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D Díaz-Díaz, M Villanova Martínez, E Palencia Herrejón
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors influencing in-hospital mortality among cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: The ICU of a community hospital. PATIENTS: Adults diagnosed with solid or hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU, excluding those admitted after scheduled surgery and those with an ICU stay of under 24h. INTERVENTIONS: Review of clinical data...
March 15, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Safi U Khan, Muhammad U Khan, Ali Raza Ghani, Ahmad N Lone, Adeel Arshad, Edo Kaluski
Current clinical practice prefers oral anticoagulation (OAC) plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in atrial fibrillation (AF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that the superiority of OAC plus DAPT is mainly endorsed by observational studies (OSs); conversely, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have suggested that OAC plus a single antiplatelet (SAP) agent is a safer and equally effective approach. Nine studies (4 RCTs and 5 OSs) were selected using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (Inception, October 31, 2017)...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, Richard A Haas, Victor L Roberts, Guillermo E Umpierrez
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Dongni Wu, Shuangying Zhang, Yuyuan Zhao, Ningjian Ao, Seeram Ramakrishna, Liumin He
RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4 -CONH2 ) is a widely investigated self-assembling peptide (SAP) in the biomedical field. It can undergo ordered self-assembly to form stable secondary structures, thereby further forming a nanofiber hydrogel. The modification of RADA16-I with functional peptide motifs has become a popular research topic. Researchers aim to exhibit particular biomedical signaling, and subsequently, further expand its applications. However, only a few fundamental reports are available on the influences of the peptide motifs on self-assembly mechanisms of designer functional RADA16-I SAPs...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Gairu Li, Yang Xiang, Jin Zhao, Junmin Chang
The in vitro immune activities of Saccharum Alhagi polysaccharides (SAP) have been previously studied. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SAP-1 and SAP-2 on the activity of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were treated with 150, 300 and 600 mg/l concentrations of SAP-1 (a 50% alcohol precipitation) and SAP-2 (an 80% alcohol precipitation) or with 10 mg/l lipopolysaccharide. Untreated cells were used as a negative control. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of the cells, and Hoechst 33528 staining was conducted in order to visualize the cell nuclei...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yue Cao, Dan Sun, Jun-Xiu Chen, Hanyi Mei, Hao Ai, Guohua Xu, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plant growth and is acquired by plants mainly as phosphate (P). Phosphate transporters (Phts) are responsible for P and arsenate (AsV) uptake in plants including arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. It is efficient in AsV uptake and P utilization, but P uptake in P. vittata is largely unknown. In this study, a P. vittata Pht, PvPht1;2, was identified and cloned. After transforming it into tobacco (N. tabacum), three independent transgenic lines (Ox1, Ox10, and Ox21) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zoe A Stewart, Malgorzata E Wilinska, Sara Hartnell, Leanne K O'Neil, Gerry Rayman, Eleanor M Scott, Katharine Barnard, Conor Farrington, Roman Hovorka, Helen R Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in technology, optimal glucose control remains elusive and neonatal complications ubiquitous in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pregnancy. Our aim was to examine the safety, efficacy, and longer-term feasibility of day-and-night closed-loop insulin delivery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 16 pregnant women (mean [SD]: age 32.8 [5.0] years, T1D duration 19.4 [10.2] years, HbA1c 8.0% [1.1%], BMI 26.6 [4.4] kg/m2 ) to an open-label, randomized, crossover trial...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Care
H Y Ruan, Y G Zhang, R Liu
Objective: To compare the acute hemodynamic effects of intravenous fasudil with different dosage on patients with congenital heart defects (CHD) and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: Sixty patients (37±17 years old) with CHD and PAH were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent heart catheterization. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the regular dosage group and the large dosage group. At initiation and 30 min after intravenous fasudil(30 mg and 60 mg respectively), the following hemodynamic parameters were measured and calculated: right atrial pressure(RAP), pulmonary arterypressure(PAP) , systemic artery pressure (SAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure(PCWP) , pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR) and systemic vascular resistance( SVR), cardiac index (CI) and artery oxygen saturation (SaO(2))...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Lei Xu, Guangmin Liang, Longjie Wang, Changrui Liao
Cancer is a serious health issue worldwide. Traditional treatment methods focus on killing cancer cells by using anticancer drugs or radiation therapy, but the cost of these methods is quite high, and in addition there are side effects. With the discovery of anticancer peptides, great progress has been made in cancer treatment. For the purpose of prompting the application of anticancer peptides in cancer treatment, it is necessary to use computational methods to identify anticancer peptides (ACPs). In this paper, we propose a sequence-based model for identifying ACPs (SAP)...
