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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214198/tumor-derived-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-inhibit-dendritic-cells-function-by-ctla-4
#1
Xin Chen, Yong Du, Qingqing Hu, ZhiMing Huang
PURPOSE: CD4+CD25+regulatoryT cells (Tregs) play an important role in anti-tumor immune responses. Poor prognosis and declining survival rates have intimate connection with high Treg expression in cancer patients. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) is one of the most prominent molecules on Treg. In our previous research, we have demonstrated that HCC-derived Tregs can interfere with Dendritic cells (DCs) function and down-modulate CD80/CD86 on DCs in vitro in a cell-contact dependent way...
December 21, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213523/identification-of-regions-in-the-spt5-subunit-of-dsif-that-are-involved-in-promoter-proximal-pausing
#2
Yijun Qiu, David S Gilmour
DRB-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF(2), or Spt4/5) is a conserved transcription elongation factor that both inhibits and stimulates transcription elongation in metazoans. In Drosophila and vertebrates, DSIF together with negative elongation factor (NELF) associates with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early elongation and causes Pol II to pause in the promoter proximal region of genes. The mechanism of how DSIF establishes pausing is not known. We constructed Spt5 mutant forms of DSIF and tested their capacity to restore promoter proximal pausing to DSIF-depleted Drosophila nuclear extracts...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212428/a-novel-hemagglutinin-protein-produced-in-bacteria-protects-chickens-against-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-by-inducing-h5-subtype-specific-neutralizing-antibodies
#3
Violetta Sączyńska, Agnieszka Romanik, Katarzyna Florys, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska, Małgorzata Kęsik-Brodacka, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Monika Olszewska, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Zenon Minta, Bogusław Szewczyk, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Andrzej Płucienniczak
The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211744/rescuing-a-quantum-phase-transition-with-quantum-noise
#4
Gu Zhang, E Novais, Harold U Baranger
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroy quantum effects, as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment, the source of quantum noise. While the charge transport inhibits a quantum phase transition, the quantum noise reduces charge transport and restores the transition. We find a non-Fermi-liquid intermediate fixed point for all strengths of the noise...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209985/ig-like-domain-6-of-vcam-1-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-tnf%C3%AE-induced-angiogenesis
#5
Taek-Keun Kim, Chang Sik Park, Hee-Jun Na, Kangseung Lee, Aerin Yoon, Junho Chung, Sukmook Lee
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced angiogenesis plays important roles in the progression of various diseases, including cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the relevance and role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in angiogenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, VCAM-1 knockdown shows VCAM-1 involvement in TNFα-induced angiogenesis. Through competitive blocking experiments with VCAM-1 Ig-like domain 6 (VCAM-1-D6) protein, we identified VCAM-1-D6 as a key domain regulating TNFα-induced vascular tube formation...
February 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#6
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205569/heteroaryldihydropyrimidine-hap-and-sulfamoylbenzamide-sba-inhibit-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-by-different-molecular-mechanisms
#7
Zheng Zhou, Taishan Hu, Xue Zhou, Steffen Wildum, Fernando Garcia-Alcalde, Zhiheng Xu, Daitze Wu, Yi Mao, Xiaojun Tian, Yuan Zhou, Fang Shen, Zhisen Zhang, Guozhi Tang, Isabel Najera, Guang Yang, Hong C Shen, John A T Young, Ning Qin
Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) and sulfamoylbenzamide (SBA) are promising non-nucleos(t)ide HBV replication inhibitors. HAPs are known to promote core protein mis-assembly, but the molecular mechanism of abnormal assembly is still elusive. Likewise, the assembly status of core protein induced by SBA remains unknown. Here we show that SBA, unlike HAP, does not promote core protein mis-assembly. Interestingly, two reference compounds HAP_R01 and SBA_R01 bind to the same pocket at the dimer-dimer interface in the crystal structures of core protein Y132A hexamer...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205207/home-uterine-monitoring-for-detecting-preterm-labour
#8
REVIEW
Christine Urquhart, Rosemary Currell, Francoise Harlow, Liz Callow
BACKGROUND: To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth, home uterine activity monitoring aims for early detection of increased contraction frequency, and early intervention with tocolytic drugs to inhibit labour and prolong pregnancy. However, the effectiveness of such monitoring is disputed. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether home uterine activity monitoring is effective in improving the outcomes for women and their infants considered to be at high risk of preterm birth, when compared with care that does not include home uterine activity monitoring...
