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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143452/engineering-improved-variants-of-the-antifungal-peptide-histatin-5-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-secreted-aspartic-proteases-and-enhanced-antimicrobial-potency
#1
Svetlana P Ikonomova, Parisa Moghaddam-Taaheri, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, Yan Wang, Amy J Karlsson
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a commensal organism that commonly colonizes mucosal surfaces, including those inside the human mouth. To help control C. albicans, human saliva contains the antifungal peptide histatin 5 (Hst-5), which has strong antifungal activity against C. albicans. However, the pathogen produces secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) that cleave Hst-5 at lysine residues and eliminate its antifungal properties. We designed variants of Hst-5 with its lysine residues substituted with arginine or leucine to evaluate the effect on proteolysis by Saps...
November 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143258/improvement-of-nitrogen-utilization-and-soil-properties-by-addition-of-a-mineral-soil-conditioner-mechanism-and-performance
#2
Xiaodan Yan, Lin Shi, Rumeng Cai
A mineral soil conditioner (MSC) composed of activated potash feldspar, gypsum, and calcium carbonate and containing an amount of available mineral nutrients, is shown to be effective for plant growth and acidic soil amelioration. In this study, a field test was conducted over four rice seasons by examining treatment with control check (CK), MSC, biological active carbon, and lime to investigate the nitrogen-use efficiency and mechanism of soil characteristic variations due to the desilicification and allitization of soil as well as the unrestrained use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in recent years...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143149/effects-of-intraspecific-and-intra-individual-differences-in-plant-quality-on-preference-and-performance-of-monophagous-aphid-species
#3
Ruth Jakobs, Caroline Müller
Plant chemistry is one of the main drivers of herbivore distribution. Monophagous herbivore species are highly specialized, but even within their only host species the chemistry varies. The herbivore's choice is initially mainly guided by volatile plant compounds. Once on the plant, particularly for aphids the phloem quality affects their performance. However, little is known about the intraspecific and intra-individual variation in phloem sap and their influences on monophagous aphids. To determine potential mechanisms involved in aphid colonization, we tested the effects of intraspecific chemical variation in Tanacetum vulgare, which produces different chemotypes, on the preference of two monophagous aphid species...
November 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142440/constituents-and-antioxidant-activity-of-bleeding-sap-from-various-xinjiang-grapes
#4
Lv Le, Anwar Umar, Arkin Iburaim, Nicholas Moore
Objective: Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? Methods: GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139111/a-retrotransposon-in-an-hkt1-family-sodium-transporter-causes-variation-of-leaf-na-exclusion-and-salt-tolerance-in-maize
#5
Ming Zhang, Yibo Cao, Zhiping Wang, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Junpeng Shi, Xiaoyan Liang, Weibin Song, Qijun Chen, Jinsheng Lai, Caifu Jiang
Soil salinity is one of several major abiotic stresses that constrain maize productivity worldwide. An improved understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms will thus enhance the breeding of salt-tolerant maize and boost productivity. Previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of leaf Na(+) concentration is essential for maize salt tolerance, and the difference in leaf Na(+) exclusion has previously been associated with variation in salt tolerance between maize varieties. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a maize salt-tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL), Zea mays Na(+) Content1 (ZmNC1), which encodes an HKT-type transporter (designated as ZmHKT1)...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138194/the-costs-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-related-signs-and-symptoms-in-infants-a-systematic-literature-review-and-cost-calculation-for-england
#6
James Mahon, Carlos Lifschitz, Thomas Ludwig, Nikhil Thapar, Julie Glanville, Mohamad Miqdady, Miguel Saps, Seng Hock Quak, Irene Lenoir Wijnkoop, Mary Edwards, Hannah Wood, Hania Szajewska
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and related signs and symptoms in infants to the third party payer and to parents. STUDY DESIGN: To estimate the cost of illness (COI) of infant FGIDs, a two-stage process was applied: a systematic literature review and a COI calculation. As no pertinent papers were found in the systematic literature review, a 'de novo' analysis was performed. For the latter, the potential costs for the third party payer (the National Health Service (NHS) in England) and for parents/carers for the treatment of FGIDs in infants were calculated, by using publicly available data...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137035/enteral-nutrition-tube-placement-assisted-by-ultrasonography-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-novel-method-for-quality-improvement
#7
Gang Li, Yiyuan Pan, Jing Zhou, Zhihui Tong, Lu Ke, Weiqin Li
To evaluate the effect of a novel procedure using real-time ultrasonography to assist nasojejunal tube placement at bedside in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Single center, prospective descriptive study in a 15-bed surgery intensive care unit of a university hospital. Thirty SAP patients were enrolled. The whole procedure of placing nasojejunal tube was performed by a single physician, who places nasojejunal tube at the bedside and performs ultrasonography to guide the tube positioning. The final nasojejunal tube position was confirmed by abdominal radiograph...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134567/abdominal-pain-in-patient-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome-the-role-of-mdct-angiography-on-visceral-blood-vessels
#8
Jovica Saponjski, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Jelena Saponjski, Milorad Mirilovic, Dusan Saponjski
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease defined by accelerated atherosclerosis, arterial and venous thrombosis, fetal loss, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the serum and which leads to the occurrence of various vascular events. Nonspecific abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms due to changes on visceral blood vessels. The goal of our work is to show the results we obtained in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography examination of visceral arteries, comparing patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (SAPS) with control group...