March 13, 2018: Genes
Sokly Siev, Heejun Yang, Ty Sok, Sovannara Uk, Layheang Song, Dilini Kodikara, Chantha Oeurng, Seingheng Hul, Chihiro Yoshimura
Most of studies on sediment dynamics in stable shallow lakes focused on the resuspension process as it is the dominant process. However, understanding of sediment dynamics in a shallow lake influenced by flood pulse is unclear. We tested a hypothesis that floodplain vegetation plays as a significant role in lessening the intensity of resuspension process in a shallow lake characterized by the flood pulse system. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate sediment dynamics in this type of shallow lake. The target was Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), which is a large shallow lake influenced by a flood pulse system of Mekong River located in Southeast Asia...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Huijun Wang, Mark Fowler, David Messenge, Leon A Terry, Xuelan Gu, Luxian Zhou, Ruimin Liu, Juan Su, Songshan Shi, Jos Eacute Ordaz-Ortiz, Guoping Lian, Mark Berry, Shunchun Wang
Foods of high carbohydrate content such as sucrose or starch increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations. The glucose absorption system in the intestine comprises two components: sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Here five sappanin-type (SAP) homoisoflavonoids were identified as novel potent GLUT2 inhibitors, with three of them isolated from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. SAP homoisolflavonoids had a stronger inhibitory effect on 25 mM glucose transport (41...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tengfei Yu, Qi Feng, Jianhua Si, Patrick J Mitchell, Michael A Forster, Xiaoyou Zhang, Chunyan Zhao
During the night, plant water loss can occur either through the roots, as hydraulic redistribution (HR), or through the leaves via the stoma, as nocturnal transpiration ( E n ), which was methodologically difficult to separate from stem refilling ( R e ). While HR and E n have been reported across a range of species, ecosystem, and climate zone, there is little understanding on the interactions between E n and/or R e and HR. As water movement at night occurs via gradients of water potential, it is expected that during periods of high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), water loss via E n will override water loss via HR...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alanson W Girton, Narcis I Popescu, Ravi S Keshari, Tarea Burgett, Florea Lupu, K Mark Coggeshall
We showed that human IgG supported the response by human innate immune cells to peptidoglycan (PGN) from Bacillus anthracis and PGN-induced complement activation. However, other serum constituents have been shown to interact with peptidoglycan, including the IgG-like soluble pattern recognition receptor serum amyloid P (SAP). Here, we compared the ability of SAP and of IgG to support monocyte and complement responses to PGN. Utilizing in vitro methods, we demonstrate that SAP is superior to IgG in supporting monocyte production of cytokines in response PGN...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Peng Yu, Lili Hu, Jinyan Xie, Sisi Chen, Lin Huang, Zixuan Xu, Xiao Liu, Qiongqiong Zhou, Ping Yuan, Xia Yan, Jiejin Jin, Yang Shen, Wengen Zhu, Linghua Fu, Qi Chen, Jianhua Yu, Jianxin Hu, Qing Cao, Rong Wan, Kui Hong
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications are major causes of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. The mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetic heart (DH) to ventricular arrhythmias are unclear. O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) is a reversible post-translational modification for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5) is subjected to O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc), which plays an essential role in DH-induced arrhythmias...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Esmaeil Farzaneh, Hassan Ghobadi, Mahdieh Akbarifard, Samaneh Nakhaee, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Ghodrat Akhavanakbari, Daniel E Keyler, Omid Mehrpour
Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a toxic agent associated with a high mortality rate following acute exposure from various routes. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory findings useful for predicting the medical outcomes of AlP-poisoned patients using established scoring systems. This is a prospective study of AlP-poisoned patients from 2010-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. All patients that presented with a confirmed diagnosis of Acute AlP poisoning in the study interval were included in the study...
March 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Seung Ho Chung, Xiangfeng Jing, Yuan Luo, Angela E Douglas
The growth and reproduction of phloem sap-feeding insects requires the sustained function of intracellular bacteria localized in specialized cells known as bacteriocytes, giving the potential to target the bacterial symbiosis as a novel strategy for controlling sap-feeding insect pests. We focused on two genes in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, amiD and ldcA1, which were acquired horizontally from bacteria and have the annotated function to degrade immunogenic bacterial peptidoglycan. We hypothesized that AmiD and LdcA1 function to eliminate peptidoglycan fragments released by the bacterial symbiont Buchnera inhabiting the bacteriocytes, thereby protecting the Buchnera from host attack...
March 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
David Sychantha, Robert Chapman, Natalie C Bamford, Geert-Jan Boons, P Lynne Howell, Anthony John Clarke
Bacterial surface (S)-layers are paracrystalline arrays of protein assembled on the bacterial cell wall which serve as protective barriers and scaffolds for housekeeping enzymes and virulence factors. The attachment of S-layer proteins to the cell walls of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, which includes the pathogen Bacillus anthracis, occurs through non-covalent interactions between their S-layer homology domains and secondary cell wall polysaccharides. To promote recognition for these interactions, it is presumed that the terminal N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) residues of the secondary cell wall polysaccharides must be ketal-pyruvylated...
March 9, 2018: Biochemistry
P V Kumar, S K Sharma, N Rishi, D K Ghosh, V K Baranwal
Management of viral diseases relies on definite and sensitive detection methods. Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a double stranded DNA virus of the genus Badnavirus, causes yellow mosaic disease in citrus plants. CYMV is transmitted through budwood and requires a robust and simplified indexing protocol for budwood certification programme. The present study reports development and standardization of an isothermal based recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for a sensitive, rapid, easy, and cost-effective method for detection and diagnosis of CYMV...
2018: Acta Virologica
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