February 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205127/apoptosis-induced-by-a-snake-venom-metalloproteinase-from-bothrops-alternatus-venom-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#9
Soledad Bustillo, Andrea C Van de Velde, Verónica Matzner Perfumo, Claudia C Gay, Laura C Leiva
In this study, the apoptosis inducing effects of baltergin as well as its influence on cell adhesion and migration on muscles cells in vitro were studied. Morphological analysis made by scanning electron and phase contrast microscopy demonstrated typical futures of programmed cell death, apoptosis. This mechanism was confirmed by fluorescence staining, molecular analysis of endonuclease activity and increased mRNA expression level of two representative genes (p53 and bax). On the other hand, baltergin exert an inhibition effect on myoblast cell adhesion and migration in vitro probably through a mechanism that involves the interaction of this enzyme with cell integrins...
February 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202712/ribeye-b-domain-binds-to-lipid-components-of-synaptic-vesicles-in-an-nad-h-dependent-redox-sensitive-manner
#10
Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
Synaptic ribbons are needed for fast and continuous exocytosis in ribbon synapses. RIBEYE is a main protein component of synaptic ribbons and necessary to build the synaptic ribbon. RIBEYE consists of a unique A-domain and a carboxyterminal B-domain that binds NAD(H). Within the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic ribbons are in physical contact with large numbers of synaptic vesicles. How this physical contact between ribbons and vesicles is established at a molecular level is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the RIBEYE(B)-domain can directly interact with lipid components of synaptic vesicles using two different sedimentation assays with liposomes of defined chemical composition...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199837/an-endosomal-naadp-sensitive-two-pore-ca-2-channel-regulates-er-endosome-membrane-contact-sites-to-control-growth-factor-signaling
#11
Bethan S Kilpatrick, Emily R Eden, Leanne N Hockey, Elizabeth Yates, Clare E Futter, Sandip Patel
Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between organelles that facilitate information transfer. Here, we reveal an essential role for Ca(2+) derived from the endo-lysosomal system in maintaining contact between endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Antagonizing action of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger NAADP, inhibiting its target endo-lysosomal ion channel, TPC1, and buffering local Ca(2+) fluxes all clustered and enlarged late endosomes/lysosomes. We show that TPC1 localizes to ER-endosome contact sites and is required for their formation...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196712/ipomoea-pes-caprae-l-r-br-convolvulaceae-as-a-topical-herbal-medicine-to-relieve-pain-and-inflammation-promising-tool-against-effects-due-to-toxin-skin-contact
#12
Cristiane da Silva Barth, Hugo Guilherme Tolentino de Souza, Lilian W Rocha, Gislaine Francieli da Silva, Mariana Ferreira Dos Anjos, Veronica D'Avila Pastor, Tania Mari Belle Bresolin, Angelica Garcia Couto, José Roberto Santin, Nara Lins Meira Quintão
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ipomoea pes-caprae is known as bayhops, beach morning glory or goat's foot, and in Brazil as salsa-de-praia. Its leaves are used in worldwide folk medicine for the relief of jellyfish-stings symptoms. The literature only reports the anti-inflammatory and neutralizing effects of a nonpolar plant derived, without validating the popular use or exploring the mechanism of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate and validate the topical effects of a semisolid containing hydroethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of I...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195486/tracking-ultrafast-vibrational-cooling-during-excited-state-proton-transfer-reaction-with-anti-stokes-and-stokes-femtosecond-stimulated-raman-spectroscopy
#13
Weimin Liu, Longteng Tang, Breland G Oscar, Yanli Wang, Cheng Chen, Chong Fang
Energy dissipation following photoexcitation is foundational to photophysics and chemistry. Consequently, understanding such processes on molecular time scales holds paramount importance. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) has been used to study the molecular structure-function relationships but usually on the Stokes side. Here, we perform both Stokes and anti-Stokes FSRS to track energy dissipation and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) for the photoacid pyranine in aqueous solution. We reveal biphasic vibrational cooling on fs-ps time scales during ESPT...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#14
