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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749580/dopamine-transporter-neuroimaging-as-an-enrichment-biomarker-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-trials-a-disease-progression-modeling-analysis
#1
Daniela J Conrado, Timothy Nicholas, Kuenhi Tsai, Sreeraj Macha, Vikram Sinha, Julie Stone, Brian Corrigan, Massimo Bani, Pierandrea Muglia, Ian A Watson, Volker D Kern, Elena Sheveleva, Kenneth Marek, Diane T Stephenson, Klaus Romero
Given the recognition that disease-modifying therapies should focus on earlier Parkinson's disease stages, trial enrollment based purely on clinical criteria poses significant challenges. The goal herein was to determine the utility of dopamine transporter neuroimaging as an enrichment biomarker in early motor Parkinson's disease clinical trials. Patient-level longitudinal data of 672 subjects with early-stage Parkinson's disease in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) observational study and the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial (PRECEPT) clinical trial were utilized in a linear mixed-effects model analysis...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749421/dsm-5-changes-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-implications-for-comorbid-sleep-issues
#2
REVIEW
Ujjwal P Ramtekkar
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied independently for ADHD and ASD. In the context of revised criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) that allows combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, this short review presents an overview of relationship between sleep problems, ADHD and ASD, as well as conceptualizing the shared pathophysiology...
July 27, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749241/considerations-for-adhd-in-the-child-with-epilepsy-and-the-child-with-migraine
#3
David W Dunn, Jennifer Downs, Julianne Giust
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid condition in children with epilepsy and migraine. Treatment of ADHD in children with epilepsy or migraine is essential but clinicians may overlook symptoms of ADHD and avoid appropriate use of medications that may reduce symptoms of ADHD without compromising treatment of epilepsy or migraine. Areas covered: PubMed was searched for articles on ADHD and epilepsy or migraine. Key papers were reviewed for additional articles. Areas of interest were: epidemiology, etiological factors, and treatment with emphasis on therapy...
July 27, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749089/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-a-comparative-study-between-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-primary-psychiatric-disorders
#4
Everard G B Vijverberg, Sigfried Schouws, Paul David Meesters, Esmée Verwijk, Hannie Comijs, Ted Koene, Charlotte Schreuder, Aartjan Beekman, Philip Scheltens, Max Stek, Yolande Pijnenburg, Annemieke Dols
OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological profiles in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with its most common primary psychiatric differential diagnoses, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia, in older patients with active symptoms. METHODS: We included patients from different cohorts with MDD (DSM-IV-TR: 296.20-296.23, 296.30-296.33; n = 42; mean ± SD age, 72.0 ± 8.0 years; female = 57.1%) included from 2002 to 2007, noneuthymic BD (DSM-IV-TR: 296...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748958/new-and-revisited-approaches-to-preserving-the-reperfused-myocardium
#5
REVIEW
Robert A Kloner, David A Brown, Marie Csete, Wangde Dai, James M Downey, Roberta A Gottlieb, Sharon L Hale, Jianru Shi
Early coronary artery reperfusion improves outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but morbidity and mortality after STEMI remain unacceptably high. The primary deficits seen in these patients include inadequate pump function, owing to rapid infarction of muscle in the first few hours of treatment, and adverse remodelling of the heart in the months that follow. Given that attempts to further reduce myocardial infarct size beyond early reperfusion in clinical trials have so far been disappointing, effective therapies are still needed to protect the reperfused myocardium...
