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Christian Schulte, Mahir Karakas, Tanja Zeller
microRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known, powerful regulators of gene expression, and their potential to serve as circulating biomarkers is widely accepted. In cardiovascular disease (CVD), numerous studies have suggested miRNAs as strong circulating biomarkers with high diagnostic as well as prognostic power. In coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), miRNAs have been suggested as reliable biomarkers matching up to established protein-based such as cardiac troponins (cT) or natriuretic peptides. Also, in other CVD entities, miRNAs were identified as surprisingly specific biomarkers - with great potential for clinical applicability, especially in those entities that lack specific protein-based biomarkers such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE)...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Anthony Virtue, Candice Johnson, Jahaira Lopez-Pastraña, Ying Shao, Hangfei Fu, Xinyuan Li, Ya-Feng Li, Ying Yin, Jietang Mai, Victor Rizzo, Michael Tordoff, Zsolt Bagi, Huimin Shan, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Obesity paradox (OP) describes a widely observed clinical finding of improved cardiovascular fitness and survival in some overweight or obese patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying OP remain enigmatic partly due to a lack of animal models mirroring OP in patients. Using apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice on high-fat (HF) diet as an atherosclerotic obesity model, we demonstrated: 1) microRNA-155 (miRNA-155, miR-155) is significantly upregulated in aortas of ApoE-/- mice; and miR-155 deficiency in ApoE-/- mice inhibits atherosclerosis; 2) ApoE-/-/miR-155-/- (DKO) mice show HF diet-induced obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and present with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); 3) DKO mice demonstrate HF diet-induced elevations of plasma leptin, resistin, fed-state and fasting insulin, increased expression of adipogenic transcription factors, but lack glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jianping Li, HaiE Qu, Huaizhi Jiang, Zhihui Zhao, Qiaoling Zhang
Compare the microRNA (miRNA) trancriptomes of goat and sheep skin using Solexa sequencing to understand the development of skin and hair follicles (HFs). miRNA expression patterns vary in the two small RNA libraries from goat (G library) and sheep (S library) telogen skin samples. Analysis of the size distribution of 25.32 million clean reads revealed that most are 21-23 nucleotides. A total of 1910 known miRNAs and 2261 novel mature miRNAs were identified in this study. Among them, 107 novel miRNAs and 1246 known miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two libraries; 10 of the known miRNAs were identified using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR...
October 18, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shashi Kumar Gupta, Ariana Foinquinos, Sabrina Thum, Janet Remke, Karina Zimmer, Christophe Bauters, Pascal de Groote, Reinier A Boon, Leon J de Windt, Sebastian Preissl, Lutz Hein, Sandor Batkai, Florence Pinet, Thomas Thum
BACKGROUND: Aging populations show higher incidences of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). Cardiac remodeling post-MI leads to progressive impaired cardiac function caused by a disarray of several processes including derailed autophagy. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are known to be key players in cardiovascular disease but their involvement in cardiac autophagy and aging is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify new miRNA candidates that regulate cardiac autophagy and aging...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Xiaokan Zhang, P Christian Schulze
Heart failure (HF) is the inability of the heart to provide sufficient cardiac output for the energy demands of the body. Over the last decades, our understanding of the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, in cardiovascular diseases has expanded at a rapid rate. Importantly, multiple miRNAs have been specifically implicated in the progression of HF. Growing evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate central metabolic pathways and thus are highly implicated in the maintenance of energy homeostasis...
August 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Md Sayed Ali Sheikh, Umme Salma, Baohai Zhang, Jimei Chen, Jian Zhuang, Zhu Ping
Heart failure is a major public health problem especially in the aging population (≥65 years old), affecting nearly 5 million Americans and 15 million European people. Effective management of heart failure (HF) depends on a correct and rapid diagnosis. Presently, BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) assay is generally accepted by the international community for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with HF. However, regardless of its widespread clinical use, BNP is still encumbered by reduced specificity...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yuhuang Li, Lars Maegdefessel
MicroRNAs play key roles in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and during cardiovascular disease development and progression, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). A recent manuscript by Shen and colleagues provided evidence that the miR-30-CSE-H2S axis contributes to the protection against cardiomyocyte ischemic injury by regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Inhibition of the miR-30 family after MI injury offers potential therapeutic value to 'keep our heart going on'...
April 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Qifei Deng, Huan Guo, Na Deng, Wangzhen Zhang, Xiaohai Li, Huaxin Deng, Yongmei Xiao
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV). Evidence accumulates that microRNAs (miRNAs) might be the intermediate factors between environmental exposures and their adverse health effects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes may affect phenotypes and disease morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the influences of four well-studied SNPs in miRNA genes (rs2910164, rs11614913, rs2292832, and rs3746444) on HRV, and their modifying effects on the associations between PAH exposure and HRV...
July 2016: Environmental Research
Lee Lee Wong, Juan Wang, Oi Wah Liew, Arthur Mark Richards, Yei-Tsung Chen
Heart failure (HF) imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, have significantly improved patient outcomes in HF. Nevertheless, mortality remains high with about 50% of HF patients dying within five years of diagnosis thus mandating ongoing efforts to improve HF management...
April 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Prince Jeyabal, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Darukeshwara Joladarashi, Sahana Suresh Babu, Shashirekha Krishnamurthy, Arvind Bhimaraj, Keith A Youker, Raj Kishore, Prasanna Krishnamurthy
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication in patients with diabetes and is associated with underlying chronic inflammation and cardiac cell death, subsequently leading to heart failure (HF). ELAV-like protein 1 (ELAVL1) plays a critical role in the progression of inflammation and HF. However the role of ELAVL-1 in inflammation induced cardiac cell death (pyroptosis) under hyperglycemic condition remains elusive. Our data demonstrates that ELAVL1 expression augmented with a concomitant increase in caspase-1 and IL-1 beta expression in human hearts and human ventricular cardiomyocytes under hyperglycemic condition...
