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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#1
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716944/potent-competitive-inhibition-of-human-ribonucleotide-reductase-by-a-nonnucleoside-small-molecule
#2
Md Faiz Ahmad, Intekhab Alam, Sarah E Huff, John Pink, Sheryl A Flanagan, Donna Shewach, Tessianna A Misko, Nancy L Oleinick, William E Harte, Rajesh Viswanathan, Michael E Harris, Chris Godfrey Dealwis
Human ribonucleotide reductase (hRR) is crucial for DNA replication and maintenance of a balanced dNTP pool, and is an established cancer target. Nucleoside analogs such as gemcitabine diphosphate and clofarabine nucleotides target the large subunit (hRRM1) of hRR. These drugs have a poor therapeutic index due to toxicity caused by additional effects, including DNA chain termination. The discovery of nonnucleoside, reversible, small-molecule inhibitors with greater specificity against hRRM1 is a key step in the development of more effective treatments for cancer...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715501/diversity-and-distribution-of-nuclease-bacteriocins-in-bacterial-genomes-revealed-using-hidden-markov-models
#3
Connor Sharp, James Bray, Nicholas G Housden, Martin C J Maiden, Colin Kleanthous
Bacteria exploit an arsenal of antimicrobial peptides and proteins to compete with each other. Three main competition systems have been described: type six secretion systems (T6SS); contact dependent inhibition (CDI); and bacteriocins. Unlike T6SS and CDI systems, bacteriocins do not require contact between bacteria but are diffusible toxins released into the environment. Identified almost a century ago, our understanding of bacteriocin distribution and prevalence in bacterial populations remains poor. In the case of protein bacteriocins, this is because of high levels of sequence diversity and difficulties in distinguishing their killing domains from those of other competition systems...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714045/characterization-drug-loading-and-antibacterial-activity-of-nanohydroxyapatite-polycaprolactone-nha-pcl-electrospun-membrane
#4
Mohd Izzat Hassan, Naznin Sultana
Considering the important factor of bioactive nanohydoxyapatite (nHA) to enhance osteoconductivity or bone-bonding capacity, nHA was incorporated into an electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane using electrospinning techniques. The viscosity of the PCL and nHA/PCL with different concentrations of nHA was measured and the morphology of the electrospun membranes was compared using a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The water contact angle of the nanofiber determined the wettability of the membranes of different concentrations...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713678/drug-development-against-the-hippo-pathway-in-mesothelioma
#5
REVIEW
Gavitt A Woodard, Yi-Lin Yang, Liang You, David M Jablons
Advances in the treatments for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been disappointing until recently. Conventional cytotoxic drugs fail in MPM in part because they do not address the cancer stem cell population or stem cell pathways that drive tumor resistance and resurgence following treatment. The Hippo stem cell pathway regulates cell contact inhibition with tumor suppressor genes such as NF2 (Neurofibromatosis 2) upstream controlling YAP (Yes-associated protein 1) oncogenes. NF2 is mutated in 40-50% of all MPM and downstream YAP is constitutively active in greater than 70% of MPM, making the downstream YAP/TEAD (transcriptional enhancer associate domain) complex the ultimate target...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712779/fabrication-of-engineered-biochar-from-paper-mill-sludge-and-its-application-into-removal-of-arsenic-and-cadmium-in-acidic-water
#6
Kwangsuk Yoon, Dong-Wan Cho, Daniel C W Tsang, Nanthi Bolan, Jörg Rinklebe, Hocheol Song
An engineered biochar was fabricated via paper mill sludge pyrolysis under CO2 atmosphere, and its adsorption capability for As(V) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution was evaluated in a batch mode. The characterization results revealed that the biochar had the structure of complex aggregates containing solid minerals (FeO, Fe3O4 and CaCO3) and graphitic carbon. Adsorption studies were carried out covering various parameters including pH effect, contact time, initial concentrations, competitive ions, and desorption...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711997/effects-of-degradable-osteosynthesis-plates-of-mgyrezr-alloy-on-cell-function-of-human-osteoblasts-fibroblasts-and-osteosarcoma-cells
#7
Hendrik Naujokat, Aydin Gülses, Jörg Wiltfang, Yahya Açil
The aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility of osteosynthesis plates of the MgYREZr/WE43 alloy by using human cells in vitro. Eluates of degradable magnesium osteosynthesis plates as well as halved plates were used for incubation with human osteoblasts, fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells. The cell viability was evaluated by using FDA/PI-Staining and LDH analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT, WST-Test and BrdU-ELISA. Scanning electron microscope was used for investigation of the cell adhesion. The number of devitalized cells in all treatment groups did not significantly deviate from the control group...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711870/symmetrical-retrograde-actin-flow-in-the-actin-fusion-structure-is-involved-in-osteoclast-fusion