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748058/electroconvulsive-therapy-hasn-t-negative-effects-on-short-term-memory-function-as-assessed-using-a-bedside-hand-held-device
#6
Helge H O Müller, Mareen Reike, Simon Grosse-Holz, Mareike Röther, Caroline Lücke, Alexandra Philipsen, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja W Grömer
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in the treatment of treatment-resistant major depression. The fear of cognitive impairment after ECT often deters patients from choosing this treatment option. There is little reliable information regarding the effects of ECT on overall cognitive performance, while short-term memory deficits are well known but not easy to measure within clinical routines. In this pilot study, we examined ECT recipients' pre- and post-treatment performances on a digital ascending number tapping test...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747870/neural-entrainment-and-sensorimotor-synchronization-to-the-beat-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-an-eeg-study
#7
Lincoln J Colling, Hannah L Noble, Usha Goswami
Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization) shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditory perception of the beat which in turn affect auditory-motor mapping, or may reflect an independent motor deficit. Here, we used a new methodology in EEG based on measuring beat-related steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs, Nozaradan et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747794/visual-perception-in-dyslexia-is-limited-by-sub-optimal-scale-selection
#8
Richard Johnston, Nicola J Pitchford, Neil W Roach, Timothy Ledgeway
Readers with dyslexia are purported to have a selective visual impairment but the underlying nature of the deficit remains elusive. Here, we used a combination of behavioural psychophysics and biologically-motivated computational modeling to investigate if this deficit extends to object segmentation, a process implicated in visual word form recognition. Thirty-eight adults with a wide range of reading abilities were shown random-dot displays spatially divided into horizontal segments. Adjacent segments contained either local motion signals in opposing directions or analogous static form cues depicting orthogonal orientations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747627/metacognitive-impairments-extend-perceptual-decision-making-weaknesses-in-compulsivity
#9
Tobias U Hauser, Micah Allen, Geraint Rees, Raymond J Dolan
Awareness of one's own abilities is of paramount importance in adaptive decision making. Psychotherapeutic theories assume such metacognitive insight is impaired in compulsivity, though this is supported by scant empirical evidence. In this study, we investigate metacognitive abilities in compulsive participants using computational models, where these enable a segregation between metacognitive and perceptual decision making impairments. We examined twenty low-compulsive and twenty high-compulsive participants, recruited from a large population-based sample, and matched for other psychiatric and cognitive dimensions...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747511/autologous-minced-muscle-grafts-improve-endogenous-fracture-healing-and-muscle-strength-after-musculoskeletal-trauma
#10
Brady J Hurtgen, Catherine L Ward, Chrissy M Leopold Wager, Koyal Garg, Stephen M Goldman, Beth E P Henderson, Todd O McKinley, Sarah M Greising, Joseph C Wenke, Benjamin T Corona
The deleterious impact of concomitant muscle injury on fracture healing and limb function is commonly considered part of the natural sequela of orthopedic trauma. Recent reports suggest that heightened inflammation in the surrounding traumatized musculature is a primary determinant of fracture healing. Relatedly, there are emerging potential therapeutic approaches for severe muscle trauma (e.g., volumetric muscle loss [VML] injury), such as autologous minced muscle grafts (1 mm(3) pieces of muscle; GRAFT), that can partially prevent chronic functional deficits and appear to have an immunomodulatory effect within VML injured muscle...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747381/rapid-evolution-of-female-biased-genes-among-four-species-of-anopheles-malaria-mosquitoes
#11
Francesco Papa, Nikolai Windbichler, Robert M Waterhouse, Alessia Cagnetti, Rocco D'Amato, Tania Persampieri, Mara K N Lawniczak, Tony Nolan, Philippos A Papathanos
Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes...
July 26, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747362/alterations-of-adrenal-steroidomic-profiles-in-preterm-infants-at-birth
#12
Simon Travers, Laetitia Martinerie, Pascal Boileau, Marc Lombès, Eric Pussard
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants have relative adrenal and kidney immaturity. Recently, we linked their urine sodium loss to a hypoaldosteronism at variance with an appropriate stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system. To investigate this defective aldosterone secretion, we analyse the biosynthesis pathways of adrenal steroids in neonates according to gestational age (GA). DESIGN: Multicentre study (Premaldo) including 152 neonates classified into three groups: group 1 (very preterm (VPT)): <33 ‰gestational weeks (GW); group 2 (preterm (PT)): 33-36 GW and group 3 (term (T)): ≥37 GW...