November 13, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133396/repression-of-mir-31-by-bcl6-stabilizes-the-helper-function-of-human-follicular-helper-t-cells
#9
A Ripamonti, E Provasi, M Lorenzo, M De Simone, V Ranzani, S Vangelisti, S Curti, R J P Bonnal, L Pignataro, S Torretta, J Geginat, G Rossetti, M Pagani, S Abrignani
Follicular helper T cells (TFHs) are a key component of adaptive immune responses as they help antibody production by B cells. Differentiation and function of TFH cells are controlled by the master gene BCL6, but it is largely unclear how this transcription repressor specifies the TFH program. Here we asked whether BCL6 controlled helper function through down-regulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We first assessed miRNA expression in TFH cells and defined a TFH-specific miRNA signature. We report that hsa-miR-31-5p (miR-31) is down-regulated in TFH; we showed that BCL6 suppresses miR-31 expression by binding to its promoter; and we demonstrated that miR-31 inhibits the expression of molecules that control T-helper function, such as CD40L and SAP...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133373/arabidopsis-actin-depolymerizing-factor3-is-required-for-controlling-aphid-feeding-from-the-phloem
#10
Hossain A Mondal, Joe Louis, Lani Archer, Monika Patel, Vamsi J Nalam, Sujon Sarowar, Vishala Sivapalan, Douglas D Root, Jyoti Shah
The actin cytoskeleton network has an important role in plant cell growth, division and stress response. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are a group of actin-binding proteins that contribute to reorganization of the actin network. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana ADF3 is required in the phloem for controlling infestation by Myzus persicae Sülzer, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), which is an important phloem sap-consuming pest of more than fifty plant families. In agreement with a role for the actin-depolymerizing function of ADF3 in defense against the GPA, we show that resistance in adf3 was restored by overexpression of the related ADF4, and the actin cytoskeleton destabilizers, cytochalasin D and latrunculin B...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132626/early-hospital-mortality-prediction-of-intensive-care-unit-patients-using-an-ensemble-learning-approach
#11
Aya Awad, Mohamed Bader-El-Den, James McNicholas, Jim Briggs
BACKGROUND: Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129864/analysis-of-fresh-sap-collected-from-ryukyu-lacquer-tree
#12
Rong Lu, Takayuki Honda, Meesook Sung, Jaekook Jung, Tetsuo Miyakoshi
The chemical structure of fresh lacquer sap collected from a lacquer tree growing in Nago City of Okinawa, Japan, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results showed that Nago lacquer is laccol lacquer and its major components are 3-(heptadeca-10Z,13E,15E-trienyl)catechol, 3-(heptadeca-10Z,13E-dienyl)catechol, 3-(heptadeca-14Z-enyl)catechol, and 3-(heptadeca-12Z-enyl)catechol, which are similar to the components of Vietnamese lacquer. It showed higher laccase activity at pH 5 - 8 and better low temperature adaptability than Vietnamese lacquer...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129241/zinc-and-selenium-status-in-critically-ill-patients-according-to-severity-stratification
#13
Marina Augusta Cirino Ruocco, Evelin Drociunas Pacheco Cechinatti, Fernando Barbosa, Anderson Marliere Navarro
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of zinc and selenium in different biological materials and to associate them with the clinical severity score according to the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) III. METHODS: The study was conducted in a 10-bed general intensive care unit of the Américo Brasiliense State Hospital/SP, with 95 patients stratified by the SAPS III score cutoff points (63.5 points) as less or more severe and by the diagnosis of sepsis...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129149/anaesthetic-and-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-ketamine-plus-dexmedetomidine-for-chemical-restraint-in-black-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-nigritus
#14
J A B Chagas, L C P Santos, J R Silva Filho, C Bondan
AIMS: To evaluate the quality of anaesthesia and cardiorespiratory effects of ketamine and two doses of dexmedetomidine in captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) undergoing routine clinical examination. METHODS: Twenty-four animals undergoing routine clinical examination were enrolled in the study. Animals were briefly physically restrained and examined to ensure no obvious illness was present and that they were healthy. Monkeys were randomly allocated to two groups (n=12 per group) and then treated with a combination of I/M 7...
