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Connective Disease and Crohn's Disease

Chunhui Bao, Peng Liu, Huirong Liu, Xiaoming Jin, Yin Shi, Luyi Wu, Xiaoqing Zeng, Jianye Zhang, Di Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Jie Tian, Huangan Wu
Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are shown to have abnormal changes in brain structures. This study aimed to further investigate whether these patients have abnormal brain activities and network connectivity. Sixty patients with CD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were used to assess differences in spontaneous regional brain activity and functional connectivity...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Tomas Kupka, Jarmila Simova, Jana Dvorackova, Lubomir Martinek, Oldrich Motyka, Magdalena Uvirova, Petr Dite
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Crohn's disease is a multifactorial inflammatory disease affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract. The genetic factors that are involved in the disease include mainly three mutations of the gene NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 3020insC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of these variants and disease phenotype. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 70 patients with Crohn's disease were examined for the presence of the above-mentioned mutations...
January 18, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Andrew Szilagyi, Xiaoqing Xue
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Peng Liu, Ru Li, Chunhui Bao, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Huangan Wu, Wei Qin
Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported to relate with the functional and structural alterations in several local brain regions. However, it remains unknown whether the possible abnormalities of information transmission and integration between brain regions are associated with CD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topological alterations of brain functional networks and the potential relationships between the neuroimaging findings and CD clinical characteristics. 43 remissive CD patients and 37 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited to obtain their resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Giovanni Latella
Intestinal fibrosis, a common complication of inflammatory bowel diseases, becomes clinically apparent in ~ 40% of patients with Crohn's disease and ~ 5% of those with ulcerative colitis. Fibrosis, a consequence of local chronic inflammation, is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts, which are modulated by pro-fibrotic and anti-fibrotic factors. Fibrosis depends on the balance between production and degradation of ECM proteins. Although the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad pathway is the major driving force of fibrosis, several pro-fibrogenic and anti-fibrogenic endogenous factors appear to interact directly with this pathway such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which are connected with TGF-β1 during fibrosis development in several organs, including the intestine...
December 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Naohiro Inohara
In a recent study published in Science, Atarashi et al. (2017) showed that Klebsiella strains isolated from the saliva of Crohn's disease patients can induce Th1 cell responses to promote colitis. Their findings highlight the importance of the oral cavity as a potential reservoir for bacteria that can promote intestinal disease.
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
Chunhui Bao, Di Wang, Peng Liu, Yin Shi, Xiaoming Jin, Luyi Wu, Xiaoqing Zeng, Jianye Zhang, Huirong Liu, Huangan Wu
Acupuncture and moxibustion have been shown to be effective in treating Crohn's disease (CD), but their therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Here we compared brain responses to either electro-acupuncture or moxibustion treatment in CD patients experiencing remission. A total of 65 patients were randomly divided into an electro-acupuncture group ( n = 32) or a moxibustion group ( n = 33), and treated for 12 weeks. Eighteen patients in the electro-acupuncture group and 20 patients in the moxibustion group underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicole S Armbruster, Eduard F Stange, Jan Wehkamp
Paneth cells, specialized secretory epithelial cells of the small intestine, play a pivotal role in host defense and regulation of microbiota by producing antimicrobial peptides especially-but not only-the human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6. In small intestinal Crohn's disease (CD) which is an entity of inflammatory bowel diseases, the expression of HD5 and HD6 is specifically compromised leading to a disturbed barrier and change in the microbial community. Different genetically driven but also non-genetic defects associated with small intestinal CD affect different lines of antimicrobial Paneth cell functions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Rosanna Marino, Rossana Capoferri, Simona Panelli, Giulietta Minozzi, Francesco Strozzi, Erminio Trevisi, Gustavo G M Snel, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, John L Williams
Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which affects ruminants worldwide and has a significant economic impact. MAP has also been associated with human Crohn's disease, although this connection is not well established. MAP is highly adapted for survival within host macrophages and prevents macrophage activation, blocks phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuates presentation of antigens to the immune system. The consequence is a very long silent infection before clinical signs are observed...
November 2017: Molecular Immunology
Anne K Thomann, Martin Griebe, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Matthias P Ebert, Kristina Szabo, Wolfgang Reindl, Robert C Wolf
Psychological factors and comorbidities play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases. Such comorbidity could be associated with a specific neural phenotype. Brain regions associated with emotion regulation and self-referential processing, including areas assigned to the "default mode network" (DMN), could be promising candidates in this regard. We investigated the functional integrity of multiple intrinsic neural networks in remitted patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and sought to establish relationships between neural network connectivity and psychiatric symptoms...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dan Wang, Juan Chen, Lan Zhu, Mingchen Sang, Fan Yu, Qing Zhou
STUDY OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate the surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula by the modified Martius procedure. DESIGN: step by step presentation of the procedure using video. SETTING: Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is abnormal epithelialized connections between the vagina and rectum. Causes of rectovaginal fistula include obstetrical trauma, Crohn disease, pelvic irradiation and postsurgical complications. Many surgical interventions have been developed, from laparoscopic technique to muscle transposition and even rectal resection...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
One Zoong Kim, Dong Soo Han, Chan Hyuk Park, Chang Soo Eun, You Sun Kim, Young-Ho Kim, Jae Hee Cheon, Byong Duk Ye, Joo Sung Kim
Background/Aims: We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of Crohn's disease (CD) in patients who showed proximal small bowel involvement using a nationwide Korean CD cohort. Methods: We reviewed the data from a cohort of patients diagnosed with CD. The clinical outcomes of patients were evaluated according to the presence of proximal small bowel involvement. Results: Among 1,329 patients with CD for whom complete disease location data were available, 222 patients (16...
