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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145633/the-initiation-propagation-and-dynamics-of-crispr-spycas9-r-loop-complex
#1
Yan Zeng, Yang Cui, Yong Zhang, Yanruo Zhang, Meng Liang, Hui Chen, Jie Lan, Guangtao Song, Jizhong Lou
CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely used for efficient genome editing. Although the structures of Cas9 protein in complex with single-guided RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA have been resolved, the molecular details about the formation of Cas9 endonuclease R-loop structure remain elusive. Here we examine the DNA cleavage activities of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) and its mutants using various target sequences and study the conformational dynamics of R-loop structure during target binding using single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer (smFRET) technique...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145099/degradation-kinetics-study-of-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol-plag-by-a-validated-stability-indicating-rp-hplc-method
#2
Kyeong Soo Kim, Eun Su Yang, Dong Shik Kim, Dong Wuk Kim, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim, Sung Giu Jin, Han-Gon Choi
The chemical stability of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG), a therapeutic agent for neutropenia, was investigated using a validated stability-indicating reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method. The forced degradation of PLAG was carried out under the stress conditions of hydrolysis (alkaline, acidic and various pH buffers), oxidation, photolysis and heat. A simple, sensitive, specific, robust, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for evaluating the degradation kinetics of PLAG...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145083/composition-and-functional-group-characterization-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-eps-in-activated-sludge-the-impacts-of-polymerization-degree-of-proteinaceous-substrates
#3
Bin-Bin Wang, Xue-Ting Liu, Jian-Meng Chen, Dang-Cong Peng, Feng He
Characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge strongly depend on wastewater substrates. Proteinaceous substrates (ProS) present in heterogeneous polymeric form are intrinsic and important parts of wastewater substrates for microorganisms in activated sludge systems. However, correlations between ProS and characteristics of EPS are scarce. This study systematically explored the impacts of monomeric (Mono-), low polymeric (LoP-) and high polymeric (HiP-) ProS on compositions and functional groups of EPS in activated sludge...
November 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145053/elucidating-the-urban-levels-sources-and-health-risks-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-pakistan-implications-for-changing-energy-demand
#4
Naima Hamid, Jabir Hussain Syed, Muhammad Junaid, Adeel Mahmood, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Riffat Naseem Malik
Due to the severe fuel crisis in terms of natural gas, a paradigm shift in fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, and biomass) may increase the atmospheric emissions and associated health risks in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to investigate the concentration of fugitive PAHs in the environment (outdoor and indoor settings), associated probabilistic health risk assessment in the exposed population, and possible linkage between fuel consumption patterns and PAHs emissions in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145050/can-farmers-mitigate-environmental-impacts-through-combined-production-of-food-fuel-and-feed-a-consequential-life-cycle-assessment-of-integrated-mixed-crop-livestock-system-with-a-green-biorefinery
#5
Ranjan Parajuli, Tommy Dalgaard, Morten Birkved
This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV)...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144733/a-mechanism-for-symmetry-breaking-and-shape-control-in-single-crystal-gold-nanorods
#6
Michael J Walsh, Wenming Tong, Hadas Katz-Boon, Paul Mulvaney, Joanne Etheridge, Alison M Funston
The phenomenon of symmetry breaking-in which the order of symmetry of a system is reduced despite manifest higher-order symmetry in the underlying fundamental laws-is pervasive throughout science and nature, playing a critical role in fields ranging from particle physics and quantum theory to cosmology and general relativity. For the growth of crystals, symmetry breaking is the crucial step required to generate a macroscopic shape that has fewer symmetry elements than the unit cell and/or seed crystal from which it grew...
