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Clinical review

Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
K Holstein, A Batorova, M Carvalho, K Fijnvandraat, P Holme, K Kavakli, T Lambert, A Rocino, V Jiménez-Yuste, J Astermark
INTRODUCTION: Inhibitor development in people with haemophilia is a serious complication that may require intensive and costly interventions. The goal of inhibitor management should be permanent inhibitor eradication through immune tolerance induction (ITI), but well-designed studies are lacking and the management of patients is therefore defined by the experience and views of the clinician. OBJECTIVES: To explore the current clinical practice and outcome of ITI therapy in Europe and how this may have changed over the last decade, as well as to provide consensus recommendations to guide clinicians in their clinical practice...
October 15, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Ming-Jie Kuang, Chao Han, Jian-Xiong Ma, Fei Li, Jie Zhao, Lin Fu, Xin-Long Ma
PURPOSE: Autologous platelet gel, developed from fresh autologous blood, is a breakthrough in the promotion and acceleration of soft tissue and bone repair. The application of autologous platelet gel has been reported to improve haemostasis and promote function recovery. We screened the randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of high quality to investigate whether autologous platelet gel makes a better performance for postoperative bleeding and functional recovery in patients after total knee arthroplasty...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Dewei Zhao, Frank Witte, Faqiang Lu, Jiali Wang, Junlei Li, Ling Qin
As a new generation of medical metallic material, magnesium (Mg) and its alloys with or without surface coating have attracted a great deal of attention due to its biodegradability and potential for avoiding a removal operation after the implant has fulfilled its function for surgical fixation of injured musculoskeletal tissues. Although a few clinical cases on Mg-based orthopaedic implants were reported more than a century ago, it was not until recently that clinical trials using these implants with improved physicochemical properties were carried out in Germany, China and Korea for bone fracture fixation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Rory J McCrimmon
Despite the introduction of newer technologies and improved insulin formulations, recurrent hypoglycaemia continues to affect the lives of many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Developing strategies or therapies designed to prevent or minimize hypoglycaemia risk is of utmost importance to help individuals safely achieve glycaemic targets. Novel, educational or behavioural approaches need to be based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning both the detection of hypoglycaemia and why repeated exposure to hypoglycaemia leads to the development of a clinical syndrome referred to as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Abdul H Sultan, Ash Monga, Joseph Lee, Anton Emmanuel, Christine Norton, Giulio Santoro, Tracy Hull, Bary Berghmans, Stuart Brody, Bernard T Haylen
INTRODUCTION: The terminology for anorectal dysfunction in women has long been in need of a specific clinically-based Consensus Report. METHODS: This Report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted on Committee by experts in their fields to form a Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Female Anorectal Terminology...
October 22, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
G Kamkamidze, M Butsashvili, K Gendzekhadze
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
E Vashakidze, I Mikadze, E Pachkoria
Hepatitis C virus is responsible for the majority of persistent viral infections of the liver, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/ or hepatocellular carcinoma. Two strategies are important to curtailing the rising prevalence of disease: efficient diagnosis of acute hepatitis and identification of the likely mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and epidemiological hallmarks of acute hepatitis C. During 2013-2015, 31 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute C hepatitis...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M C M Conde, L A Chisini, R Sarkis-Onofre, H S Schuch, J E Nör, F F Demarco
The aim of this Scoping Study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human Necrotic Immature Permanent Teeth (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus(®) , PubMed/Medline, Web of Science(®) , BIREME and in grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework...