August 14, 2017: Gut and Liver
Spyridon Gkalpakiotis
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-4 % of Central European population. Nowadays, we know that psoriasis is not limited to the skin but is connected with several comorbidities like, psoriatic arthritis (around 25 %), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, Bechterev, non-alcoholic liver steatosis, psychiatric disorders and mainly diseases of the so called metabolic syndrome, like diabetes mellitus type 2, arterial hypertension or dyslipidemia. In the last years, new information is arising which connect psoriasis with sleep apnoe and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Baitao Ma, Hao Wu, Hexiang Yin, Jianbo Chang, Li Wang, Renzhi Wang, Wenbin Ma, Yongning Li, Jian Guan, Jinjing Liu, Junji Wei
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus associated with autoimmune diseases and to explore the possible mechanism of hydrocephalus in these patients. METHODS: A retrospective case series study was conducted at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. Files were retrieved from the hospital archives by screening records from Jan 1990 to Jan 2016. Medical records were screened for data regarding (1) the number of patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus associated with autoimmune diseases, (2) the clinical manifestation of hydrocephalus associated with autoimmune disease, and (3) the outcomes of these patients treated with medication or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS)...
November 2017: Autoimmunity
M P Reichhardt, U Holmskov, S Meri
It is becoming increasingly clear that the connections between our immune system and the microbiota colonizing us have a tremendous impact on human health. A number of innate molecular defence mechanisms cooperate to selectively target unwanted microorganisms at the mucosal surfaces. Amongst others these include the complement system, IgA and the SALSA molecule. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (SAG) or gp340 is a multifunctional molecule with important functions in innate immunity, inflammation and epithelial homeostasis...
September 2017: Molecular Immunology
Su Yeon Suh, Won G An
In East Asian traditional medicine, Pulsatillae Radix (PR) is widely used to treat amoebic dysentery and renowned for its anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to confirm evidence regarding the potential therapeutic effect of PR on Crohn's disease using a system network level based in silico approach. Study results showed that the compounds in PR are highly connected to Crohn's disease related pathways, biological processes, and organs, and these findings were confirmed by compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Andrea Giannetti, Marco Matergi, Marco Biscontri, Francesco Tedone, Lucia Falconi, Luca Franci
Ultrasound (US) is the first-line investigation in patients with abdominal symptoms and it has a role in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases. Strain elastography (SE) is a US method for estimating tissue elasticity. This method is still not routinely used in clinical practice, although it is suggested by the EFSUMB Guidelines for the characterization of intestinal stenosis in Crohn's disease. The purpose of this Pictorial Essay is to confirm the feasibility of elastography in Crohn's disease in clinical practice by comparing elastography images with corresponding endoscopic or radiological images...
June 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
Bogdan Protyniak, Travis Shutt, Russell Farmer
Purpose. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developing within fistulae and chronic wounds in patients with Crohn's disease is a rare phenomenon with few reported studies in the literature. Clinical suspicion for SCC in Crohn's disease patients with chronic painful fistulae is low, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. We present a patient with long-standing Crohn's disease complicated by malignant degeneration of an enterocutaneous fistula tract. Methods. Workup with MRI, CT, and fistulogram revealed a 7 × 3 cm fistulous connection between a loop of small intestine and the patient's perineum...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
Anu Haaramo, Heikki Alapulli, Liisa Aine, Ulla Saarnisto, Jetta Tuokkola, Tarja Ruuska, Taina Sipponen, Anne Pitkäranta, Kaija-Leena Kolho
OBJECTIVES: Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the orofacial area. Its connection to Crohn disease (CD) is debated. Our aim was to describe a cohort of pediatric patients with OFG in detail, study the long-term behavior of OFG, and evaluate factors predicting CD in patients with OFG. METHODS: We invited patients diagnosed with OFG at 2 university hospitals, Finland for a follow-up appointment. Patients (n = 29) were examined by a dentist and an otorhinolaryngologist using a structural schema...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yehyun Park, Jae Hee Cheon, Yi Lang Park, Byong Duk Ye, You Sun Kim, Dong Soo Han, Joo Sung Kim, Sung Noh Hong, Young Ho Kim, Seong Ran Jeon, Won Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: A considerable number of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) develop irreversible intestinal damage, although the early administration of immunomodulatory or biological therapies might prevent this. The aims of our study were to develop and validate a novel predictive model that can be used to predict the risk of surgical intervention in Korean patients with CD. METHODS: The prognostic model was derived from the multicenter longitudinal CONNECT (CrOhn's disease cliNical NEtwork and CohorT) study cohort consisting of 1338 patients with CD, who were split into training and validation sets...
July 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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