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Cow milk protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238885/peanut-cake-can-replace-soybean-meal-in-supplements-for-lactating-cows-without-affecting-production
#1
Carina Anunciação Santos Dias, Adriana Regina Bagaldo, Weiler Giacomaza Cerutti, Analívia Martins Barbosa, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho, Emellinne Ingrid Souza Costa, Leilson Rocha Bezerra, Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira
This study evaluated the total replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake in the concentrate supplement of lactating cows grazing. Eight crossbred 5/8 Holstein × 3/8 Zebu cows between the 45th and 60th day of lactation and 507 ± 35 kg BW were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design with four levels of peanut cake (0, 110, 220, and 330 g/kg of the dry matter-DM) as a replacement of soybean meal in the concentrate supplement. The intake of pasture, total (pasture + concentrate), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients, and digestibility of the DM, CP, ether extract (EE), and NDF was not affected by the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake...
December 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230020/snp-co-association-and-network-analyses-identify-e2f3-kdm5a-and-bach2-as-key-regulators-of-the-bovine-milk-fatty-acid-profile
#2
Sara Pegolo, Christos Dadousis, Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Marcello Mele, Giuseppe Conte, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato
The fatty acid (FA) profile has a considerable impact on the nutritional and technological quality of milk and dairy products. The molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of fat metabolism in bovine mammary gland have been not completely elucidated. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across 65 milk FAs and fat percentage in 1,152 Brown Swiss cows. In total, we identified 175 significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) spanning all chromosomes. Pathway analyses revealed that 12:0 was associated with the greatest number of overrepresented categories/pathways (e...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224883/utilization-of-protein-in-red-clover-and-alfalfa-silages-by-lactating-dairy-cows-and-growing-lambs
#3
Glen A Broderick
Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224880/the-effect-of-different-treatments-for-early-lactation-hyperketonemia-on-liver-triglycerides-glycogen-and-expression-of-key-metabolic-enzymes-in-dairy-cattle
#4
S Mann, F A Leal Yepes, J J Wakshlag, E Behling-Kelly, J A A McArt
Despite the widespread use of treatments for postpartum hyperketonemia in dairy cows, there is currently a lack of evidence comparing their effects on both the resolution of hyperketonemia and the potential effects on the liver of affected animals. The objective of our work was to investigate the effect of commonly used hyperketonemia treatments on hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as well as on the mRNA and protein abundance of key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, and lipid metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224879/plant-oil-supplements-reduce-methane-emissions-and-improve-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-dairy-cows-fed-grass-silage-based-diets-without-affecting-milk-yield
#5
A R Bayat, I Tapio, J Vilkki, K J Shingfield, H Leskinen
Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224878/short-communication-variability-in-milk-urea-nitrogen-and-dairy-total-mixed-ration-composition-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#6
A N Hristov, M Harper, J Oh, F Giallongo, J C Lopes, G Cudoc, J Clay, R Ward, L E Chase
The main objective of this survey was to examine variability in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) for Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) herds in the northeastern United States (the Northeast), examine trends in dairy cow diet composition, and determine potential relationships for MUN and diet composition. Trends in milk fat and protein concentrations, milk yield, days in milk on test day, and lactation number of the cows were also evaluated. The data set for the survey included 10,839,461 DHIA dairy cow records from 2004 to 2015 for 13 states (CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, and WV) and was retrieved from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224877/effects-of-early-postpartum-sodium-salicylate-treatment-on-long-term-milk-intake-and-blood-parameters-of-dairy-cows
#7
A J Carpenter, C M Ylioja, L K Mamedova, K E Olagaray, B J Bradford
Previous research has shown that cows who receive treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after calving may have increased milk yield beginning near peak lactation, resulting in greater 305-d milk production. It has not been demonstrated whether this response is associated with greater feed intake following the first 3 wk of lactation. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were measured daily for 56 cows over the first 120 d in milk. Cows in their second parity and greater were blocked by parity and alternately enrolled 12 to 36 h after calving into 1 of 2 treatments: either 3 daily drenches of water or 3 daily drenches of a similar volume of water containing 125 g of sodium salicylate (SAL) beginning 12 to 36 h after calving...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224876/effect-of-different-forage-types-on-the-volatile-and-sensory-properties-of-bovine-milk
