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Cow milk protein

Miguel Angel Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos Raúl García-Ugalde, Blanca Erika Álvarez, Laura Mariana Villegas, Blanca Estela García-Almendárez, Jorge Luis Rosado, Carlos Regalado
Beta-casein (BC) in cow's milk occurs in several genetic variants, where BC A1 (BCA1) and BC A2 (BCA2) are the most frequent. This work deals with a method based on modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using urea PAGE to discriminate BCA1 and BCA2 variants from Holstein Friesian (HF) and genetically selected Jersey A2/A2 (JA2) cow's milk. Two well defined bands were obtained from BC fraction of HF milk, while that of JA2 showed a single band. Proteins from these bands were sequenced by HPLC-quadrupole linear ion trap/mass spectrometry, resulting in BCA1 and BCA2 separation from the BC fraction of HF milk, whereas BCA2 was the only constituent of JA2 fraction...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Abdolkhalegh Golkar, Jafar M Milani, Todor Vasiljevic
Cow's milk-based infant formulas have a long tradition in infant nutrition, although some infants are unable to use them due to presence of several known allergens. Various processing methods have been identified capable of reducing cow's milk protein allergenicity including thermal and non-thermal methods and their combinations. Heat treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have been in production of hypoallergenic infant formulas. However, modulation of allergenic epitopes depends on the extent of heat treatment applied, which consequently may also reduce a nutritional value of these proteins...
April 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
B Ingham, A Smialowska, N M Kirby, C Wang, A J Carr
The casein micelle is a flexible construct, with its key structural components being casein proteins and colloidal calcium phosphate nanoclusters. According to literature, milk from different species exhibits differences in composition and physicochemical properties. X-ray scattering techniques were used to investigate and compare the nanoscale structure of casein micelles present in cow, goat and sheep milk. Although there were differences in the size and density of larger scale protein structures, at an atomic level the protein structures were similar...
April 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Sławomir J Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Jarosław Kaba
In adult cattle Fasciola hepatica infection usually follows a chronic subclinical course, and reduces both the milk yield and milk quality, resulting in considerable financial losses. Effective control of the disease is based on reliable identification of asymptomatically infected individuals, which now requires special parasitological or serological diagnostic tests. It is also known that F. hepatica infection induces alterations in some serum biochemical parameters. Therefore, the study was conducted to develop a model based on serum biochemical parameters allowing to identify cows at higher risk of chronic fascioliasis...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
E D Testroet, D C Beitz, M R O'Neil, A L Mueller, H A Ramirez-Ramirez, S Clark
Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to lactating dairy cows has been implicated as a cause of late blowing defects in the production of Swiss-style cheeses. Our objectives were (1) to test the effect of feeding reduced-fat DDGS (RF-DDGS; ∼6% fat) to lactating dairy cows on the composition of milk and on the suitability of the milk for production of baby Swiss cheese and (2) to evaluate the effect of diet on cow lactation performance. Lactating Holstein dairy cows were fed both dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 crossover design...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R M Rodney, N P Martinez, P Celi, E Block, P C Thomson, G Wijffels, D R Fraser, J E P Santos, I J Lean
Bone-derived hormones play an important role in metabolism. This study examined the hypothesis that interactions between bone and energy metabolism, particularly those involving osteocalcin, are present in dairy cattle and have feedback mechanisms over time. Associations between metabolites in blood were examined in 32 Holstein cows blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to diets containing either 0.27 mg/kg dry matter (DM) calcidiol or cholecalciferol for an anticipated intake of 3 mg/d (120,000 IU/d) at 11 kg of DM, and positive (+130 mEq/kg DM) or negative (-130 mEq/kg DM) dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) from 252 d of gestation to calving...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sylvia Jacob, Artur Bonito Vitor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Nicholas J Meinzer
öProximity to protein production' has recently been identified as an important determinant of regional variation of biological standards of living, as evidenced by average heights. The number of cows per person turned out to be a useful proxy where milk consumption had not been documented. Re-analyses of agricultural production and average male heights in early 19th-century central Europe show that indicators of agricultural suitability and potential for food production constructed from modern agro-ecological data are strongly correlated with historical agricultural specialisation...
March 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Yongxin Yang, Elizabeth Anderson, Sheng Zhang
Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method...
