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contact inhibition

Suman Kumar Nandy, Alpana Seal
Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics...
2016: PloS One
Lauren Brasile, Nicholas Henry, Bart Stubenitsky
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported on a novel organ-specific immunomodifying therapy that provides protection from early allograft rejection in the absence of systemic immunosuppressive drugs. This novel therapy is a nano-barrier membrane called ImmunoCloak, consisting of a matrix of laminin, proteoglycans, fibronectin and collagens. The membrane "immunocloaks" the luminal surfaces within the renal vasculature by covering the point of contact between donor vascular endothelial cells and the recipient's immune cells; without adversely affecting renal function...
October 19, 2016: Transplantation
Sang-Jin Lee, Jeongmi Hwang, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Miran Yoo, Ga-Yeon Go, Jae-Rin Lee, Young-Eun Leem, Jong Woo Park, Dong-Wan Seo, Yong Kee Kim, Myong-Joon Hahn, Jeung-Whan Han, Jong-Sun Kang, Gyu-Un Bae
Skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by multiple signaling pathways that control cell adhesion/migration, survival and differentiation accompanied by muscle-specific gene expression. A cell surface protein Cdo is involved in cell contact-mediated promyogenic signals through activation of p38MAPK and AKT. Protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PKN2/PRK2) is implicated in regulation of various biological processes, including cell migration, adhesion and death. It has been shown to interact with and inhibit AKT thereby inducing cell death...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Erik Richter, Manuela Harms, Katharina Ventz, Rolf Nölker, Martin J Fraunholz, Jörg Mostertz, Falko Hochgräfe
Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by non-professional phagocytic cells is a major suspected cause of persistent and difficult-to-treat infections, including pneumonia. In this study, we established an infection model with 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells and demonstrated internalization, escape from phagosomal clearance and intracellular replication of S. aureus HG001 within the first four hours post-infection. We used quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify characteristic signaling networks in the host at different infection stages...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Nijuan Xiang, Tian Bai, Kai Kang, Hui Yuan, Suizan Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Xiuying Li, Jiabing Wu, Liquan Deng, Ge Zeng, Xianjun Wang, Shenghua Mao, Jian Shi, Rongbao Gao, Tao Chen, Sumei Zou, Dan Li, Fiona Havers, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Carolyn M Greene, Yanping Zhang, Daxin Ni, Xiaoqing Liu, Qun Li, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: The first human infections of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in China in March 2013. Sentinel surveillance systems and contact tracing may not identify mild and asymptomatic human infections of influenza A(H7N9) virus. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H7N9) virus in three populations during the early stages of the epidemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: From March 2013-May 2014, we collected sera from the general population, poultry workers and contacts of confirmed infections in nine Chinese provinces reporting human A(H7N9) infections and, for contacts, second sera 2-3 weeks later...
October 20, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Xinhui Wu, Yao Fu, Xulei Sun, Chang Liu, Menglong Chai, Chengzhen Chen, Lisheng Dai, Yan Gao, Hao Jiang, Jiabao Zhang
Porcine cumulus cells are localized around oocytes and act as a specific type of granulosa that plays essential roles in the development and maturation of oocytes, the development and atresia of follicles and the development of embryos. Studies of FAT1 have demonstrated its functions in cell-cell contact, actin dynamics, and cell growth suppression. To understand whether the FAT1 gene affects the apoptosis of porcine cumulus cells and to elucidate the mechanism of this potential action, FAT1 was knocked down using RNA interference...
October 20, 2016: Cell Biology International
Rachelle N Binny, Alex James, Michael J Plank
Collective cell migration and proliferation are integral to tissue repair, embryonic development, the immune response and cancer. Central to collective cell migration and proliferation are interactions among neighbouring cells, such as volume exclusion, contact inhibition and adhesion. These individual-level processes can have important effects on population-level outcomes, such as growth rate and equilibrium density. We develop an individual-based model of cell migration and proliferation that includes these interactions...
