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Energy system

Yipeng Wang, Liping Guo, Lin Feng, Wen Zhang, Ting Xiao, Xuebing Di, Guoji Chen, Kaitai Zhang
Circulating tumour cell (CTC) behaviours are distinct from those of bulk tissues. Thus, treatments to eliminate CTCs differ from the regimens followed to reduce the primary tumour and its metastases. Accordingly, comprehensively deciphering the single nucleotide variant (SNV) profiles in CTCs, which partially determine CTC behaviours, is a priority. Using viable CTCs isolated with the oHSV1‑hTERT‑GFP virus coupled with fluorescence‑activated cell sorting (FACS), the whole genome was amplified using the multiple annealing and looping‑based amplification cycle (MALBAC) method...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Mohammad Asadi, Baharak Sayahpour, Pedram Abbasi, Anh T Ngo, Klas Karis, Jacob R Jokisaari, Cong Liu, Badri Narayanan, Marc Gerard, Poya Yasaei, Xuan Hu, Arijita Mukherjee, Kah Chun Lau, Rajeev S Assary, Fatemeh Khalili-Araghi, Robert F Klie, Larry A Curtiss, Amin Salehi-Khojin
Lithium-air batteries are considered to be a potential alternative to lithium-ion batteries for transportation applications, owing to their high theoretical specific energy. So far, however, such systems have been largely restricted to pure oxygen environments (lithium-oxygen batteries) and have a limited cycle life owing to side reactions involving the cathode, anode and electrolyte. In the presence of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour, these side reactions can become even more complex. Moreover, because of the need to store oxygen, the volumetric energy densities of lithium-oxygen systems may be too small for practical applications...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Jing Song, Dongshen Ma, Yun Xing, Shanshan Tang, Murad Alahdal, Jiamin Guo, Yi Pan, Yanfeng Zhang, Yumeng Shen, Qiong Wu, Zhou Lu, Liang Jin
A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Konda Reddy Karnati, Yixuan Wang
Two widely used anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), possess distinct physical properties and chemotherapy specificity. In order to investigate their interaction mechanism with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), co-loading and releasing from the SWCNTs, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were firstly carried out for different SWCNT systems, followed by binding free energy calculation with MM-PBSA. The results indicate that the co-loading of DOX and PTX onto the pristine SWCNT is exothermic and spontaneous...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fuat Erden, Hui Li, Xizu Wang, FuKe Wang, Chaobin He
In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Qingfen Yu, Sameh Othman, Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Thorsten Auth, Gerhard Gompper
Nanoparticles in biological systems encounter lipid-bilayer membranes as barriers. They interact with plasma membranes, membranous organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, and intracellular and extracellular vesicles, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Extracellular vesicles have recently attracted particular attention, as they are involved in the transmission of biological signals and as regulators for biological processes. For example, exosomes, small vesicles containing proteins, mRNA, and miRNA, that are released by cells into the extracellular environment, have been suggested to participate in tumor metastasis...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Matthaeus Schwarz-Schilling, Aurore Dupin, Fabio Chizzolini, Swati Krishnan, Sheref Mansy, Friedrich C Simmel
Molecular complexes composed of RNA molecules and proteins are promising multifunctional nanostructures for a wide variety of applications in biological cells or in artificial cellular systems. In this study, we systematically address some of the challenges associated with the expression and assembly of such hybrid structures using cell-free gene expression systems. As a model structure, we investigated a pRNA-derived RNA scaffold functionalized with four distinct aptamers, three of which bind to proteins - streptavidin and two fluorescent proteins - while one binds the small molecule dye malachite green (MG)...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Clint L Makino, Teresa Duda, Alexandre Pertzev, Rameshwar K Sharma
Our ability to see is based on the activity of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. Rods function when there is very little light, while cones operate at higher light levels. Photon absorption by rhodopsin activates a biochemical cascade that converts photic energy into a change in the membrane potential of the cell by decreasing the levels of a second messenger, cGMP, that control the gating of cation channels. But just as important as the activation of the cascade are the shut-off and recovery processes. The timing of shutoff and recovery ultimately affects sensitivity, temporal resolution and even the capacity for counting single photons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yanghao Shen, Xinyan Zheng, Xiaoyu Wang, Tieshan Wang
Microorganisms play a significant role in uranium(VI) biogeochemistry and influence U(VI) transformation through biomineralization. In the present work, the process of uranium mineralization was investigated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The toxicity experiments showed that the viability of cell was not significantly affected by 100 mg L-1 U(VI) under 4 days of exposure time. The batch experiments showed that the phosphate concentration and pH value increased over time during U(VI) adsorption. Meanwhile, thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that the adsorption system was supersaturated with respect to UO2 HPO4 ...
