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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212489/direct-single-enzyme-biomineralization-of-catalytically-active-ceria-and-ceria-zirconia-nanocrystals
#1
Christopher D Curran, Li Lu, Yue Jia, Christopher J Kiely, Bryan W Berger, Steven McIntosh
Biomineralization is an intriguing approach to the synthesis of functional inorganic materials for energy applications whereby biological systems are engineered to mineralize inorganic materials and control their structure over multiple length scales under mild reaction conditions. Herein we demonstrate a single enzyme mediated biomineralization route to synthesize crystalline, catalytically active, quantum confined ceria (CeO2-x) and ceria-zirconia (Ce1-yZryO2-x) nanocrystals for application as environmental catalysts...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212376/the-legionella-pneumophila-genome-evolved-to-accommodate-multiple-regulatory-mechanisms-controlled-by-the-csra-system
#2
Tobias Sahr, Christophe Rusniok, Francis Impens, Giulia Oliva, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Carmen Buchrieser
The carbon storage regulator protein CsrA regulates cellular processes post-transcriptionally by binding to target-RNAs altering translation efficiency and/or their stability. Here we identified and analyzed the direct targets of CsrA in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Genome wide transcriptome, proteome and RNA-Co-immunoprecipitaion followed by deep sequencing of a wild type and a csrA mutant strain identified 479 RNAs with potential CsrA interaction sites located in the untranslated and/or coding regions of mRNAs or of known non-coding sRNAs...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#3
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212047/multimaterial-decomposition-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-liver-fat-content-by-using-fast-kilovolt-peak-switching-dual-energy-ct-clinical-evaluation
#4
Tomoko Hyodo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Hori, Osamu Maenishi, Peter Lamb, Kosuke Sasaki, Minori Onoda, Masatoshi Kudo, Teruhito Mochizuki, Takamichi Murakami
Purpose To assess the clinical accuracy and reproducibility of liver fat quantification with the multimaterial decomposition (MMD) algorithm, comparing the performance of MMD with that of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy by using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and patients provided written informed consent. Thirty-three patients suspected of having hepatic steatosis underwent non-contrast material-enhanced and triple-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) (80 and 140 kVp) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy within 30 days before liver biopsy...
February 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212031/bond-activation-and-hydrogen-evolution-from-water-through-reactions-with-m3s4-m-mo-w-and-w3s3-anionic-clusters
#5
Corrine A Kumar, Arjun Saha, Krishnan Raghavachari
Transition metal sulfides (TMS) are being investigated with increased frequency because of their ability to efficiently catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction. We have studied the trimetallic TMS cluster ions, Mo3S4(-), W3S4(-), and W3S3(-), and probed their efficiency for bond activation and hydrogen evolution from water. These clusters have geometries that are related to the edge sites on bulk MoS2 surfaces that are known to play a role in hydrogen evolution. Using density functional theory, the electronic structures of these clusters and their chemical reactivity with water have been investigated...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212024/environmental-multi-objective-optimization-of-the-use-of-biomass-resources-for-energy
#6
Carl Vadenbo, Davide Tonini, Thomas Fruergaard Astrup
Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multi-objective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally-optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211932/nanostructured-material-based-biofuel-cells-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Cui-E Zhao, Panpan Gai, Rongbin Song, Ying Chen, Jianrong Zhang, Jun-Jie Zhu
During the past decade, biofuel cells (BFCs) have emerged as an emerging technology on account of their ability to directly generate electricity from biologically renewable catalysts and fuels. Due to the boost in nanotechnology, significant advances have been accomplished in BFCs. Although it is still challenging to promote the performance of BFCs, adopting nanostructured materials for BFC construction has been extensively proposed as an effective and promising strategy to achieve high energy production. In this review, we presented the major novel nanostructured materials applied for BFCs and highlighted the breakthroughs in this field...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211730/kinetic-turbulence-in-relativistic-plasma-from-thermal-bath-to-nonthermal-continuum
#8
Vladimir Zhdankin, Gregory R Werner, Dmitri A Uzdensky, Mitchell C Begelman