November 12, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128535/branched-peptides-integrate-into-self-assembled-nanostructures-and-enhance-biomechanics-of-peptidic-hydrogels
#15
Raffaele Pugliese, Federico Fontana, Amanda Marchini, Fabrizio Gelain
Self-assembling peptides (SAP) have drawn an increasing interest in the tissue engineering community. They display unquestionable biomimetic properties, tailorability and promising biocompatibility. However their use has been hampered by poor mechanical properties making them fragile soft scaffolds. To increase SAP hydrogel stiffness we introduced a novel strategy based on multiple ramifications of (LDLK)3, a well-known linear SAP, connected with one or multiple "lysine knots". Differently branched SAPs were tested by increasing the number of (LDLK)3-like branches and by adding the neuro-regenerative functional motif BMHP1 as a single branch...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126983/yeast-like-microorganisms-in-the-scale-insect-kermes-quercus-insecta-hemiptera-coccomorpha-kermesidae-newly-acquired-symbionts
#16
Elżbieta Podsiadło, Katarzyna Michalik, Anna Michalik, Teresa Szklarzewicz
Scale insects, like other plant sap-consumers, are host to symbiotic microorganisms which provide them with the substances missing from their diet. In contrast to most scale insects, Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) was regarded as asymbiotic. Our histological and ultrastructural observations show that in the body of the feeding stages of K. quercus collected in two locations (Warsaw and Cracow), numerous yeast-like microorganisms occur. These microorganisms were localized in the cytoplasm of fat body cells. The yeast-like microorganisms were observed neither in other organs of host insect nor in the eggs...
November 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124742/lactate-improves-saps-3-prognostication
#17
P Andersson, A Frigyesi
INTRODUCTION: Lactate concentration is known to be a strong predictor of mortality, but is not included in any of the major intensive care scorings systems such as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS 3). The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of lactate concentration when combined with SAPS 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period of 2008 to June 2017 the general intensive care unit at Skåne University Hospital in Lund, Sweden had 5141 first-time admissions...
November 10, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123089/tsg101-chaperone-function-revealed-by-hiv-1-assembly-inhibitors
#18
Madeleine Strickland, Lorna S Ehrlich, Susan Watanabe, Mahfuz Khan, Marie-Paule Strub, Chi-Hao Luan, Michael D Powell, Jonathan Leis, Nico Tjandra, Carol A Carter
HIV-1 replication requires Tsg101, a component of cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Tsg101 possesses an ubiquitin (Ub) E2 variant (UEV) domain with a pocket that can bind PT/SAP motifs and another pocket that can bind Ub. The PTAP motif in the viral structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, allows the recruitment of Tsg101 and other ESCRTs to virus assembly sites where they mediate budding. It is not known how or even whether the UEV Ub binding function contributes to virus production...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122726/improvement-of-ubiquitylation-site-detection-by-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#19
Lennart van der Wal, Karel Bezstarosti, Karen A Sap, Dick H W Dekkers, Erikjan Rijkers, Edwin Mientjes, Ype Elgersma, Jeroen A A Demmers
Ubiquitylation is an important posttranslational protein modification that is involved in many cellular events. Immunopurification of peptides containing a K-ε-diglycine (diGly) remnant as a mark of ubiquitylation combined with mass spectrometric detection has resulted in an explosion of the number of identified ubiquitylation sites. Here, we present several significant improvements to this workflow, including fast, offline and crude high pH reverse-phase fractionation of tryptic peptides into only three fractions with simultaneous desalting prior to immunopurification and better control of the peptide fragmentation settings in the Orbitrap HCD cell...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122393/how-do-professional-relationships-influence-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-decision-making-a-qualitative-study
#20
Jennifer K Broom, Alex F Broom, Emma R Kirby, Jeffrey J Post
BACKGROUND: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is a critical area to optimize to reduce the escalation of antimicrobial resistance. This article explores the ways by which interpersonal relationships influence SAP decision making. METHODS: Twenty surgeons and anesthetists participated in in-depth semistructured interviews on SAP prescribing. Results were analyzed using the framework approach. RESULTS: Analysis revealed 3 ways by which interpersonal relationships influence SAP: relationship dynamics between the surgeon and the anesthetist determine appropriateness of SAP, particularly operative risk ownership; perceived hierarchies within, and between, surgical and anesthetist specialties influence antibiotic prescribing decisions; and surgical distance from the antimicrobial stewardship team, which influences use of antimicrobial stewardship principles...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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