have been synthesized. These compounds show high cytotoxic activity at the nanomolar level against the tumoral cell lines HT-29, MCF-7 and A549. Some of them exhibit activities in the picomolar range against the HT-29 line and are thus two to three orders of magnitude more cytotoxic than colchicine. In this specific cell line, the activities were found to be closely related to the length of the acyl carbon chain, an increase in the latter giving rise to an increase in the cytotoxicity with a maximum in the range of 10-12 carbon atoms, followed by a decrease in activity with still longer chains...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913566/th2-responses-are-primed-by-skin-dendritic-cells-with-distinct-transcriptional-profiles
#7
Lisa M Connor, Shiau-Choot Tang, Emmanuelle Cognard, Sotaro Ochiai, Kerry L Hilligan, Samuel I Old, Christophe Pellefigues, Ruby F White, Deepa Patel, Adam Alexander T Smith, David A Eccles, Olivier Lamiable, Melanie J McConnell, Franca Ronchese
The dendritic cell signals required for the in vivo priming of IL-4-producing T cells are unknown. We used RNA sequencing to characterize DCs from skin LN of mice exposed to two different Th2 stimuli: the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) and the contact sensitizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-FITC. Both Nb and DBP-FITC induced extensive transcriptional changes that involved multiple DC subsets. Surprisingly, these transcriptional changes were highly distinct in the two models, with only a small number of genes being similarly regulated in both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911326/localization-and-processing-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-in%C3%A2-mitochondria-associated-membranes
#8
Dolores Del Prete, Jan M Suski, Bénédicte Oulès, Delphine Debayle, Anne Sophie Gay, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Renaud Bussiere, Charlotte Bauer, Paolo Pinton, Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Frédéric Checler, Mounia Chami
Alteration of mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied herein the subcellular distribution, the processing, and the protein interactome of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and its proteolytic products in MAMs. We reveal that AβPP and its catabolites are present in MAMs in cellular models overexpressing wild type AβPP or AβPP harboring the double Swedish or London familial AD mutations, and in brains of transgenic mice model of AD...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910930/design-of-a-hydroxyapatite-binding-antimicrobial-peptide-with-improved-retention-and-antibacterial-efficacy-for-oral-pathogen-control
#9
Zhi-Bin Huang, Xin Shi, Jing Mao, Shi-Qiang Gong
Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909075/cell-scientist-to-watch-brian-stramer
#10
(no author information available yet)
Brian Stramer completed his undergraduate degree at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY, and then moved to pursue his PhD at Tufts University in Boston, MA. He then crossed the Atlantic to work in the laboratory of Paul Martin as a US/UK Royal Society Fellow at the University of Bristol, UK. Before becoming a lecturer and a group leader at King's College London in 2008, Brian was also a lecturer of Veterinary Basic Sciences at the Royal Veterinary College in London. In 2015, Brian received a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award, which he will use to continue his research on the regulation of contact inhibition of locomotion and its roles in animal physiology...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908754/cyclic-citrullinated-mbp87-99-peptide-stimulates-t-cell-responses-implications-in-triggering-disease
#11
Vasso Apostolopoulos, George Deraos, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Stephanie Day, Lily Stojanovska, Theodore Tselios, Maria-Eleni Androutsou, John Matsoukas
Amino acid mutations to agonist peptide epitopes of myelin proteins have been used to modulate immune responses and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of multiple sclerosis). Such amino acid alteration are termed, altered peptide ligands (APL). We have shown that the agonist myelin basic protein (MBP) 87-99 epitope (MBP87-99) with crucial T cell receptor (TCR) substitutions at positions 91 and 96 (K(91),P(96) (TCR contact residues) to R(91),A(96); [R(91),A(96)]MBP87-99) results in altered T cell responses and inhibits EAE symptoms...