July 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747318/attention-and-memory-impairments-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-comparison-to-healthy-controls
#13
Bartosz Piasecki, Maia Stanisławska-Kubiak, Wojciech Strzelecki, Ewa Mojs
The main aim of the study was to analyze and compare attention and memory performance in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in healthy controls. 28 patients with CF, 30 patients with IBD and 30 healthy subjects took part in the study (all in age range of 7-17). All subjects were in intellectual norm. To analyze the functioning of attention, the d2 Test of Attention by Brickenkamp (d2 test) was applied. Memory performance was assessed using the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and the Trial of 10 words...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747263/the-validity-and-reliability-of-computed-tomography-orbital-volume-measurements
#14
Silviu C Diaconu, David Dreizin, Mehmet Uluer, Corey Mossop, Michael P Grant, Arthur J Nam
PURPOSE: Orbital volume calculations allow surgeons to design patient-specific implants to correct volume deficits. It is estimated that changes as small as 1 ml in orbital volume can lead to enophthalmos. Awareness of the limitations of orbital volume computed tomography (CT) measurements is critical to differentiate between true volume differences and measurement error. The aim of this study is to analyze the validity and reliability of CT orbital volume measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 cadaver orbits were scanned using a standard CT maxillofacial protocol...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747197/prenatal-and-postnatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-social-impairment-in-4-year-old-children
#15
Youn-Hee Lim, Sanghyuk Bae, Bung-Nyun Kim, Choong Ho Shin, Young Ah Lee, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may affect early brain development. Rodent studies suggest that prenatal and postnatal neurodevelopmental toxicity from BPA exposure may manifest as social deficits in offspring. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to BPA and social impairments in a sample of 4-year-old children. METHODS: We recruited second-trimester pregnant women between 2008 and 2011, and measured their creatinine-adjusted prenatal urine BPA levels...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747153/temporal-and-spatial-analysis-of-psittacosis-in-association-with-poultry-farming-in-the-netherlands-2000-2015
#16
Lenny Hogerwerf, Manon M C Holstege, Elisa Benincà, Frederika Dijkstra, Wim van der Hoek
BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands. METHODS: We analysed data on 700 human cases of psittacosis notified between 01-01-2000 and 01-09-2015...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747068/a-dual-ampk-nrf2-activator-reduces-brain-inflammation-after-stroke-by-enhancing-microglia-m2-polarization
#17
Yunjie Wang, Yun Huang, Yazhou Xu, Wenchen Ruan, Haojie Wang, Yihua Zhang, Juan M Saavedra, Luyong Zhang, Zhangjian Huang, Tao Pang
AIMS: Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in focal ischemic stroke, a disorder with no effective therapeutic agents. Since microglial polarization to the M2 phenotype and reduction of oxidative stress are mediated through AMPK and Nrf2 activation, we assessed the dual therapeutic effect of AMPK and Nrf2 activation by a novel neuroprotectant HP-1c in the treatment of ischemic stroke. RESULTS: We developed a novel class of hybrids (HP-1a-HP-1f) of telmisartan and 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (HPBA) as a ring-opening derivative of NBP...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746876/wbscr16-is-a-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-important-for-mitochondrial-fusion
#18
Guorui Huang, Dawiyat Massoudi, Alison M Muir, Dinesh C Joshi, Chuan-Li Zhang, Shing Yan Chiu, Daniel S Greenspan
Regulated inter-mitochondrial fusion/fission is essential for maintaining optimal mitochondrial respiration and control of apoptosis and autophagy. In mammals, mitochondrial fusion is controlled by outer membrane GTPases MFN1 and MFN2 and by inner membrane (IM) GTPase OPA1. Disordered mitochondrial fusion/fission contributes to various pathologies, and MFN2 or OPA1 mutations underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that the WBSCR16 protein is primarily associated with the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is important for mitochondrial fusion...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746835/genetic-ataxia-telangiectasia-porcine-model-phenocopies-the-multisystemic-features-of-the-human-disease
#19
Rosanna Beraldi, David K Meyerholz, Alexei Savinov, Attila D Kovács, Jill M Weimer, Jordan A Dykstra, Ryan D Geraets, David A Pearce
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia...
July 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746725/an-acceptability-trial-of-desiccated-beef-liver-and-meat-powder-as-potential-fortifiers-of-complementary-diets-of-young-children-in-indonesia
#20
Lisa M Duizer, Aly Diana, Hilmi S Rathomi, Dimas E Luftimas, Sofa Rahmannia, Widya Santi, Gaga Irawan Nugraha, Jill J Haszard, Rosalind S Gibson, Lisa A Houghton
The addition of desiccated beef liver to infant and young child complementary foods can be used to overcome nutrient deficits, however its acceptability is unknown. We conducted a series of studies to test the acceptability of complementary foods fortified with either powdered beef liver, beef meat, beef liver + meat or placebo among 96 Indonesian children aged 12 to 23 mo. This was achieved by determining liking of a single test food with added study powder, followed by a 2-wk home trial and focus group discussions to assess liking during repeated consumption of the study powders added to daily meals...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Food Science
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