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Tessa Strain, Claire Fitzsimons, Paul Kelly, Nanette Mutrie
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. METHODS: The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Sonia M Hernandez, Catharine N Welch, Valerie E Peters, Erin K Lipp, Shannon Curry, Michael J Yabsley, Susan Sanchez, Andrea Presotto, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Kelley B Hise, Elizabeth Hammond, Whitney M Kistler, Marguerite Madden, April L Conway, Tiffany Kwan, John J Maurer
Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed...
2016: PloS One
Aimée C Smith, Jonathan R Roberts, Pui Wah Kong, Stephanie E Forrester
Analysing the centre of pressure (COP) and centre of gravity (COG) could reveal stabilising strategies used by golfers throughout the golf swing. This study identified and compared golfers' COP and COG patterns throughout the golf swing in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions using principal component analysis (PCA) and examined their relationship to clubhead velocity. Three-dimensional marker trajectories were collected using Vicon motion analysis and force plate data from two Kistler force plates for 22 low-handicap golfers during drives...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Kanji Kadowaki, Haruyuki Ishii, Daisuke Nagao, Mikio Konno
Golf ball-like particles having a number of dimples on their spherical surfaces were prepared by a combined method of a heterocoagulation between hard polymer particles and soft silicone oil droplets, a polymerization of the oil droplets and a dissolution of the polymer particles with tetrahydrofuran. In the heterocoagulation polystyrene (PSt) particles with three different sizes were employed as hard particles. Distribution of dimples formed with small-sized PSt particles (SPS) was less homogeneous than that with middle-sized particles (MPS)...
October 12, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
S Dahms, N J Baker, R Greenfield
This study aimed to determine the ecological risk posed by metals, in sediments from the Nyl River system in Limpopo, South Africa. Metals were extracted from sediment samples by aqua regia microwave digestion and were analysed using standard ICP-OES techniques. The ecological risk indices applied to the data included Contamination Factor, Pollution Load Index, Geo-accumulation Index and Enrichment Factor. The results showed that the levels of Ni at STW and NYL in the HF period exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines by a factor of 1...
October 6, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Terry Trinh, Christine T Shiner, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Penelope A McNulty
PURPOSE: Post-stroke hemiparesis may manifest as asymmetric gait, poor balance, and inefficient movement patterns. We investigated improvements in lower-limb muscle activation and function during Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT), a rehabilitation program specifically targeting upper-limb motor-function. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from tibialis anterior (TA) in 20 stroke patients during a 14-day WMT program. EMG amplitude and burst duration were analyzed during stereotypical movement sequences of WMT activities...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Pamela J Magee, Alison M Gallagher, Jacqueline M McCormack
Although dehydration of ≥2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n=430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
A D Murray, L Daines, D Archibald, R A Hawkes, C Schiphorst, P Kelly, L Grant, N Mutrie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between golf and health. DESIGN: Scoping review. DATA SOURCES: Published and unpublished reports of any age or language, identified by searching electronic databases, platforms, reference lists, websites and from consulting experts. REVIEW METHODS: A 3-step search strategy identified relevant published primary and secondary studies as well as grey literature. Identified studies were screened for final inclusion...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
A D Murray, L Daines, D Archibald, R A Hawkes, C Schiphorst, P Kelly, L Grant, N Mutrie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Travis W Shaddox, Jason K Kruse, Grady L Miller, Peter Nkedi-Kizza, Jerry B Sartain
United States Golf Association putting greens are susceptible to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching. Inorganic soil amendments are used to increase moisture and nutrient retention and may influence N and P leaching. This study was conducted to determine whether N and P leaching could be reduced using soil amendments and surfactant-modified soil amendments. Treatments included a control (sand), sand-peat, zeolite, calcined clay, hexadecyltrimethylammonium-zeolite, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium-calcined clay...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Katrina L Gillette, Yaling Qian, Ronald F Follett, Stephen Del Grosso
Few studies have quantified nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from intensively managed turfgrass systems on golf courses. Fertilizer treatments consisting of urea with inhibitors of nitrification and urease (INU), polymer-coated urea (PCU), and uncoated balanced methylene urea (BMU) chain, which use different mechanisms to control the release of N substrate, were applied to a golf course fairway and rough three times during the 2011 growing season at a rate of 50 kg N ha per application. The vented chamber method was used to measure turf-soil-atmospheric NO exchange...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Tae-Gyu Kim, Wi-Young So