We present results from particle-in-cell simulations of driven turbulence in magnetized, collisionless, and relativistic pair plasmas. We find that the fluctuations are consistent with the classical k_{⊥}^{-5/3} magnetic energy spectrum at fluid scales and a steeper k_{⊥}^{-4} spectrum at sub-Larmor scales, where k_{⊥} is the wave vector perpendicular to the mean field. We demonstrate the development of a nonthermal, power-law particle energy distribution f(E)∼E^{-α}, with an index α that decreases with increasing magnetization and increases with an increasing system size (relative to the characteristic Larmor radius)...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211723/sympathetic-ground-state-cooling-and-time-dilation-shifts-in-an-27-al-optical-clock
#9
J-S Chen, S M Brewer, C W Chou, D J Wineland, D R Leibrandt, D B Hume
We report on Raman sideband cooling of ^{25}Mg^{+} to sympathetically cool the secular modes of motion in a ^{25}Mg^{+}-^{27}Al^{+} two-ion pair to near the three-dimensional (3D) ground state. The evolution of the Fock-state distribution during the cooling process is studied using a rate-equation simulation, and various heating sources that limit the efficiency of 3D sideband cooling in our system are discussed. We characterize the residual energy and heating rates of all of the secular modes of motion and estimate a secular motion time-dilation shift of -(1...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211682/exploring-the-influence-of-diamagnetic-ions-on-the-mechanism-of-magnetization-relaxation-in-co-iii-2ln-iii-2-ln-dy-tb-ho-butterfly-complexes
#10
Kuduva R Vignesh, Stuart K Langley, Keith S Murray, Gopalan Rajaraman
The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [Co(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(o-tol)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea)(2-) = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The Co(III) ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two Ln(III) ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 81...
February 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211551/eating-habits-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-recurrent-depressive-disorders
#11
Ewa Stefańska, Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Urszula Cwalina, Beata Konarzewska, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Lucyna Ostrowska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the research was to assess the fatty acid content and atherogenicity of daily food rations in patients with recurrent depressive disorders in the aspect of risk of developing cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The study included 126 persons (62 persons with diagnosed recurrent depressive disorders and 64 healthy volunteers). A 24-hour recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and chemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211510/broadband-gradient-impedance-matching-using-an-acoustic-metamaterial-for-ultrasonic-transducers
#12
Zheng Li, Dan-Qing Yang, Shi-Lei Liu, Si-Yuan Yu, Ming-Hui Lu, Jie Zhu, Shan-Tao Zhang, Ming-Wei Zhu, Xia-Sheng Guo, Hao-Dong Wu, Xin-Long Wang, Yan-Feng Chen
High-quality broadband ultrasound transducers yield superior imaging performance in biomedical ultrasonography. However, proper design to perfectly bridge the energy between the active piezoelectric material and the target medium over the operating spectrum is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a new anisotropic cone-structured acoustic metamaterial matching layer that acts as an inhomogeneous material with gradient acoustic impedance along the ultrasound propagation direction. When sandwiched between the piezoelectric material unit and the target medium, the acoustic metamaterial matching layer provides a broadband window to support extraordinary transmission of ultrasound over a wide frequency range...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211455/supermode-density-wave-polariton-condensation-with-a-bose-einstein-condensate-in-a-multimode-cavity
#13
Alicia J Kollár, Alexander T Papageorge, Varun D Vaidya, Yudan Guo, Jonathan Keeling, Benjamin L Lev
Phase transitions, where observable properties of a many-body system change discontinuously, can occur in both open and closed systems. By placing cold atoms in optical cavities and inducing strong coupling between light and excitations of the atoms, one can experimentally study phase transitions of open quantum systems. Here we observe and study a non-equilibrium phase transition, the condensation of supermode-density-wave polaritons. These polaritons are formed from a superposition of cavity photon eigenmodes (a supermode), coupled to atomic density waves of a quantum gas...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211274/large-grain-based-hole-blocking-layer-free-planar-type-perovskite-solar-cell-with-best-efficiency-of-18-20
#14
Haejun Yu, Jaehoon Ryu, Jong Woo Lee, Jongmin Roh, Kisu Lee, Juyoung Yun, Jungsup Lee, Yun Ki Kim, Doyk Hwang, Jooyoun Kang, Seong Keun Kim, Jyongsik Jang