November 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908243/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-skqr1-reduces-tnf-induced-endothelial-permeability-in-vitro
#12
I I Galkin, O Yu Pletjushkina, R A Zinovkin, V V Zakharova, B V Chernyak, E N Popova
Prolonged or excessive increase in the circulatory level of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to abnormal activation and subsequent damage to endothelium. TNF at high concentrations causes apoptosis of endothelial cells. Previously, using mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of SkQ family, we have shown that apoptosis of endothelial cells is dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria (mito-ROS). Now we have found that TNF at low concentrations does not cause cell death but activates caspase-3 and caspase-dependent increase in endothelial permeability in vitro...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#13
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906176/epigenetic-programming-of-dnmt3a-mediated-by-ap2%C3%AE-is-required-for-granting-preadipocyte-the-ability-to-differentiate
#14
Wei Guo, Jiangnan Chen, Ying Yang, Jianbei Zhu, Jiarui Wu
Adipogenesis has an important role in regulating energy homeostasis in mammals. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have been widely used as an in vitro model for analyzing the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis. Previous reports indicated that the stage of contact inhibition (CI), through which the proliferating cells exit from the cell cycle, was required for granting preadipocyte the ability to differentiate. While this kind of the granting mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we showed that DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level during the CI stage, and resulted in increasing promoter methylation of adipogenic genes...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901093/macrophage-dependent-tumor-cell-transendothelial-migration-is-mediated-by-notch1-mena-inv-initiated-invadopodium-formation
#15
Jeanine Pignatelli, Jose Javier Bravo-Cordero, Minna Roh-Johnson, Saumil J Gandhi, Yarong Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Robert J Eddy, Alice Xue, Robert H Singer, Louis Hodgson, Maja H Oktay, John S Condeelis
The process of intravasation involving transendothelial migration is a key step in metastatic spread. How the triple cell complex composed of a macrophage, Mena over-expressing tumor cell and endothelial cell, called the tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), facilitates tumor cell transendothelial migration is not completely understood. Previous work has shown that the physical contact between a macrophage and tumor cell results in the formation of invadopodia, actin-rich matrix degrading protrusions, important for tumor cell invasion and transendothelial migration and tumor cell dissemination...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897370/iterative-non-proteinogenic-residue-incorporation-yields-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-peptides-with-a-helix-loop-helix-tertiary-structure-and-high-affinity-for-vegf
#16
James W Checco, Samuel H Gellman
Inhibition of specific protein-protein interactions is attractive for a range of therapeutic applications, but the large and irregularly shaped contact surfaces involved in many such interactions make it challenging to design synthetic antagonists. Here, we describe the development of backbone-modified peptides containing both α- and β-amino acid residues ("α/β-peptides") that target the receptor-binding surface of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our approach is based on the Z-domain, which adopts a three-helix bundle tertiary structure...
November 29, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896651/postnatal-administration-of-dizocilpine-inhibits-neuronal-excitability-in-pfc-and-induces-social-deficits-detected-by-miceprofiler
#17
Dexiao Zhu, Hui Wang, Jintao Wu, Qian Wang, Ling Xu, Yue Zhao, Kunkun Pang, Qingqing Shi, Wenbo Zhao, Jing Zhang, Jinhao Sun
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with social deficit as its core component of negative symptoms, which could be induced in rodents by dizocilpine (MK-801), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors are highly expressed during the postnatal period. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of postnatal MK-801 administration on social interaction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal administration of MK-801 on social interaction and explored the possible mechanisms...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896441/pterygium-surgery-using-the-principle-of-contact-inhibition-results-of-13-years-experience
#18
Tsutomu Hara, Takako Hashimoto, Takeshi Hara
PURPOSE: To report a technique to prevent pterygium recurrence using the principle of contact inhibition. METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen patients (232 eyes; average age, 64.1 years) with primary pterygia who underwent pterygium surgery at the Hara Eye Hospital between 1999 and 2012. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent the following procedure to prevent pterygium recurrence. The surface conjunctiva on the pterygium body was not removed. After removing the pterygium body, by placing a narrow pedicle autoconjunctival flap along the corneal limbus and tying it tightly to the front area of the residual conjunctiva, there is no room for the active residual tissue to proliferate, thus preventing a recurrence by contact inhibition...
November 28, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895174/human-lung-fibroblasts-present-bacterial-antigens-to-autologous-lung-th-cells
#19
Andrew J Hutton, Marta E Polak, C Mirella Spalluto, Joshua C Wallington, Chris Pickard, Karl J Staples, Jane A Warner, Tom M A Wilkinson
Lung fibroblasts are key structural cells that reside in the submucosa where they are in contact with large numbers of CD4(+) Th cells. During severe viral infection and chronic inflammation, the submucosa is susceptible to bacterial invasion by lung microbiota such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Given their proximity in tissue, we hypothesized that human lung fibroblasts play an important role in modulating Th cell responses to NTHi. We demonstrate that fibroblasts express the critical CD4(+) T cell Ag-presentation molecule HLA-DR within the human lung, and that this expression can be recapitulated in vitro in response to IFN-γ...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894302/anti-inflammatory-and-burn-injury-wound-healing-properties-of-the-shell-of-haliotis-diversicolor
#20
Zhi-Cheng Chen, Shing-Yi Sean Wu, Wei-Yang Su, Yuan-Chuan Lin, Yi-Hsin Lee, Wei-Hao Wu, Chun-Hong Chen, Zhi-Hong Wen
BACKGROUND: The shell of Haliotis diversicolor, or shijueming (SJM), is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. The SJM has appeared in historical records as early as the third and fourth centuries. Historical records have revealed that SJM had mainly been used to treat eye diseases. After the Qing Dynasty (1757), records had emerged, detailing the use of SJM for treating skin injuries, particularly for treating poorly managed ulcers or traumatic wounds. Furthermore, in our anti-inflammation-screening system, SJM significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins...
November 28, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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