Evaluating the biomechanical and performance factors of the knee joint during golf swing can provide objective and quantitative information about improving the performance and development of efficient physical training, as the legs are important for achieving an efficient swing and maximum speed of the club head in golf. In the present study, kinematic movements of the knee joint were identified during the downswing by using 3-dimensional motion analysis, and isokinetic strength was measured with driver and 5-iron clubs in 15 professional (PRO) golfers and 10 amateur (AMA) golfers...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Yumiko Hasegawa, Keisuke Fujii, Akito Miura, Yuji Yamamoto
It is difficult for humans to apply small amounts of force precisely during motor control. However, experts who have undergone extended training are thought to be able to control low-velocity movement with precision. We investigated the resolution of motor control in golf putting. A total of 10 professional and 10 high-level amateur golfers participated. Putting distances were 0.6-3.3 m, in increments of 0.3 m. We measured the impact velocity and the club-face angle at impact, and the acceleration profile of the downswing...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Daniel T Bishop, Neil Addington, Giorgia D'Innocenzo
Eye movements are essential for both predictive and reactive control of complex motor skills such as the golf swing. We examined the use of a visually guided learning protocol to retrain an experienced golfer's point-of-gaze immediately prior to execution of the full golf swing; his swing, and his gaze behaviour, had become established over more than a decade of practice and competition. Performance and eye movement data were obtained, from baseline, through intervention, to retention, for a total of 159 shots struck at a target 200 yards away...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Colin Perron, Olivier Rouillon, Pascal Edouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of injuries to French golfers high-level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a national retrospective study by mailing a questionnaire to all the French Golf licensed under ten handicap. The questionnaire collected information on the characteristics of the player, practicing golf, equipment and the occurrence or not of an injury during the season 2015. A descriptive analysis and a comparison between the injured and uninjured golfers were made, followed by univariate and multivariate analysis to investigate potential risk factors...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Maria E Linnaus, Rebecca L Ragar, Erin M Garvey, Jason D Fraser
PURPOSE: To identify injuries and outcomes from Recreational/Off-Highway Vehicles (RV/OHV) accidents at a pediatric trauma center. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective pediatric trauma registry was performed to identify patients sustaining injuries from an RV/OHV between January 2007 and July 2015. Vehicles included: all-terrain vehicles (ATV), dirt bikes, utility-terrain vehicles (UTV), golf carts, go-karts, and dune buggies. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-eight patients were injured while on an RV/OHV: 269 ATV, 135 dirt bike, 42 UTV, 38 golf cart, 34 go-kart, and 10 dune buggy...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
N Tilley, A Murray, R Hillman, R Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
John F Mathers, Madeleine A Grealy
This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Yen-Hsien Li, Chung-Yu Chen, Cheng-Hsiung Kuo, Maw-Rong Lee
During the electrospray ionization (ESI) process, ions move through a heated capillary aperture to be detected on arrival at a mass analyzer. However, the ESI process creates an ion plume, which expands into an ion cloud with an area larger than that of the heated capillary aperture, significantly contributing to an ion loss of 50% due to coulombic repulsion. The use of DC and RF fields to focus ions from the ion source into the vacuum chamber has been proposed in the literature, but the improvement of ion transmission efficiency is limited...
September 28, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Marcos Daou, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller
Recent research has revealed that having learners study and practice a motor skill with the expectation of having to teach it enhances motor learning. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We attempted to replicate this effect and elucidate the mechanisms underlying it. Thus, participants studied golf putting instructions and practiced putting either with the expectation of having to teach another participant how to putt or the expectation of being tested on their putting. During this acquisition phase, participants' motivation, anxiety, and information processing (the duration they took preparing each putt) were indexed as possible mechanisms underlying a motor learning effect...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
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