March 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Christian Schulte, Dirk Westermann, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller
microRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression and play an important role in pathophysiological processes. Circulating miRNAs can be quantified in body liquids and are promising biomarkers in numerous diseases. In cardiovascular disease miRNAs have been proven to be reliable diagnostic biomarkers for different disease entities. In cardiac fibrosis (CF) and heart failure (HF) dysregulated circulating miRNAs have been identified, indicating their promising applicability as diagnostic biomarkers...
December 26, 2015: World Journal of Cardiology
Alessandra Tessitore, Germana Cicciarelli, Filippo Del Vecchio, Agata Gaggiano, Daniela Verzella, Mariafausta Fischietti, Valentina Mastroiaco, Antonella Vetuschi, Roberta Sferra, Remo Barnabei, Daria Capece, Francesca Zazzeroni, Edoardo Alesse
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent chronic liver disorder in developed countries. NAFLD can progress through the more severe non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and, lastly, HCC. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of coding genes as well as deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) activity play a role in HCC development. In this study, the C57BL/6J mouse model was long term high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet fed, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms responsible for the hepatic damage progression...
2016: BMC Cancer
Claudio Iaconetti, Sabato Sorrentino, Salvatore De Rosa, Ciro Indolfi
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Exosomes have recently emerged as novel elements of intercellular communication in the cardiovascular system. Exosomal miRNAs could be key players in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during different diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). This review addresses the functional role played by exosomal miRNAs in heart disease and their potential use as new biomarkers...
January 2016: Physiology
Elaine Castilho Guedes, Gustavo Starvaggi França, Caroline Antunes Lino, Fernanda Christtanini Koyama, Luana do Nascimento Moreira, Juliana Gomes Alexandre, Maria Luiza M Barreto-Chaves, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto Galante, Gabriela Placoná Diniz
Recent studies have revealed the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial function. In addition, several reports have demonstrated that high fat (HF) diet induces cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. In the current study, we investigated the effect of diets containing different percentages of fat on the cardiac miRNA expression signature. To address this question, male C57Bl/6 mice were fed with a low fat (LF) diet or two HF diets, containing 45 kcal% fat (HF45%) and 60 kcal% fat (HF60%) for 10 and 20 weeks...
August 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Noemi Bruno, Jozine M ter Maaten, Ekaterina S Ovchinnikova, Eline L Vegter, Mattia A E Valente, Peter van der Meer, Rudolf A de Boer, Pim van der Harst, Daniela Schmitter, Marco Metra, Christopher M O'Connor, Piotr Ponikowski, John R Teerlink, Gad Cotter, Beth Davison, John G Cleland, Michael M Givertz, Daniel M Bloomfield, Howard C Dittrich, Yigal M Pinto, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Hans L Hillege, Eugene Berezikov, Adriaan A Voors
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and renal disease. Our aim is to describe miRNA levels related to early worsening renal function in acute HF patients. METHOD AND RESULTS: We studied the association between 12 circulating miRNAs and Worsening Renal Function (WRF; defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level of 0.3mg per deciliter or more from admission to day 3), absolute change in creatinine and Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) from admission to day 3 in 98 patients hospitalized for acute HF...
January 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Grażyna Sygitowicz, Mariusz Tomaniak, Olga Błaszczyk, Łukasz Kołtowski, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Dariusz Sitkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes produce a wide variety of bioactive molecules that regulate numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. Recently, it has been recognized that changes in microribonucleic acid (miRNA) expression may lead to cardiac dysfunction. AIMS: To assess the expression of circulating miRNAs (miR-1, miR-21 and miR-208a) in patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF), and to investigate the relationship between expression of these miRNAs and secretion of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and galectin-3...
December 2015: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Rodrigo W A Souza, Geysson J Fernandez, João P Q Cunha, Warlen P Piedade, Luana C Soares, Paula A T Souza, Dijon H S de Campos, Katashi Okoshi, Antonio C Cicogna, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Robson F Carvalho
Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on the myocardium in heart failure (HF) patients and in animal models of induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We hypothesized that if microRNAs (miRNAs) respond to changes following cardiac stress, then myocardial profiling of these miRNAs may reveal cardio-protective mechanisms of aerobic ET in HF. We used ascending aortic stenosis (AS) inducing HF in Wistar rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 wk after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 wk of aerobic ET (HF-ET) or to a heart failure sedentary group (HF-S)...
November 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yingqi Xu, Wenliang Zhu, Yong Sun, Zhe Wang, Wei Yuan, Zhimin Du
BACKGROUND: Acting on many mRNAs allows the power of a single miRNA to modulate multiple pathophysiological phenotypes. One question is whether versatile miRNAs exist in the pathological scenarios of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). METHODS: A hypergeometric analysis, in combination with network-based functional analyses, was performed on the available human protein interaction and miRNA-gene association data to highlight versatile miRNAs among the significantly dysregulated miRNAs in MI and HF...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Thomas Andl, Natalia V Botchkareva
Hair follicle development and its postnatal regeneration are characterized by dramatic changes in its microanatomy and cellular activity, which are controlled by multiple signalling pathways, transcription factors and epigenetic regulators, including microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs and their targets form remarkably diverse regulatory networks, playing a key role in the execution of gene expression programmes in the different cell lineages of the hair follicle. This review summarizes the roles of miRNAs in the control of hair follicle development, cycling and hair pigmentation, emphasizes the remaining problems/unanswered questions, and provides future directions in this rapidly growing and exciting area of research...
November 2015: Experimental Dermatology
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