There remains tremendous interest in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in the solar energy field; the certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) now exceeds 20 %. Along with research focused on enhancing PCE, studies are also underway concerning PSC commercialization. It is crucial to simplify the fabrication process and reduce the production cost to facilitate commercialization. Herein, we successfully fabricated highly efficient hole-blocking layer (HBL)-free PSCs through vigorously interrupting penetration of hole-transport material (HTM) into FTO by large grain based-CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) film, thereby obtaining a PCE of 18...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211269/phosphorus-based-alloy-materials-for-advanced-potassium-ion-battery-anode
#15
Wenchao Zhang, Jianfeng Mao, Sean Li, Zhixin Chen, Zaiping Guo
Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are interesting as one of the alternative metal-ion battery systems to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the abundance and low cost of potassium. We have herein investigated Sn4P3/C composite as a novel anode material for PIBs. The electrode delivered a reversible capacity of 384.8 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a good rate capability of 221.9 mA h g-1, even at 1 A g-1. Its electrochemical performance is better than any anode material reported so far for PIBs. It was also found that the Sn4P3/C electrode displays a discharge potential plateau of 0...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211059/a-multipolar-approach-to-the-interatomic-covalent-interaction-energy
#16
Evelio Francisco, Daniel Menéndez Crespo, Aurora Costales, Ángel Martín Pendás
Interatomic exchange-correlation energies correspond to the covalent energetic contributions to an interatomic interaction in real space theories of the chemical bond, but their widespread use is severely limited due to their computationally intensive character. In the same way as the multipolar (mp) expansion is customary used in biomolecular modeling to approximate the classical Coulomb interaction between two charge densities ρA(r) and ρB(r), we examine in this work the mp approach to approximate the interatomic exchange-correlation (xc) energies of the Interacting Quantum Atoms method...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210833/energy-transfer-in-anabaena-variabilis-filaments-adapted-to-nitrogen-depleted-and-nitrogen-enriched-conditions-studied-by-time-resolved-fluorescence
#17
Aya Onishi, Shimpei Aikawa, Akihiko Kondo, Seiji Akimoto
Nitrogen is among the most important nutritious elements for photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Therefore, nitrogen depletion severely compromises the growth, development, and photosynthesis of these organisms. To preserve their integrity under nitrogen-depleted conditions, filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, and self-adapt by regulating their light-harvesting and excitation energy-transfer processes. To investigate the changes in the primary processes of photosynthesis, we measured the steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) of whole filaments of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis at 77 K...
February 16, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210731/pressure-driven-phase-transition-mechanisms-revealed-by-quantum-chemistry-l-serine-polymorphs
#18
Denis A Rychkov, Jernej Stare, Elena V Boldyreva
The present study delivers a computational approach for the understanding of the mechanism of phase transitions between polymorphs of small organic molecules. By using state of the art periodic DFT calculations augmented with dispersion corrections and an external stress tensor together with gas-phase cluster calculations, we thoroughly explained the reversible phase transitions of three polymorphs of the model system, namely crystalline l-serine in the pressure range up to 8 GPa. This study has shown that at the macroscopic level the main driving force of the phase transitions is the decrease in the volume of the crystal unit cell, which contributes to the enthalpy difference between the two forms, but not to the difference in their internal crystal energies...
February 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210244/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-olive-leaf-extract-against-foodborne-bacterial-pathogens
#19
Yanhong Liu, Lindsay C McKeever, Nasir S A Malik
Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used traditionally as a herbal supplement since it contains polyphenolic compounds with beneficial properties ranging from increasing energy levels, lowering blood pressure, and supporting the cardiovascular and immune systems. In addition to the beneficial effects on human health, OLE also has antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of OLE against major foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#20
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
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