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Dynamic postural stability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446583/a-shared-neural-integrator-for-human-posture-control
#1
Stephanie E Haggerty, Amy R Wu, Kathleen H Sienko, Arthur D Kuo
Control of standing posture requires fusion of multiple inputs including visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and other sensors, each having distinct dynamics. The semicircular canals, for example, have a high-pass filter response to angular velocity, quickly sensing a step change in head rotational velocity followed by a decay. To stabilize gaze despite this decay, the central nervous system supplies a neural "velocity storage" integrator, a filter that extends the angular velocity signal. Similar filtering might contribute temporal dynamics to posture control, as suggested by some state estimation models...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442732/human-bipedal-instability-in-tree-canopy-environments-is-reduced-by-light-touch-fingertip-support
#2
L Johannsen, S R L Coward, G R Martin, A M Wing, A van Casteren, W I Sellers, A R Ennos, R H Crompton, S K S Thorpe
Whether tree canopy habitats played a sustained role in the ecology of ancestral bipedal hominins is unresolved. Some argue that arboreal bipedalism was prohibitively risky for hominins whose increasingly modern anatomy prevented them from gripping branches with their feet. Balancing on two legs is indeed challenging for humans under optimal conditions let alone in forest canopy, which is physically and visually highly dynamic. Here we quantify the impact of forest canopy characteristics on postural stability in humans...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438514/components-of-standing-postural-control-evaluated-in-pediatric-balance-measures-a-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
Kathryn M Sibley, Marla K Beauchamp, Karen Van Ooteghem, Marie Paterson, Kristy Dm Wittmeier
OBJECTIVE: To identify measures of standing balance validated in pediatric populations and determine the components of postural control captured in each tool. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases using key word combinations of postural balance/ equilibrium, psychometrics/ reproducibility of results/ predictive value of tests, child/ pediatrics; grey literature; and hand searches. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were measures with a stated objective to assess balance, pediatric (<=18 years) populations, at least one psychometric evaluation, one standing task, standardized protocol and evaluation criteria, and published in English...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437841/characterizing-the-evolution-of-wide-gauge-features-in-stylopodial-limb-elements-of-titanosauriform-sauropods-via-geometric-morphometrics
#4
Paul V Ullmann, Matthew F Bonnan, Kenneth J Lacovara
Wide-gauge posture of titanosauriform sauropods remains an enigmatic peculiarity among terrestrial vertebrates. Here, two-dimensional geometric morphometrics and thin plate splines analyses were used to quantitatively analyze shape differences among sauropodomorph humeri and femora to identify how these elements may differ according to body gauge. Results demonstrate that titanosauriforms generally possess proportionately gracile humeri in comparison to other sauropods, with relatively more medially oriented humeral heads and proximally located deltopectoral crests...
April 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436247/effects-of-peripheral-vestibular-dysfunction-on-dynamic-postural-stability-measured-by-the-functional-reach-test-and-timed-up-and-go-test
#5
Toshiko Nishi, Teru Kamogashira, Chisato Fujimoto, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of vestibular function on dynamic postural stability assessed by the functional reach test (FRT) and the timed up and go test (TUG). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The FRT and TUG were performed in 399 patients with dizziness. The effects of peripheral vestibular dysfunction assessed by the caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to air-conducted sound (500 Hz, tone burst) on the results of FRT and TUG were analyzed...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431622/quantitative-biomechanical-assessment-of-trunk-control-in-huntington-s-disease-reveals-more-impairment-in-static-than-dynamic-tasks
#6
Deb A Kegelmeyer, Sandra K Kostyk, Nora E Fritz, Marianne M Fiumedora, Ajit Chaudhari, Marilly Palettas, Gregory Young, Anne D Kloos
Postural instability is common in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD), yet little is known about control of the trunk during static and dynamic activities. We compared the trunk motion of 41 individuals with HD and 36 controls at thoracic and pelvic levels during sitting, standing, and walking using wearable iPod sensors. We also examined the ability of individuals with HD to respond to an auditory cue to modify trunk position when the pelvis moved >8° in sagittal or frontal planes during sitting using custom software...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425239/an-8-week-thoracic-spine-stabilization-exercise-program-improves-postural-back-pain-spine-alignment-postural-sway-and-core-endurance-in-university-students-a-randomized-controlled-study
#7
Şeyda Toprak Çelenay, Derya Özer Kaya