#8
Jiro Takito, Hirotada Otsuka, Satoshi Inoue, Tsubasa Kawashima, Masanori Nakamura
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS), a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707517/joint-effect-of-triclosan-and-copper-nanoparticles-on-wastewater-biological-nutrient-removal
#9
Hong Chen, Yuying Cheng, Di Meng, Gang Xue, Mingji Jiang, Xiang Li
Triclosan (TCS) is widely used in household and personal care products, and its release to wastewater might have impact on wastewater biological treatment due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial property. In addition, emerging pollutant such as copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) will release as well from nanoparticle-containing products, and show joint effect with TCS on biological nutrient removal. It was found that TCS of 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L could inhibit the nitrosification and nitrification stage, and the first step of denitrification was supressed as well, resulting in the final total nitrogen removal efficiency decline...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707422/description-of-d-glucosamine-immobilization-kinetics-onto-poly-lactic-acid-surface-via-a-multistep-physicochemical-approach-for-preparation-of-novel-active-biomaterials
#10
Ahmed E Swilem, Marian Lehocký, Petr Humpolíček, Zdenka Kucekova, Igor Novák, Matej Mičušík, Hassan A Abdel-Rehim, El-Sayed A Hegazy, Ashraf A Hamed, Jaroslav Kousal
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has shown much success in the preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds as it can be fabricated with a tailored architecture. However, the PLA surface has drawbacks including the lack of biofunctional motifs which are essential for high affinity to biological cells. Therefore, this study describes a multistep physicochemical approach for the immobilization of D-glucosamine (GlcN), a naturally occurring monosaccharide having many biological functions, on the PLA surface aiming at enhancing the cell proliferation activity...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707226/the-role-of-macrophage-polarization-on-fibroblast-behavior-an-in-vitro-investigation-on-titanium-surfaces
#11
Xuzhu Wang, Yulan Wang, Dieter D Bosshardt, Richard J Miron, Yufeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of smooth and rough titanium surface topographies on macrophage polarization and their influence on gingival fibroblast behavior cultured on titanium surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW 264.7 macrophages were seeded on smooth (pickled titanium (PT)) and rough Sand-blasted with Large grit particles followed by Acid-etching (SLA) titanium surfaces and first investigated for macrophage polarization towards tissue-inflammatory M1 macrophages or wound-healing M2 macrophages...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707137/surface-modification-of-esophageal-stent-materials-by-a-polyethylenimine-layer-aiming-at-anti-cancer-function
#12
Kun Zhang, Yuxin Bai, Xiaofeng Wang, Qian Li, Fangxia Guan, Jingan Li
Esophageal cancer is difficult to cure globally and possesses high mortality rate, and it is generally accepted that palliative care such as stent implantation is the main therapy method for esophageal cancer in later period. However, the restenosis caused by tumor cells and inflammatory cells seriously interferes the stent clinical application and limits its long-term services. To solve this problem, series of drug delivery stents were developed and proven rather effective in the early stage of implantation, but more serious restenosis occurred after the drug delivery was over, which endangered the patients' life...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707037/variability-of-composition-and-effects-of-essential-oils-from-rhanterium-adpressum-coss-durieu-against-mycotoxinogenic-fusarium-strains
#13
Fatiha Elhouiti, Djilali Tahri, Djalila Takhi, Mohamed Ouinten, Christian Barreau, Marie-Noëlle Verdal-Bonnin, Isabelle Bombarda, Mohamed Yousfi
The antifungal potency of the essential oils of Rhanterium adpressum was evaluated against four mycotoxigenic strains of the genus Fusarium. The essential oils were obtained, separately, by hydro-distillation of the aerial parts of R. adpressum (leaves and flowers). The parts were collected during the period of bloom (3 months) for 3 years. The GC-MS analysis revealed thirty-six compounds for the essential oils, divided into four classes of chemical compounds, with variable percentages according to the month of extraction...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705234/in-silico-characterization-of-cell-cell-interactions-using-a-cellular-automata-model-of-cell-culture
#14
Takanori Kihara, Kosuke Kashitani, Jun Miyake
BACKGROUND: Cell proliferation is a key characteristic of eukaryotic cells. During cell proliferation, cells interact with each other. In this study, we developed a cellular automata model to estimate cell-cell interactions using experimentally obtained images of cultured cells. RESULTS: We used four types of cells; HeLa cells, human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and rat smooth muscle A7r5 cells. These cells were cultured and stained daily...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704539/streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-gallolyticus-promotes-colorectal-tumor-development