#8
Hope Faulkner, Tom F O'Callaghan, Stephen McAuliffe, Deirdre Hennessy, Catherine Stanton, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry, Kieran N Kilcawley
The effect of 3 diets (grass, grass/clover, and total mixed ration) on the volatile and sensory properties of bovine milk was assessed over an entire lactation season. Little evidence was found of direct transfer of terpenes into raw milk from the different diets, and it is likely that the monocultures of ryegrass used with and without white clover were factors as these contained very few terpenes. Evidence of direct transfer of nonterpene volatiles from forage to the subsequent raw milks was probable; however, differences in the protein carbohydrate availability and digestion in the rumen appeared to have a greater contribution to volatile profiles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224866/the-effects-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-on-milk-protein-synthesis-in-mammary-glands-of-dairy-cows
#9
Ye Lin, Xiaoyu Duan, He Lv, Yang Yang, Ying Liu, Xuejun Gao, Xiaoming Hou
The mammary gland requires the uptake of AA for milk protein synthesis during lactation. The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, encoded by SLC7A5), found in many different types of mammalian cells, is indispensable as a transporter of essential AA to maintain cell growth and protein synthesis. However, the function of LAT1 in regulating milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland of the dairy cow remains largely unknown. For the current study, we characterized the relationship between LAT1 expression and milk protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows and investigated whether the mammalian target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) signaling controls the expression of LAT1 in their mammary glands...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224859/effects-of-rumen-degradable-protein-rumen-undegradable-protein-ratio-and-corn-processing-on-production-performance-nitrogen-efficiency-and-feeding-behavior-of-holstein-dairy-cows
#10
M Savari, M Khorvash, H Amanlou, G R Ghorbani, E Ghasemi, M Mirzaei
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223706/cross-over-clinical-trial-for-evaluating-the-safety-of-camel-s-milk-intake-in-patients-who-are-allergic-to-cow-s-milk-protein
#11
E M Navarrete-Rodríguez, L A Ríos-Villalobos, C R Alcocer-Arreguín, B E Del-Rio-Navarro, J M Del Rio-Chivardi, O J Saucedo-Ramírez, J J L Sienra-Monge, R V Frias
BACKGROUND: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 0.6 and 0.9% of the general population, and its treatment implies the total elimination of the intake of this protein. Camel's milk has been suggested as an alternative for patients over one year of age who suffer from CMPA due to the difference in the amino acid sequence from that of cow's milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of camel's milk in children with CMPA. METHODS: Crossed clinical trial for the use of camel's milk vs...
December 6, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223308/what-we-have-lost-mastitis-resistance-in-holstein-friesians-and-in-a-local-cattle-breed
#12
Giulio Curone, Joel Filipe, Paola Cremonesi, Erminio Trevisi, Massimo Amadori, Claudia Pollera, Bianca Castiglioni, Lauretta Turin, Vittorio Tedde, Daniele Vigo, Paolo Moroni, Andrea Minuti, Valerio Bronzo, M Filippa Addis, Federica Riva
In Holstein Friesian dairy cows, selective pressure for increased milk production has led to a higher propensity to disease, including mastitis, when compared to less selected and lower producing dairy breeds. The biology underpinning the higher resistance to disease of such "local breeds" is not fully understood. With the aim of investigating the factors associated to this phenomenon, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to compare innate immune response patterns, metabolic parameters, milk protein profiles and the milk microbiota in Holstein Friesian and Rendena cows reared in the same farm and under the same management conditions...
November 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220053/the-mechanism-of-reduced-igg-ige-binding-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-by-pulsed-electric-field-pretreatment-combined-with-glycation-revealed-by-ecd-fticr-ms
#13
Wenhua Yang, Zongcai Tu, Hui Wang, Lu Zhang, Igor A Kaltashov, Yunlong Zhao, Chendi Niu, Honglin Yao, Wenfeng Ye
Bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a major allergen existing in milk and causes about 90% of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergies. Previous studies showed that pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment could partially unfold the protein, which may contribute to the improvement of protein glycation. In this study, the effect of PEF pretreatment combined with glycation on the IgG/IgE-binding ability and the structure of β-Lg was investigated. The result showed that PEF pretreatment combined with glycation significantly reduced the IgG and IgE binding abilities, which was attributed to the changes of secondary and tertiary structure and the increase in glycation sites and degree of substitution per peptide (DSP) value determined by electron capture dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ECD/FTICR-MS)...