November 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144464/haze-heats-pluto-s-atmosphere-yet-explains-its-cold-temperature
#7
Xi Zhang, Darrell F Strobel, Hiroshi Imanaka
Pluto's atmosphere is cold and hazy. Recent observations have shown it to be much colder than predicted theoretically, suggesting an unknown cooling mechanism. Atmospheric gas molecules, particularly water vapour, have been proposed as a coolant; however, because Pluto's thermal structure is expected to be in radiative-conductive equilibrium, the required water vapour would need to be supersaturated by many orders of magnitude under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Here we report that atmospheric hazes, rather than gases, can explain Pluto's temperature profile...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144304/low-energy-consumption-vortex-wave-flow-membrane-bioreactor
#8
Zhiqiang Wang, Weilong Dong, Xiaohong Hu, Tianyu Sun, Tao Wang, Youshan Sun
In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144127/area-controllable-stamping-of-semicrystalline-copolymer-ionogels-for-solid-state-electrolyte-gated-transistors-and-light-emitting-devices
#9
Hyun Je Kim, Hae Min Yang, Jaemok Koo, Moon Sung Kang, Kihyon Hong, Keun Hyung Lee
Two types of thin-film electrochemical devices (electrolyte-gated transistors and electrochemical light-emitting cells) are demonstrated by using area-controllable ionogel patches generated by transfer stamping. For the successful transfer of ionogel patches on various target substrates thermoreversible gelation by phase-separated polymer crystals within the ionogel is essential because it allows the gel to form a conformal contact with the acceptor substrate, and thereby lowering the overall Gibbs energy of the system upon transfer of the ionogel...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143930/photovoltaic-cell-electrical-heating-system-for-removing-snow-on-panel-including-verification
#10
Agnes Weiss, Helmut Weiss
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143839/real-time-observation-of-the-photoionization-induced-water-rearrangement-dynamics-in-the-5-hydroxyindole-water-cluster-by-time-resolved-ir-spectroscopy
#11
Mitsuhiko Miyazaki, Ayumi Naito, Takamasa Ikeda, Johanna Klyne, Kenji Sakota, Hiroshi Sekiya, Otto Dopfer, Masaaki Fujii
Solvation plays an essential role in controlling the mechanism and dynamics of chemical reactions in solution. The present study reveals that changes in the local solute-solvent interaction have a great impact on the timescale of solvent rearrangement dynamics. Time-resolved IR spectroscopy has been applied to a hydration rearrangement reaction in the monohydrated 5-hydroxyindole-water cluster induced by photoionization of the solute molecule. The water molecule changes the stable hydration site from the indolic NH site to the substituent OH site, both of which provide a strongly attractive potential for hydration...
November 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143810/next-generation-pacemakers-from-small-devices-to-biological-pacemakers
#12
REVIEW
Eugenio Cingolani, Joshua I Goldhaber, Eduardo Marbán
Electrogenesis in the heart begins in the sinoatrial node and proceeds down the conduction system to originate the heartbeat. Conduction system disorders lead to slow heart rates that are insufficient to support the circulation, necessitating implantation of electronic pacemakers. The typical electronic pacemaker consists of a subcutaneous generator and battery module attached to one or more endocardial leads. New leadless pacemakers can be implanted directly into the right ventricular apex, providing single-chamber pacing without a subcutaneous generator...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143548/evaluation-on-the-thyroid-disrupting-mechanism-of-malathion-in-fischer-rat-thyroid-follicular-cell-line-frtl-5
#13
Jingyuan Xiong, Liantian Tian, Yongjie Qiu, Ding Sun, Hao Zhang, Mei Wu, Jintao Wang
Thyroid hormones are involved in many important physiological activities including regulation of energy metabolism, development of nervous system, maintenance of cerebral functions, and so on. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with thyroid functions raise serious concerns due to their frequent misuse in areas where regulations are poorly implemented. In addition, chemicals that are originally regarded safe may now be considered as toxic with the development of life sciences. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide that is widely applied and distributed in agricultural and residential settings...
November 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143342/bonnmag-computer-program-for-ligand-field-analysis-of-f%C3%A2-n-systems-within-the-angular-overlap-model
#14
Anna Bronova, Thomas Bredow, Robert Glaum, Mark J Riley, Werner Urland
The program BonnMag has been developed to calculate the absorption spectra and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities of f (n) systems. The computations of the transition energies are performed within the angular overlap model. Using Judd-Ofelt theory BonnMag allows estimation of the relative absorption coefficients of the electronic transitions with reasonable accuracy. A description of the theoretical background of the implemented methods is given. Using Slater-Condon-Shortley parameters and spin-orbit coupling coefficients for free Ln(3+) ions from ab initio calculations, the transition energies of all Ln(3+) ions are calculated and compared to the results from CASSCF/NEV-PT2 calculations...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143300/effect-of-restraining-the-base-of-support-on-the-other-biomechanical-features-in-patients-with-cerebellar-ataxia
#15
C Conte, Mariano Serrao, L Cuius, A Ranavolo, S Conforto, F Pierelli, L Padua
This study aimed to analyze the biomechanical consequences of reducing the base of support in patients with ataxia. Specifically, we evaluated the spatio-temporal parameters, upper- and lower-body kinematics, muscle co-activation, and energy recovery and expenditure. The gaits of 13 patients were recorded using a motion analysis system in unperturbed and perturbed walking conditions. In the latter condition, patients had to walk using the same step width and speed of healthy controls. The perturbed walking condition featured reduced gait speed, step length, hip and knee range of motion, and energy recovery and increased double support duration, gait variability, trunk oscillation, and ankle joint muscle co-activation...