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the effects of an 8-week thoracic stabilization exercise program on back pain, spinal alignment, postural sway, and core endurance in university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: University students were randomly allocated into exercise (n: 28) and control (n: 25) groups. The exercise program was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Postural pain, spinal alignment, postural sway, and core endurance were assessed via visual analogue scale, Spinal Mouse, Biodex Balance System, and McGill's trunk muscle endurance tests at the baseline and after 8 weeks of training...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420971/dynamic-increase-in-corticomuscular-coherence-during-bilateral-cyclical-ankle-movements
#8
Takashi Yoshida, Kei Masani, Karl Zabjek, Robert Chen, Milos R Popovic
In humans, the midline primary motor cortex is active during walking. However, the exact role of such cortical participation is unknown. To delineate the role of the primary motor cortex in walking, we examined whether the primary motor cortex would activate leg muscles during movements that retained specific requirements of walking (i.e., locomotive actions). We recorded electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals from 15 healthy, young men while they sat and performed bilateral, cyclical ankle movements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400662/early-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-can-save-meniscus-without-any-complications
#9
Chang-Ik Hur, Eun-Kyoo Song, Sung-Kyu Kim, Seung-Hun Lee, Jong-Keun Seon
BACKGROUND: Early ACL reconstruction, before retuning to activity eliminates recurrent episodes of instability and thereby decreases chances of meniscal and cartilage injury. However, there are no clear and uniform guidelines regarding the timing of ACL reconstruction or clarity in the definition of early and delayed reconstruction to reduce the complications after reconstruction in the ACL injured knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome, stability, muscle power, and postural control after early and delayed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399877/overground-vs-treadmill-based-robotic-gait-training-to-improve-seated-balance-in-people-with-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#10
Amanda E Chisholm, Raed A Alamro, Alison M M Williams, Tania Lam
BACKGROUND: Robotic overground gait training devices, such as the Ekso, require users to actively participate in triggering steps through weight-shifting movements. It remains unknown how much the trunk muscles are activated during these movements, and if it is possible to transfer training effects to seated balance control. This study was conducted to compare the activity of postural control muscles of the trunk during overground (Ekso) vs. treadmill-based (Lokomat) robotic gait training, and evaluate changes in seated balance control in people with high-thoracic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396629/effects-of-changing-body-weight-distribution-on-mediolateral-stability-control-during-gait-initiation
#11
Teddy Caderby, Eric Yiou, Nicolas Peyrot, Xavier de Viviés, Bruno Bonazzi, Georges Dalleau
During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) precede the execution of the first step. It is generally acknowledged that these APA contribute to forward progression but also serve to stabilize the whole body in the mediolateral direction during step execution. Although previous studies have shown that changes in the distribution of body weight between both legs influence motor performance during gait initiation, it is not known whether and how such changes affect a person's postural stability during this task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388780/effect-of-footwear-on-dynamic-stability-during-single-leg-jump-landings
#12
Bradley J Bowser, William C Rose, Robert McGrath, Jilian Salerno, Joshua Wallace, Irene S Davis
Barefoot and minimal footwear running has led to greater interest in the biomechanical effects of different types of footwear. The effect of running footwear on dynamic stability is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to compare dynamic stability and impact loading across 3 footwear conditions; barefoot, minimal footwear and standard running shoes. 25 injury free runners (21 male, 4 female) completed 5 single-leg jump landings in each footwear condition. Dynamic stability was assessed using the dynamic postural stability index and its directional components (mediolateral, anteroposterior, vertical)...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388290/the-role-of-postural-support-in-young-adults-control-of-stationary-kicking
#13
Ben Sidaway, Matthew Bouchard, Julie Chasse, Jonathan Dunn, Andrea Govoni, Breanne McPherson, Katherine Roy, David I Anderson
PURPOSE: The requirement for postural stability during the performance of motor skills has been clearly demonstrated in infants, but the necessity for such a postural substrate is not well documented in adults. The present study investigated the role of postural stability during a ballistic ball-kicking task in adults by providing varying degrees of external postural support. METHOD: In the 1st experiment, 30 participants performed 20 maximal-velocity kicks under each of 3 conditions: grasping a rigid stable handle, light fingertip touch, and grasping a suspended elastic tube...