December 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210890/allergic-colitis-with-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-an-infant
#14
Helena Liu, Troy W S Turner
Inflammatory causes of bloody diarrhea during infancy include necrotizing enterocolitis and allergic colitis, often due to cow's milk protein. We report this case of cow's milk protein allergy, managed successfully with elimination of dietary antigen, to highlight the unusual finding of pneumatosis intestinalis on abdominal x-ray, a radiographic hallmark associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. Detailed patient's history, clinical presentation, and physical examinations are discussed for cow's milk protein allergy and necrotizing enterocolitis...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207947/modeling-heterogeneous-co-variances-from-adjacent-snp-groups-improves-genomic-prediction-for-milk-protein-composition-traits
#15
Grum Gebreyesus, Mogens S Lund, Bart Buitenhuis, Henk Bovenhuis, Nina A Poulsen, Luc G Janss
BACKGROUND: Accurate genomic prediction requires a large reference population, which is problematic for traits that are expensive to measure. Traits related to milk protein composition are not routinely recorded due to costly procedures and are considered to be controlled by a few quantitative trait loci of large effect. The amount of variation explained may vary between regions leading to heterogeneous (co)variance patterns across the genome. Genomic prediction models that can efficiently take such heterogeneity of (co)variances into account can result in improved prediction reliability...
December 5, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206176/kisspeptin-10-induces-%C3%AE-casein-synthesis-via-gpr54-and-its-downstream-signaling-pathways-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#16
Jianhua Sun, Juxiong Liu, Bingxu Huang, Xingchi Kan, Guangxin Chen, Wei Wang, Shoupeng Fu
Kisspeptins (Kps) play a key role in the regulation of GnRH axis and as an anti-metastasis agent by binding with GPR54. Recently, we observed that the expression of GPR54 was higher in the lactating mammary tissues of dairy cows with high-quality milk (0.81 ± 0.13 kg/day of milk protein yield; 1.07 ± 0.18 kg/day of milk fat yield) than in those with low-quality milk (0.51 ± 0.14 kg/day of milk protein yield; 0.67 ± 0.22 kg/day of milk fat yield). We hypothesized that Kp-10 might regulate the milk protein, β-casein (CSN2) synthesis via GPR54 and its downstream signaling...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202914/integrating-allergen-analysis-within-a-risk-assessment-framework-approaches-to-development-of-targeted-mass-spectrometry-methods-for-allergen-detection-and-quantification-in-the-ifaam-project
#17
Chiara Nitride, Victoria Lee, Ivona Baricevic-Jones, Karine Adel-Patient, Sabine Baumgartner, E N Clare Mills
Allergen analysis is central to implementing and monitoring food allergen risk assessment and management processes by the food industry, but current methods for the determination of allergens in foods give highly variable results. The European Union-funded "Integrated Approaches to Food Allergen and Allergy Risk Management" (iFAAM) project has been working to address gaps in knowledge regarding food allergen management and analysis, including the development of novel MS and immuno-based allergen determination methods...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202756/pestivirus-infection-in-cattle-dairy-farms-e2-glycoprotein-elisa-reveals-the-presence-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-2-in-northwestern-italy
#18
Chiara Nogarol, Nicola Decaro, Luigi Bertolotti, Barbara Colitti, Bryan Iotti, Stefano Petrini, Maria Stella Lucente, Gabriella Elia, Giovanni Perona, Margherita Profiti, Canio Buonavoglia, Sergio Rosati
BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 are members of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. This genus also includes the HoBi-like virus, tentatively classified as BVDV type 3. BVDV-1 is widely distributed in Italy despite the extensive use of BVDV-1-based vaccines, while BVDV-2 and HoBi-like Pestivirus have been detected occasionally. Monitoring the occurrence of sporadic or atypical pestiviruses is a useful approach to evaluate the need for additional vaccine strains that can be used in BVDV control programs...
December 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194402/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-ten-practices-to-minimize-obesity-emerging-from-published-science
#19
Angelo Pietrobelli, Massimo Agosti
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in most countries the last decades. Considering this in a simplistic way, we can say that obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, the environment from conception to childhood could influence the child's future health. The first 1000 days of life start with woman's pregnancy, and offer a unique window of opportunity to contribute to obesity prevention. In light of the actual literature, the aim of our article is to discuss a proposal of 10 good practices to minimize obesity in the first 1000 days emerging from published science...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178880/evaluation-of-effects-of-mycoplasma-mastitis-on-milk-composition-in-dairy-cattle-from-south-australia
#20
Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Farhid Hemmatzadeh, Manouchehr Khazandi, Andrew Hoare, Kiro Petrovski
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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