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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529688/the-prevalence-temporal-and-spatial-trends-in-bulk-tank-equivalent-milk-fat-depression-in-irish-milk-recorded-herds
#1
Catherine I Carty, Alan G Fahey, Morgan R Sheehy, Steve Taylor, Ian J Lean, Conor G McAloon, Luke O'Grady, Finbar J Mulligan
BACKGROUND: Milk fat is important in terms of economic value and in its potential to provide information concerning cow diet and health. Under current milk payment schemes in Ireland farmer income is directly linked to milk fat production. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of milk fat depression (MFD) as calculated from test day milk recording data across all milk recording herds from 2004 to 2014 was undertaken. A dataset of 17 million test day records was used to calculate the prevalence of MFD in Irish milk recorded herds and to create a graphical description of the major descriptive epidemiological trends in milk fat depression in time and space in Ireland...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527809/accuracy-of-genomic-predictions-in-gyr-bos-indicus-dairy-cattle
#2
S A Boison, A T H Utsunomiya, D J A Santos, H H R Neves, R Carvalheiro, G Mészáros, Y T Utsunomiya, A S do Carmo, R S Verneque, M A Machado, J C C Panetto, J F Garcia, J Sölkner, M V G B da Silva
Genomic selection may accelerate genetic progress in breeding programs of indicine breeds when compared with traditional selection methods. We present results of genomic predictions in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle of Brazil for milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY), and age at first calving using information from bulls and cows. Four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips were studied. Additionally, the effect of the use of imputed data on genomic prediction accuracy was studied...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527805/effects-of-replacement-of-late-harvested-grass-silage-and-barley-with-early-harvested-silage-on-milk-production-and-methane-emissions
#3
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
This study evaluated the effects of gradual replacement of a mixture of late-cut grass silage (LS) and barley with early-cut grass silage (ES) on milk production, CH4 emissions, and N utilization in Swedish Red cows. Two grass silages were prepared from the same primary growth of timothy grass sward but harvested 2 wk apart [11.0 and 9.7 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg of dry matter (DM)]. Four diets, fed as a total mixed ration, were formulated to meet the metabolizable energy and protein requirements of 35 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) by gradually replacing a mixture of LS and barley with ES (0, 33, 67, and 100% of the forage component of the diet), whereas the proportion of barley decreased from 47...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527803/using-brown-midrib-6-dwarf-forage-sorghum-silage-and-fall-grown-oat-silage-in-lactating-dairy-cow-rations
#4
M T Harper, J Oh, F Giallongo, J C Lopes, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527801/genetic-and-nongenetic-factors-contributing-to-differences-in-%C3%AE-s-casein-phosphorylation-isoforms-and-other-major-milk-proteins
#5
Z H Fang, H Bovenhuis, A Delacroix-Buchet, G Miranda, D Boichard, M H P W Visker, P Martin
Relative concentrations of αS-casein (αS-CN) phosphorylation isoforms vary considerably among milk of individual cows. We aimed to explore to what extent genetic and other factors contribute to the variation in relative concentrations of αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN defined as the proportion of isoforms with higher degrees of phosphorylation. We also investigated the associations of genetic variants of milk proteins and casein haplotypes with relative concentrations of αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and with the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN in French Montbéliarde cattle from the cheese production area of Franche-Comté...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527798/short-communication-effect-of-a-citrus-extract-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#6
Y Ying, M Niu, A R Clarke, K J Harvatine
Dry matter intake is a main driver of energy balance in lactating dairy cows, and some plant extracts have been commercially fed to dairy cows to stimulate feed intake. Citrus extracts contain several bioactive components and have been shown to modify metabolism in other animal models. Our hypothesis was that a citrus extract would increase dry matter intake. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a citrus extract on intake and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In experiment one, 11 early-lactation dairy cows (experiment 1; 77 ± 15 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a switchback design, and in experiment two, 15 mid-lactation Holstein cows (experiment 2; 157 ± 44 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a crossover design...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527796/genetic-parameters-of-mid-infrared-methane-predictions-and-their-relationships-with-milk-production-traits-in-holstein-cattle
#7
P B Kandel, M-L Vanrobays, A Vanlierde, F Dehareng, E Froidmont, N Gengler, H Soyeurt
Many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gases. In this context, the dairy sector is one of the identified sectors to adapt production circumstances to address socio-environmental constraints due to its large carbon footprint related to CH4 emission. This study aimed mainly to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of 2 milk mid-infrared-based CH4 proxies [predicted daily CH4 emission (PME, g/d), and log-transformed predicted CH4 intensity (LMI)] and (2) their genetic correlations with milk production traits [milk (MY), fat (FY), and protein (PY) yields] from first- and second-parity Holstein cows...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525989/determination-of-genetic-effects-of-atf3-and-cdkn1a-genes-on-milk-yield-and-compositions-in-chinese-holstein-population
#8
REVIEW
Bo Han, Weijun Liang, Lin Liu, Yanhua Li, Dongxiao Sun
BACKGROUND: Our previous RNA-sequencing study revealed that the ATF3 and CDKN1A genes were remarkably differentially expressed between the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low milk protein and fat percentage so that both of them were considered as candidates for milk composition. Herein, we further verified whether these genes have genetic effects on milk production traits in a Chinese Holstein cow population. RESULTS: By re-sequencing the entire coding and regulatory regions, we identified four SNPs in 5'promoter region, two in exons, seven in 3' un-translated region (UTR), and six in 3'flanking region of ATF3 gene, and one SNP in exon 5, two in 3'UTR, and two in 3'flanking region of CDKN1A gene...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521152/an-improved-method-for-the-rapid-determination-of-90-sr-in-cow-s-milk
#9
Nicolas Guérin, Remi Riopel, Ray Rao, Sheila Kramer-Tremblay, Xiongxin Dai
An improved method was developed to rapidly determine strontium-90 ((90)Sr) in cow's milk samples in the event of a nuclear emergency. To perform this method, no heating or ashing steps were needed and all of the material used was disposable. Stable Sr tracer was added to each 40 mL milk sample. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were added to the sample to flocculate the suspended fat and proteins in the milk. The sample was centrifuged and the strontium in the supernatant was precipitated with carbonate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#10
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504710/a1-beta-casein-milk-protein-and-other-environmental-pre-disposing-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
J S J Chia, J L McRae, S Kukuljan, K Woodford, R B Elliott, B Swinburn, K M Dwyer
Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors in people with specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression. We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows' milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors...