November 15, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143152/electrochemical-and-theoretical-studies-of-the-interactions-of-a-pyridyl-based-corrosion-inhibitor-with-iron-clusters-fe15-fe30-fe45-and-fe60
#16
Julian Cruz-Borbolla, Esteban Garcia-Ochoa, Jayanthi Narayanan, Pablo Maldonado-Rivas, Thangarasu Pandiyan, José M Vásquez-Pérez
The capacity of 2,6-bis[((2-pyridylmethyl)oxy)methyl)]pyridine (BPMMP) to inhibit the corrosion of mild carbon steel in HCl was analyzed. In a polarization study, both the cathodic and anodic currents were appreciably decreased in the presence of BPMMP, suggesting that this ligand is effective at inhibiting corrosion at the metal surface. This conclusion is consistent with the results of impedance analysis, where only one time constant corresponding to one depressed capacitive loop was detected, and the diameter of the impedance plot was directly related to the concentration of BPMMP...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143051/an-open-holey-structure-enhanced-rate-capability-in-a-nati2-po4-3-c-nanocomposite-and-provided-ultralong-life-sodium-ion-storage
#17
Liuxin Zhang, Xusheng Wang, Wenjun Deng, Xiaoling Zang, Chunyi Liu, Chang Li, Jitao Chen, Mianqi Xue, Rui Li, Feng Pan
Sodium-ion battery (SIB) technology is competitive in the fields of transportation and grid storage, which require electrode materials showing rapid energy conversion (high rate capability) and long cycle life. In this work, a NaTi2(PO4)3/C (NTP/C) nanocomposite with an open holey-structured framework was successfully prepared for the first time using a solvothermal reaction followed by pyrolysis. The nanocomposite realized fast sodium-ion transport and thus preferable battery performances. Within the wide rate range of 0...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143031/acid-base-machines-electrical-work-from-neutralization-reactions
#18
Gilberto Lima, William G Morais, Wellington J A S Gomes, Fritz Huguenin
We have developed an electrochemical system that performs electrical work due to changes in alkaline ion and proton activities associated with acidic solution neutralization. This system can be used to treat wastewater, contributing to sustainable growth. The system includes an electrochemical machine that operates between an acidic and a basic reservoir to produce work in cycles comprising four stages: two isothermal ionic insertion/de-insertion steps and two steps involving acid and base injection. On the basis of the mixing free energy associated with the reaction free energy, we have developed the thermodynamic formalism by considering reversible electrochemical processes to determine the maximum work performed by this acid-base machine and the efficiency...
November 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142911/fluorescent-alloy-cspb-x-mn1-x-i3-perovskite-nanocrystals-with-high-structural-and-optical-stability
#19
Quinten A Akkerman, Daniele Meggiolaro, Zhiya Dang, Filippo De Angelis, Liberato Manna
CsPbI3 nanocrystals are still limited in their use because of their phase instability as they degrade into the yellow nonemitting δ-CsPbI3 phase within a few days. We show that alloyed CsPb x Mn1-x I3 nanocrystals have essentially the same optical features and crystal structure as the parent α-CsPbI3 system, but they are stable in films and in solution for periods over a month. The stabilization stems from a small decrease in the lattice parameters slightly increasing the Goldsmith tolerance factor, combined with an increase in the cohesive energy...
September 8, 2017: ACS Energy Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142842/prevention-and-management-of-bleeding-in-thyroid-surgery
#20
REVIEW
Gabriele Materazzi, Carlo Enrico Ambrosini, Lorenzo Fregoli, Luigi De Napoli, Gianluca Frustaci, Valeria Matteucci, Piermarco Papini, Sohail Bakkar, Paolo Miccoli
Post-thyroidectomy neck hematoma represents a major concern for surgeons because it can result in severe and even life-threatening complications. In fact, postoperative hemorrhage may result in airway compression and respiratory distress, and therefore, effective hemostasis is an important goal in thyroid surgery. Postoperative hematoma occurs at a rate of approximately 0.1% to 1.1%. Almost all cases occur in the first 6 h after surgery and can be the result of several surgeon or patient factors. For many years the clamp-and-tie technique has been the most common way to divide the main vascular pedicles of the thyroid gland...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
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