March 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Peter D Matthews, Wisit Hirunpinyopas, Edward A Lewis, Jack R Brent, Paul D McNaughter, Niting Zeng, Andrew G Thomas, Paul O'Brien, Brian Derby, Mark A Bissett, Sarah J Haigh, Robert A W Dryfe, David J Lewis
Black phosphorus is a two-dimensional material that has potential applications in energy storage, high frequency electronics and sensing, yet it suffers from instability in oxygenated and/or aqueous systems. Here we present the use of a polymeric stabilizer which prevents the degradation of nearly 68% of the material in aqueous media over the course of ca. 1 month.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Evelyn S Buckman, Ibok Oduro, Wisdom A Plahar, Charles Tortoe
Many plant species that are suitable for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. In order to increase their diversified food uses and thus help enhance food and nutrition security, we studied the chemical and functional properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean), which is a neglected and underutilized legume species. The chemical properties of flour produced from the yam bean include 5.8% moisture content, 5.7% crude fat, 6.2% crude fiber, and 85% available carbohydrate, indicating appropriate shelf-stable flour, low fat, and abundant energy...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
J M M Adams, A L Winters, E M Hodgson, J A Gallagher
Background: Energy crops including Miscanthus provide a storable, portable energy source which can be used to complement a wide range of products and energy generation systems. Miscanthus is predominantly used in Europe as a combustion material for electricity generation but also has the potential for biochemical conversion due to its high yield and low-nutrient requirements. The ratio of holocellulose (hemicellulose and cellulose combined) to acid detergent lignin (H:L) within the senesced material has previously been shown to indicate the relative suitability of Miscanthus accessions for thermochemical conversion...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Oliver Edenharter, Stephan Schneuwly, Juan A Navarro
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most important recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. It is caused by a deficit of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Despite its pivotal effect on biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and mitochondrial energy production, little is known about the influence of frataxin depletion on homeostasis of the cellular mitochondrial network. We have carried out a forward genetic screen to analyze genetic interactions between genes controlling mitochondrial homeostasis and Drosophila frataxin...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
B Irene Tieleman
This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Mugahed A Al-Antari, Mohammed A Al-Masni, Mohamed K Metwally, Dildar Hussain, Se-Je Park, Jeong-Sik Shin, Seung-Moo Han, Tae-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND: In general, the image quality of high and low energy images of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suffers from noise due to the use of a small amount of X-rays. Denoising of DXA images could be a key process to improve a bone mineral density map, which is derived from a pair of high and low energy images. This could further improve the accuracy of diagnosis of bone fractures and osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and test a new technology to improve the quality, remove the noise, and preserve the edges and fine details of real DXA images...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
M Goudarzi, Sh Saviz, M Ghoranneviss, A Salar Elahi
The objective of this study is to investigate antibacterial characteristics of a thermal plasma spray system. For this purpose, copper powder was coated on a handmade atmospheric plasma spraying system made by the stainless steel 316 substrate, which is preheated at different temperatures before spraying. A number of deposition characteristics such as antibacterial characteristics, adhesion strength and hardness of coating, was investigated. All of the spray parameters are fixed except the substrate temperature...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Patrizia Mecocci, Marta Baroni, Umberto Senin, Virginia Boccardi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia in old age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms remain unsolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past years, offering an ever more detailed definition of pre-morbid and pre-clinical status, but without a similar strong emphasis on the role of aging as the main risk factor. In fact, while early-onset AD is a clear consequence of gene mutations, late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related damages...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Neha Maurya, Mehraj Ud Din Parray, Jitendra Kumar Maurya, Amit Kumar, Rajan Patel
The binding nature of amphiphilic drugs viz. promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) and adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP), with human hemoglobin (Hb) was unraveled by fluorescence, absorbance, time resolved fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques in combination with molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation methods. The steady state fluorescence spectra indicated that both PMT and ADP quenches the fluorescence of Hb through static quenching mechanism which was further confirmed by time resolved fluorescence spectra...
March 11, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Joana Vieira, Gonçalo Nunes, Carla Adriana Santos, Jorge Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Muhammad A Hagras, William J Glover
Recent interest in Polarizable Embedding methods for electronic excited states has so far been focused on optical absorption and emission spectra calculations. To explore the suitability of these methods for excited-state reactions, we have constructed a simple molecular system with an electronic crossing coupled to a polarizable species: the triatomic LiFBe. We find that current polarizable QM/MM methods inadequately describe the potential energy surfaces in this system, particularly close to the electronic crossing, so we have developed a new polarizable embedding method called dynamically weighted polarizable QM/MM...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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