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats (sign-trackers; STs) are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact Pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193253/artemisia-spp-essential-oils-against-the-disease-carrying-blowfly-calliphora-vomitoria
#15
Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Francesca Cosci, Roberta Ascrizzi, Maria Cristina Echeverria, Lucia Guidi, Marco Landi, Andrea Lucchi, Barbara Conti
BACKGROUND: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191980/interaction-mechanisms-between-air-bubble-and-molybdenite-surface-impact-of-solution-salinity-and-polymer-adsorption
#16
Lei Xie, Jingyi Wang, Duowei Yuan, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Hao Zhang, Qi Liu, Qingxia Liu, Hongbo Zeng
The surface characteristics of molybdenite (MoS2) such as wettability and surface interactions have attracted much research interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as froth flotation. In this work, a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique was employed to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and molybdenite mineral surface before/after polymer (i.e., guar gum) adsorption treatment. The AFM imaging showed that the polymer coverage on the surface of molybdenite could achieve ~5...
February 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187835/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-the-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-chlorfluazuron-on-bradysia-odoriphaga-yang-and-zhang-diptera-sciaridae
#17
Peng Zhang, Yun-He Zhao, Qiu-Hong Wang, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang is the primary insect pest that affects Chinese chive in northern China. Nevertheless, very few studies have been conducted on the use of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) for the control of B. odoriphaga. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of the CSI chlorfluazuron on B. odoriphaga were studied to explore the use for integrated pest management (IPM) of B. odoriphaga. A contact and ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorfluazuron was more active against B. odoriphaga than three other CSIs, with a 72h LC50 of 0...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186718/effect-of-selective-contacts-on-thermal-stability-of-perovskite-solar-cell
#18
Xing Zhao, Hui-Seon Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Nam-Gyu Park
Thermal stability of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3)-based perovskite solar cells was investigated for the normal structure including mesoporous TiO2 layer and spiro-MeOTAD and the invert structure with PCBM and NiO. MAPbI3 was found to be intrinsically stable from 85 oC up to 120 oC in the absence of moisture. However, fast degradation was observed for the encapsulated device including spiro-MeOTAD upon thermal stress at 85 oC. Photoluminescence (PL) intensity and time constant for charge separation increased with thermal exposure time, which is indicative of inhibition of charge separation from MAPbI3 into spiro-MeOTAD...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186428/eosinophils-regulate-interferon-alpha-production-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-stimulated-with-components-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#19
Joanna Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Katarzyna Zabieglo, Jozef P Bossowski, Oktawia Osiecka, Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Monika Kapinska-Mrowiecka, Mateusz Kwitniewski, Pawel Majewski, Adam Dubin, Joanna Cichy
Eosinophils constitute an important component of helminth immunity and are not only associated with various allergies but are also linked to autoinflammatory disorders, including the skin disease psoriasis. Here we demonstrate the functional relationship between eosinophils and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) as related to skin diseases. We previously showed that pDCs colocalize with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in psoriatic skin. Here we demonstrate that eosinophils are found in psoriatic skin near neutrophils and NETs, suggesting that pDC responses can be regulated by eosinophils...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183187/effect-of-zinc-oxide-film-morphologies-on-the-formation-of-shewanella-putrefaciens-biofilm
#20
Yue Dai, Tong Sun, Zhibing Zhang, Zhenyu J Zhang, Jian-Rong Li
Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were prepared on aluminum substrate by a hydrothermal method to investigate the effect of their surface characteristics, including morphology and hydrophobicity, on the corresponding antibiofilm performance. The surface characteristics of the prepared ZnO films were examined by a comprehensive range of methodologies, suggesting that films of distinctive surface morphologies were successfully formed. Subsequently, their antibiofilm activities, using Shewanella putrefaciens as a model bacterium, were assessed...
February 9, 2017: Biointerphases
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