April 7, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387693/visual-vestibular-processing-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
W G Wright, R T Tierney, J McDevitt
BACKGROUND: The search for reliable and valid signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly synonymous with concussion, has lead to a growing body of evidence that individuals with long-lasting, unremitting impairments often experience visual and vestibular symptoms, such as dizziness, postural and gait disturbances. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the role of visual-vestibular processing deficits following concussion. METHODS: A number of clinically accepted vestibular, oculomotor, and balance assessments as well as a novel virtual reality (VR)-based balance assessment device were used to assess adults with post-acute concussion (n = 14) in comparison to a healthy age-matched cohort (n = 58)...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366027/detecting-destabilizing-wheelchair-conditions-for-maintaining-seated-posture
#15
Anna Crawford, Kiley Armstrong, Kenneth Loparo, Musa Audu, Ronald Triolo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. METHODS: A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities...
April 1, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361275/effects-of-spinal-stabilization-exercises-in-women-with-benign-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Seyda Toprak Celenay, Derya Ozer Kaya
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week lumbar spinal stabilization exercise program on pain, trunk muscle endurance, and postural stability in women with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). Women with BJHS were randomly allocated into exercise (n = 20) and control (n = 18) groups. The lumbar spinal stabilization exercise program was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. BJHS with Brighton criteria, musculoskeletal pain intensity with Visual Analog Scale, trunk muscle endurance with McGill's trunk muscle endurance tests, and postural stability as static and dynamic while eyes open and closed with Biodex Balance System SD were evaluated...
March 30, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356727/effects-of-dual-tasks-and-dual-task-training-on-postural-stability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
The use of dual-task training paradigm to enhance postural stability in patients with balance impairments is an emerging area of interest. The differential effects of dual tasks and dual-task training on postural stability still remain unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of dual task and training application on static and dynamic postural stability among various population groups. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, from inception until June 2016, on the online databases Scopus, PEDro, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SportDiscus...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351168/long-term-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-additional-core-stability-exercises-training-for-improving-dynamic-sitting-balance-and-trunk-control-in-stroke-patients
#18
Rosa Cabanas-Valdés, Caritat Bagur-Calafat, Montserrat Girabent-Farrés, Fernanda Mª Caballero-Gómez, Helena du Port de Pontcharra-Serra, Ana German-Romero, Gerard Urrútia
OBJECTIVE: Analyse the effect of core stability exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy training three months after the intervention ended. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient services. SUBJECTS: Seventy-nine stroke survivors. INTERVENTIONS: In the intervention period, both groups underwent conventional physiotherapy performed five days/week for five weeks, and in addition the experimental group performed core stability exercises for 15 minutes/day...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348547/altered-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-in-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Valeria Isaac, Diego Olmedo, Francisco Aboitiz, Paul H Delano
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present more difficulties in standing and walking balance than typically developing children. Most of previous studies have assessed these functions using postural and sensory organization tests showing differences in balance performance between control and ADHD children. However, to date, it is unknown whether these balance alterations are accompanied with vestibular dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326869/design-and-evaluation-of-vibratory-shoe-on-balance-control-for-elderly-subjects-technical-note
#20
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Farzam Farahmand, Mahmood Bahramizadeh, Reza Fadayevatan, Ehsan Abdollahi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aging often results in a decline in somatosensory function, and such changes are associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). This paper describes the development and testing of a new vibrating shoe to possibly assist the elderly patients in controlling their balance and decreasing their falling risks. TECHNIQUE: The new vibrating shoe was evaluated to ascertain its ability to generate appropriate random and nonlinear vibrations...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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