April 12, 2018: Electrophoresis
D L Morris, S H Kim, P J Kononoff, C Lee
This study investigated the effects of continuous feeding of high inclusion of reduced-fat corn distillers grains with solubles with and without monensin on dry matter intake (DMI), production, milk fatty acid profile, and plasma AA profile in lactating cows. The experiment was conducted for 12 wk (1-wk covariate, 2-wk diet adaptation, and 9-wk experimental period of data collection) with 36 Holstein cows in a randomized complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, and milk yield and assigned to the following diets: (1) control (CON), (2) CON with reduced-fat corn distillers grains with solubles included at 28...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
G Conte, C Dimauro, A Serra, N P P Macciotta, M Mele
Although milk fat depression (MFD) has been observed and described since the beginning of the last century, all the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Some fatty acids (FA) originating during rumen biohydrogenation have been proposed as causative elements of MFD. However, contradictory results were obtained when studying the effect of single FA on MFD. An alternative could be the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of many FA using a multivariate approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual milk FA of ruminal origin and MFD using canonical discriminant analysis, a multivariate technique able to distinguish 2 or more groups on the basis of a pool of variables...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
F F Zhao, T Y Wu, H R Wang, L Y Ding, Gulzar Ahmed, H W Li, W Tian, Y Z Shen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of jugular l-Arg infusion on performance and immune function during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows (multiparous, 608.8 ± 31.5 kg) at mid-lactation were randomly assigned to 5-d jugular infusions of control (saline), Arg (3 g/h), LPS (0.033 μg/kg per h), and LPS + Arg (0.033 μg/kg per h of LPS and 3 g/h of Arg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 infusion periods separated by 10-d noninfusion periods...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Abbas Tanhaeian, Farajollah Shahriari Ahmadi, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati, Mojtaba Mamarabadi
Lactoferrin is the most dominant protein in milk after casein. This protein plays a crucial role in many biological processes including the regulation of iron metabolism, induction and modulation of the immune system, the primary defense against microorganisms, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and presenting antimicrobial activity against various pathogens such as parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The major antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin is related to its N-terminal tail where different peptides for instance lactoferricin and lactoferrampin which are important for their antimicrobial abilities are present...
April 4, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
C Tse, H W Barkema, T J DeVries, J Rushen, E A Pajor
Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person...
April 4, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Diego Hernando Ângulo Florez, Roseane Andrade Teixeira, Ricky Cássio Santos da Silva, Bruna Carneiro Pires, Flávia Viana Avelar Dutra, Keyller Bastos Borges
In this work, we developed a HPLC method for the multidetermination of avermectins (AVM) (abamectin-ABA 1b and ABA 1a, eprinomectin-EPR, and ivermectin-IVM) and milbemycins (moxidectin-MOX) in milk samples using polypyrrole (PPy) as adsorbent material in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction (PT-PPy-SPE). PPy was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction and the data agreed with the literature. The sample preparation included the clean-up of the milk by protein precipitation (PP) with acetonitrile and extraction of the analytes by PT-PPy-SPE...
April 2, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
R M Rodney, P Celi, W Scott, K Breinhild, J E P Santos, I J Lean
This meta-analysis of 39 experiments containing 118 treatments explored the effects of diet interventions in early lactation on the proportion of dairy cows pregnant to artificial insemination (AI; pregnancy to AI) and on calving to pregnancy interval. It also identified factors that may explain variation in these responses. The objectives were to identify effects of diet on reproduction, rather than differences between specific dietary interventions. The examination of calving to pregnancy interval used the more traditional method of analyzing differences between a treatment and the reference treatment used for comparison within a given experiment...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C M Ylioja, C Abney-Schulte, R Stock, B J Bradford
The effects of dietary nonforage fiber sources on production responses of lactating dairy cattle have been well described, but interactions with other components of the diet have been less thoroughly explored. We investigated the effects of adding 2 commonly fed fat sources to a ration featuring high levels of nonforage fiber supplied by a corn milling by-product. Midlactation Holstein cows were blocked by parity, stratified by days in milk, and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens (12 cows/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a 3 × 3 Latin square design, where the treatments consisted of prilled saturated fat (SAT; Energy Booster 100, Milk Specialties Co...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S E Wallén, E Prestløkken, T H E Meuwissen, S McParland, D P Berry
Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy of milk was used to predict dry matter intake (DMI) and net energy intake (NEI) in 160 lactating Norwegian Red dairy cows. A total of 857 observations were used in leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation to develop and validate prediction equations using 5 different models. Predictions were performed using (multiple) linear regression, partial least squares (PLS) regression, or best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Linear regression was implemented using just milk yield (MY) or fat, protein, and lactose concentration in milk (Mcont) or using MY together with body weight (BW) as predictors of intake...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Haga, M Miyaji, M Nakano, H Ishizaki, H Matsuyama, K Katoh, S G Roh
Blood α-tocopherol (α-Toc) concentrations decline gradually throughout the prepartum period, reaching the nadir after calving in dairy cows. The 6 α-Toc-related molecules [α-Toc transfer protein (TTPA); afamin; scavenger receptor class B, Type I; ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; tocopherol-associated protein (SEC14L2); and cytochrome P450 family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2 (CYP4F2)] are expressed in liver and other peripheral tissues. These molecules could regulate α-Toc transport, blood concentrations, and metabolism of α-Toc...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C Lee, A W Tebbe, J M Campbell, W P Weiss
Spray-dried plasma protein (SDP) compared with blood meal (BM) may contain various functional and active components that may benefit animal health. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding SDP or BM on production and blood profile in dairy cows during the transition and early-lactation periods. Seventy-two Holstein cows at 14 d before calving were used in a randomized block design. During the prepartum period, cows were fed a typical late-gestation diet containing BM (100 g/cow per day; 100BM, n = 24) or SDP (100 g/cow per day; 100SDP; n = 48)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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