May 15, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503821/effects-of-continuous-low-dose-infusion-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-inflammatory-responses-milk-production-and-milk-quality-in-dairy-cows
#12
L T Ning, G Z Dong, C Ao, D G Zhang, K Erdene, F Q Zhang, J Wen, T L Zhang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous low dose infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory responses and milk production and quality in lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows were assigned to two treatments in a cross-over experimental design. Cows were infused intravenously either with saline solution or with saline solution containing LPS from Escherichia coli O111:B4 at a dose of 0.01 μg LPS/kg body weight for approximately 6 hr each day during a seven-day trial...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501404/effects-of-dietary-crude-protein-concentration-on-late-lactation-dairy-cow-performance-and-indicators-of-nitrogen-utilization
#13
T Barros, M A Quaassdorff, M A Aguerre, J J Olmos Colmenero, S J Bertics, P M Crump, M A Wattiaux
The objectives of this study were to measure performance responses and to evaluate indictors of N utilization in late-lactation cows fed diets with incremental reductions in crude protein (CP) concentration. Holstein cows (n = 128; 224 ± 54 d in milk) were stratified by parity and days pregnant (86 ± 25 d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 16 pens in a randomized complete block design. For 3 wk, all cows received a covariate diet containing 16.9% CP [dry matter (DM) basis]. For the subsequent 12 wk, pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments that contained 16...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501402/thiamine-supplementation-facilitates-thiamine-transporter-expression-in-the-rumen-epithelium-and-attenuates-high-grain-induced-inflammation-in-low-yielding-dairy-cows
#14
X H Pan, L Yang, Y Beckers, F G Xue, Z W Tang, L S Jiang, B H Xiong
An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501401/milk-production-and-composition-nitrogen-utilization-and-grazing-behavior-of-late-lactation-dairy-cows-as-affected-by-time-of-allocation-of-a-fresh-strip-of-pasture
#15
R E Vibart, M Tavendale, D Otter, B H Schwendel, K Lowe, P Gregorini, D Pacheco
Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501400/the-genetics-of-antibody-response-to-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cattle
#16
T Pritchard, R Mrode, M Coffey, K Bond, E Wall
Genetic parameters were estimated for antibody response to paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis) using milk ELISA test results, collected and analyzed by National Milk Records, from Holstein Friesian cows on UK dairy farms in their first 3 lactations. Milk ELISA test results were obtained from 2007 to 2012 and combined with milk recording data and pedigree information. The reduced data set edited for the purposes of genetic parameter estimation consisted of 148,054 milk ELISA records from 64,645 lactations in 40,142 cows of 908 sires, recorded in 641 herds...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501397/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-acetate-on-milk-fat-synthesis-and-adipose-lipogenesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#17
N Urrutia, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression (MFD), nutrients are spared from milk fat synthesis and are available for other metabolic uses. Acetate is the major carbon source spared and it may increase lipid synthesis in adipose tissue during MFD. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the amount of acetate spared during CLA-induced MFD on adipose tissue lipogenesis. Nine multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (244 ± 107 d in milk; 25 ± 8...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491240/high-quality-permanent-draft-genome-sequence-of-chryseobacterium-bovis-dsm-19482-t-isolated-from-raw-cow-milk
#18
Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Markus Göker, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Victor Markowitz, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Hans-Peter Klenk, Nikos C Kyrpides, Malka Halpern
Chryseobacterium bovis DSM 19482(T) (Hantsis-Zacharov et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:1024-1028, 2008) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, non-motile, facultative anaerobe, chemoorganotroph bacterium. C. bovis is a member of the Flavobacteriaceae, a family within the phylum Bacteroidetes. It was isolated when psychrotolerant bacterial communities in raw milk and their proteolytic and lipolytic traits were studied. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490136/antioxidative-capacity-and-binding-affinity-of-the-complex-of-green-tea-catechin-and-beta-lactoglobulin-glycated-by-the-maillard-reaction
#19
Marija Perusko, Ayah Al-Hanish, Jelena Mihailovic, Simeon Minic, Sara Trifunovic, Ivana Prodic, Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic
Major green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), binds non-covalently to numerous dietary proteins, including beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. The effects of glycation of proteins via Maillard reaction on the binding capacity for polyphenols and the antiradical properties of the formed complexes have not been studied previously. Binding constant of BLG glycated by milk sugar lactose to EGCG was measured by the method of fluorophore quenching. Binding of EGCG was confirmed by CD and FTIR. The antioxidative properties of the complexes were examined by measuring ABTS radical scavenging capacity, superoxide anion scavenging capacity and total reducing power assay...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486398/bioactive-peptides-in-animal-food-products
#20
REVIEW
Marzia Albenzio, Antonella Santillo, Mariangela Caroprese, Antonella Della Malva, Rosaria Marino
Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e...
May 9, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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