October 19, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Koji Nakamura, Kenjiro Sawada, Yasuto Kinose, Akihiko Yoshimura, Aska Toda, Erika Nakatsuka, Kae Hashimoto, Seiji Mabuchi, Ken-Ichirou Morishige, Hirohisa Kurachi, Ernst Lengyel, Tadashi Kimura
: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells metastasize within the peritoneal cavity and directly encounter human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) as the initial step of metastasis. The contact between ovarian cancer cells and the single layer of mesothelial cells involves direct communications that modulate cancer progression but the mechanisms are unclear. One candidate mediating cell-cell communications are exosomes, 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, through the cell-cell transfer of proteins, mRNAs, or microRNAs...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Aikaterini Hatzioannou, Saba Nayar, Anastasios Gaitanis, Francesca Barone, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos, Panayotis Verginis
The beneficial effects of checkpoint blockade in tumor immunotherapy are limited to patients with increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Delineation of the regulatory networks that orchestrate the presence of TILs holds great promise for the design of effective immunotherapies. Podoplanin/gp38 (PDPN)-expressing lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs) are present in tumor stroma; however, their effect in the regulation of TILs remains elusive. Herein we demonstrate that intratumor injection of ex-vivo-isolated PDPN(+) LNSCs into melanoma-bearing mice induces elimination of TILs and promotes tumor growth...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shunsuke Teraguchi, Alexis Vandenbon, Tetsuya Honda, Francis H W Shand, Yasutaka Nakanishi, Takeshi Watanabe, Michio Tomura
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Barbara Kathage, Sebastian Gehlert, Anna Ulbricht, Laura Lüdecke, Victor E Tapia, Zacharias Orfanos, Daniela Wenzel, Wilhelm Bloch, Rudolf Volkmer, Bernd K Fleischmann, Dieter O Fürst, Jörg Höhfeld
The cochaperone BAG3 is a central protein homeostasis factor in mechanically strained mammalian cells. It mediates the degradation of unfolded and damaged forms of the actin-crosslinker filamin through chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA). In addition, BAG3 stimulates filamin transcription in order to compensate autophagic disposal and to maintain the actin cytoskeleton under strain. Here we demonstrate that BAG3 coordinates protein synthesis and autophagy through spatial regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hongliang Yu, Jian He, Qian Lu, Da Huo, Shanmei Yuan, Zhengyang Zhou, Peipei Xu, Yong Hu
Emerging evidences suggest that introduction of Fas Ligand (FasL) can enhance the Fas-dependent apoptosis and induce durable immune responses against tumor. However, selective triggering of apoptosis in tumor cells while sparing normal cells remains a great challenge for the application of FasL based therapeutic strategies. Herein, smart nanoparticles (NPs) with sandwich structure were fabricated. These NPs consist of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavable PEG outer layer, anti-Fas antibody middle layer and camptothecin (CPT) loaded inner core...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jovan Nikolic, Ahmet Civas, Zoé Lama, Cécile Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Danielle Blondel
Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the RNA granules formed during viral infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Joanna J Hoppins, David R Gruber, Heather L Miears, Alexey S Kiryutin, Rustem D Kasymov, Darya V Petrova, Anton V Endutkin, Alexander V Popov, Alexandra V Yurkovskaya, Stanislav O Fedechkin, Jacob A Brockerman, Dmitry O Zharkov, Serge L Smirnov
8-oxoguanine is one of the most abundant and impactful oxidative DNA lesions. However, the reasons underlying its effects, especially those not directly explained by the altered base pairing ability, are poorly understood. We report the effect of the lesion on the action of EcoRI, a widely used restriction endonuclease. Introduction of 8-oxoguanine inside, or adjacent to, the GAATTC recognition site embedded within the Drew-Dickerson dodecamer sequence notably reduced the EcoRI activity. Solution NMR revealed that 8-oxoguanine in the DNA duplex causes substantial alterations in the sugar-phosphate backbone conformation, inducing a BI→BII transition...
2016: PloS One
Yohei Manabe, Marie Yoshimura, Kazuma Sakamaki, Asuka Inoue, Aya Kakinoki, Satoshi Hokari, Mariko Sakanaka, Junken Aoki, Hiroyuki Miyachi, Kazuyuki Furuta, Satoshi Tanaka
Accumulating evidence suggests that activated mast cells are involved in contact hypersensitivity, although the precise mechanisms of their activation are still not completely understood. We investigated the potential of common experimental allergens to induce mast cell activation using murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and rat peritoneal mast cells. Among these allergens, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinirobenzene (DNFB) were found to induce degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Qi Xie, Jing Su, Bingxuan Jiao, Luyan Shen, Liwei Ma, Xianzhi Qu, Chunyan Yu, Xianrui Jiang, Ye Xu, Liankun Sun
Bcl-2, which belongs to the Bcl-2 family, is frequently overexpressed in various types of cancer cells and contributes to drug resistance. However, the function of Bcl-2 in cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells is not fully understood. In this study, we found that the pharmacological inhibitor ABT737 or genetic knockdown of Bcl-2 increased cisplatin cytotoxicity in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, treatment with ABT737 or Bcl-2 siRNA increased cisplatin-induced free Ca2+ levels in the cytosol and mitochondria, which increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Elena Scarpa, Alice Roycroft, Eric Theveneau, Emmanuel Terriac, Matthieu Piel, Roberto Mayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Yun-Feng Duan, Xian-Wang Kong, Andreas Schramm, Rodrigo Labouriau, Jørgen Eriksen, Søren O Petersen
: Grassland cultivation can mobilize large pools of N in the soil, with a potential for N leaching and N2O emissions. Spraying with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) before cultivation was simulated with soil columns where residue distribution corresponded to ploughing or rotovation, to study effects of soil-residue contact on N transformations. DMPP was sprayed on above-ground parts of ryegrass and white clover before incorporation. During a 42-day incubation, soil mineral N dynamics, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), nitrifier and denitrifier populations, and N2O emissions were investigated...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Elisa Wiedemann, Stefanie Jellinghaus, Georg Ende, Antje Augstein, Ronny Sczech, Ben Wielockx, Sönke Weinert, Ruth H Strasser, David M Poitz
Endothelial migration and proliferation are fundamental processes in angiogenesis and wound healing of injured or inflamed vessels. The present study aimed to investigate the regulation of the Eph/ephrin-system during endothelial proliferation and the impact of the ligand ephrin-A1 on proliferation and migration of human umbilical venous (HUVEC) and arterial endothelial cells (HUAEC). Endothelial cells that underwent contact inhibition showed a massive induction of ephrin-A1. In contrast, an injury to a confluent endothelial layer, associated with induction of migration and proliferation, showed reduced ephrin-A1 levels...
October 11, 2016: Cellular Signalling
Junheon Kim, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Jeongmin Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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