#15
Ritesh Kumar, Jennifer L Herold, Deborah Schady, Jennifer Davis, Scott Kopetz, Margarita Martinez-Moczygemba, Barbara E Murray, Fang Han, Yu Li, Evelyn Callaway, Robert S Chapkin, Wan-Mohaiza Dashwood, Roderick H Dashwood, Tia Berry, Chris Mackenzie, Yi Xu
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Sg) has long been known to have a strong association with colorectal cancer (CRC). This knowledge has important clinical implications, and yet little is known about the role of Sg in the development of CRC. Here we demonstrate that Sg promotes human colon cancer cell proliferation in a manner that depends on cell context, bacterial growth phase and direct contact between bacteria and colon cancer cells. In addition, we observed increased level of β-catenin, c-Myc and PCNA in colon cancer cells following incubation with Sg...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704364/dramatic-and-concerted-conformational-changes-enable-rhodocetin-to-block-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-integrin-selectively
#16
Johannes A Eble, Matthew McDougall, George L Orriss, Stephan Niland, Benjamin Johanningmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Markus Meier, Simone Karrasch, Maria Inacia Estevão-Costa, Augusto Martins Lima, Jörg Stetefeld
The collagen binding integrin α2β1 plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrosis, and cancer progression amongst others. It is specifically inhibited by rhodocetin (RC), a C-type lectin-related protein (CLRP) found in Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom. The structure of RC alone reveals a heterotetramer arranged as an αβ and γδ subunit in a cruciform shape. RC specifically binds to the collagen binding A-domain of the integrin α2 subunit, thereby blocking collagen-induced platelet aggregation...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702592/inhibition-of-gnnqqny-prion-peptide-aggregation-by-trehalose-a-mechanistic-view
#17
Nidhi Katyal, Shashank Deep
Deposition of amyloid fibrils is the seminal event in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The formation of this amyloid assembly is the manifestation of a cascade of structural transitions including toxic oligomer formation in the early stages of aggregation. Thus a viable therapeutic strategy involves the use of small molecular ligands to interfere with this assembly. In this perspective, we have explored the kinetics of aggregate formation of the fibril forming GNNQQNY peptide fragment from the yeast prion protein SUP35 using multiple all atom MD simulations with explicit solvent and provided mechanistic insights into the way trehalose, an experimentally known aggregation inhibitor, modulates the aggregation pathway...
July 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701766/collective-motion-of-cells-crawling-on-a-substrate-roles-of-cell-shape-and-contact-inhibition
#18
Simon K Schnyder, John J Molina, Yuki Tanaka, Ryoichi Yamamoto
Contact inhibition plays a crucial role in cell motility, wound healing, and tumour formation. By mimicking the mechanical motion of cells crawling on a substrate, we constructed a minimal model of migrating cells that naturally gives rise to contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL). The model cell consists of two disks, a front disk (a pseudopod) and a back disk (cell body), which are connected by a finite extensible spring. Despite the simplicity of the model, the collective behaviour of the cells is highly non-trivial and depends on both the shape of the cells and whether CIL is enabled...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696203/a-broadly-distributed-toxin-family-mediates-contact-dependent-antagonism-between-gram-positive-bacteria
#19
John C Whitney, S Brook Peterson, Jungyun Kim, Manuel Pazos, Adrian J Verster, Matthew C Radey, Hemantha D Kulasekara, Mary Q Ching, Nathan P Bullen, Diane Bryant, Young Ah Goo, Michael G Surette, Elhanan Borenstein, Waldemar Vollmer, Joseph D Mougous
The Firmicutes are a phylum of bacteria that dominate numerous polymicrobial habitats of importance to human health and industry. Although these communities are often densely colonized, a broadly distributed contact-dependent mechanism of interbacterial antagonism utilized by Firmicutes has not been elucidated. Here we show that proteins belonging to the LXG polymorphic toxin family present in Streptococcus intermedius mediate cell contact- and Esx secretion pathway-dependent growth inhibition of diverse Firmicute species...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696012/inhibition-of-snk-spar-signaling-pathway-promotes-the-restoration-of-motor-function-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#20
Qing-Yu Fan, Jing-Jie Liu, Gui-Lian Zhang, Hai-Qin Wu, Ru Zhang, Shu-Qin Zhan, Na Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of SPAR signaling pathway on the restoration of motor function in ischemic stroke (IS). Sprague-Dawley male rats were separated into the control and sham groups, as well as the group for middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model establishment. Successfully established rat ischemic models were randomly divided into model, SNK(MCAO-del) and pcDNA3.1-SNK groups. The evaluation of motor function among the rats in each group was assessed using a balance beam, a screen test and the Garcia scoring method...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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