October 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Sanjay Prakash, Chaturbhuj Rathore
The differential diagnosis of strictly unilateral hemicranial pain includes a large number of primary and secondary headaches and cranial neuropathies. It may arise from both intracranial and extracranial structures such as cranium, neck, vessels, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth, and the other facial or cervical structure. Available data suggest that about two-third patients with side-locked headache visiting neurology or headache clinics have primary headaches. Other one-third will have either secondary headaches or neuralgias...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
N Karsan, P Prabhakar, P J Goadsby
BACKGROUND: The premonitory stage of migraine attacks, when symptomatology outside of pain can manifest hours to days before the onset of the headache, is well recognised. Such symptoms have been reported in adults in a number of studies, and have value in predicting an impending headache. These symptoms have not been extensively studied in children. We aimed to characterise which, if any, of these symptoms are reported in children seen within a Specialist Headache Service. METHODS: We reviewed clinic letters from the initial consultation of children and adolescents seen within the Specialist Headache Service at Great Ormond Street Hospital between 1999 and 2015 with migraine in whom we had prospectively assessed clinical phenotype data...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Shuhang Wang, Yongping Song, Feifei Yan, Delong Liu
The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are becoming the first line of therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Acquired mutations in EGFR account for one of the major mechanisms of resistance to the TKIs. Three generations of EGFR TKIs have been used in clinical applications. AZD9291 (osimertinib; Tagrisso) is the first and only FDA approved third-generation EGFR TKI for T790M-positive advanced NSCLC patients. However, resistance to AZD9291 arises after 9-13 months of therapy...
October 21, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Nibal R Chamoun, Rony Zeenny, Hanine Mansour
Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Andrea Angelini, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Eugenio Rimondi, Giuseppe Rossi, Pietro Ruggieri
This review summarizes current concepts in the diagnosis and management of the patients with eosinophilic granuloma. Given the benign biology, the clinical course, and the pediatric group of patients that this condition more commonly affects, a treatment approach that carries a lower risk of complications while ensuring a successful cure is desirable. Variable treatment options have been reported with satisfactory results and a recurrence rate of less than 20 %. In this setting, symptomatic lesions that are accessible in the spine or the extremities may be treated with intralesional methylprednisolone injection after tissue biopsy for histological diagnosis...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Akihiro Tsuchimoto, Toshiaki Nakano, Shoko Hasegawa, Kosuke Masutani, Yuta Matsukuma, Masahiro Eriguchi, Masaharu Nagata, Takehiro Nishiki, Hidehisa Kitada, Masao Tanaka, Takanari Kitazono, Kazuhiko Tsuruya
BACKGROUND: Lymphangiogenesis occurs in diseased native kidneys and kidney allografts, and correlates with histological injury; however, the clinical significance of lymphatic vessels in kidney allografts is unclear. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 63 kidney transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin, and were classified according to their location as perivascular or interstitial lymphatic vessels...
October 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Joan Manuel Burdeus González-Solís, Iván Díez-Santacoloma, Albert Isidro Llorens
Anterior tibial tubercle (ATT) osteotomy facilitates exposure in knee arthroplasty. However, it is not without complications. We have introduced some technical modifications that reduce the surgical aggression by designing a short osteotomy that does not invade the intramedullary canal, and synthesizing it with three cerclage wires with a particular layout that increases the solidity of the system. A retrospective review was performed on the surgical revision of total knee replacement cases intervened in our center that required an ATT osteotomy from February 2014 to February 2015, and who had a minimum clinical follow-up of 12 months...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Fausto Petrelli, Sandro Barni, Giacomo Bregni, Filippo de Braud, Serena Di Cosimo
BACKGROUND: The interest in platinum salts in breast cancer (BC) therapy has been recently renewed as inhibition of DNA damage response may enhance the effects of DNA-damaging agents in BC tumors with high genomic instability. The present systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials were performed to assess the efficacy and safety of therapy with platinum salts in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (hereinafter advanced) BC. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL for phase II/III clinical trials that assessed efficacy of platinum-based therapy in patients with advanced BC...
October 21, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Maral Marzban, Mohsen Bahrami, Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi, Mahdie Hajimonfarednejad
One of the best remaining manuscripts is the "Canon of Medicine" fathered by Avicenna in the Islamic Golden Age [ninth to twelfth century AD]. Considering Avicenna's role in the development of medical science in the Islamic Golden Age, we reviewed Avicenna's point of view on sexual headache based on his famous book "Canon of Medicine". This historical review discusses the clinical approaches applied to diagnose, classify, and treat sexual headache-specifically herbal therapy-from the viewpoint of Avicenna and Traditional Persian Medicine...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
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