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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793171/compositional-engineering-of-acceptors-for-highly-efficient-bulk-heterojunction-hybrid-organic-solar-cells
#1
S Amber Yousaf, M Ikram, S Ali
The wet chemical synthesis of chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ) nanoparticles (NPs) and its application in active layer of inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is documented in this research. Chromium oxide NPs of 10-30 nm size range having a band gap of 2.9 eV were successfully synthesized. These NPs were used in inverted organic solar cells in amalgamation with P3HT:PCBM and PTB7:PCBM polymers. The fabricated hybrid devices improves PCE significantly for P3HT:PCBM and PTB7:PCBM systems. The photophysical energy levels, optoelectrical properties and microscopic images have been systematically studied for the fabricated devices...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793159/impacts-of-groundwater-management-on-energy-resources-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-california
#2
Thomas P Hendrickson, Maya Bruguera
California faces significant energy and water infrastructure planning challenges in response to a changing climate. Immediately following the most severe recorded drought, the state experienced one of its wettest water years in recorded history. Despite the recent severe wet weather, much of the state's critical groundwater systems have not recovered from the drought. The recent Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) aims to eliminate future depletion risks, but may force California basins to seek alternative water sources by limiting groundwater withdrawals during droughts...
May 16, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792818/substrate-induced-formation-of-ribosomal-decoding-center-for-accurate-and-rapid-genetic-code-translation
#3
Michael Y Pavlov, Måns Ehrenberg
Accurate translation of genetic information is crucial for synthesis of functional proteins in all organisms. We use recent experimental data to discuss how induced fit affects accuracy of initial codon selection on the ribosome by aminoacyl transfer RNA in ternary complex ( T3 ) with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP). We define actual accuracy ([Formula: see text]) of a particular protein synthesis system as its current accuracy and the effective selectivity ([Formula: see text]) as [Formula: see text] in the limit of zero ribosomal binding affinity for T3 ...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792800/effects-of-enhanced-flexibility-and-pore-size-distribution-on-adsorption-induced-deformation-of-mesoporous-materials
#4
Andrei Kolesnikov, Nikolaj Georgi, Yury A Budkov, Jens Möllmer, Jorg Hofmann, Juergen Adolphs, Roger Gläser
We present a new model of adsorption-induced deformation of mesoporous solids. The model is based on a simplified version of Local Density Functional Theory in the framework of solvation free energy. Instead of density, which is treated as constant here, we used the film thickness and pore radius as order parameters. This allows us to obtain a self-consistent system of equations describing simultaneously the processes of gas adsorption and adsorbent deformation, as well as conditions for capillary condensation and evaporation...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792700/the-energy-landscapes-of-mini-dumbbell-dna-octanucleotides
#5
James S Klimavicz, Konstantin Röder, David J Wales
Single-stranded DNA structures play a significant role in biological systems, in particular during replication, translation and DNA repair. Tracts of simple repetitive DNA (srDNA) are associated with slipped-strand mispairing (SSMs), that can lead to genetic diseases. Recent NMR studies of TTTA and CCTG repeats have shown that these sequences form mini-dumbbells (MDBs), leading to frameshift mutations. Here we explore the energy landscapes of (CCTG)2 and (TTTA)2 , which are currently the smallest known molecules to form MDBs...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792691/the-role-of-small-nanoparticles-on-the-formation-of-hot-spots-under-microwave-assisted-hydrothermal-heating
#6
Gema Cabello, Rogério A Davoglio, Luis G Cuadrado
Herein, we report a detailed study of microwave-matter interaction focused on the role of small nanoparticles and the effects on microwave thermal heating. We have used a model reaction (degradation of methylene blue) to study the influence of temperature, size, and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles in the potential formation of hot spots. Total mineralization was achieved after 3 h microwave heating at 200 °C in the presence of 2 nm TiO2 nanoparticles (92% calculated TOC decay), but the reaction resulted in a mixture of intermediates (52% TOC decay) in the absence of TiO2 ...
May 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792675/electron-phonon-coupling-and-resonant-relaxation-from-1d-and-1p-states-in-pbs-quantum-dots
#7
Eric R Kennehan, Grayson S Doucette, Ashley R Marshall, Christopher Grieco, Kyle T Munson, Matthew C Beard, John B Asbury
Observations of the hot-phonon bottleneck, which is predicted to slow the rate of hot carrier cooling in quantum confined nanocrystals, have been limited to date for reasons that are not fully understood. We used time-resolved infrared spectroscopy to directly measure higher energy intraband transitions in PbS colloidal quantum dots. Direct measurements of these intraband states permitted detailed analysis of the electronic overlap of the quantum confined states that may influence their relaxation processes...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792673/recent-advances-on-sodium-oxygen-batteries-a-chemical-perspective
#8
Hossein Yadegari, Xueliang Sun
Releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere because of widespread use of fossil fuels by humankind has resulted in raising the earth's temperature during the past few decades. Known as global warming, increasing the earth's temperature may in turn endanger civilization on the earth by starting a cycle of environmental changes including climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, replacing fossil fuels with more sustainable energy resources has been considered as one of the main strategies to tackle the global warming crisis...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792423/trace-organic-pollutant-removal-by-vuv-uv-chlorine-process-feasibility-investigation-for-drinking-water-treatment-on-a-mini-fluidic-vuv-uv-photoreaction-system-and-a-pilot-photoreactor
#9
Mengkai Li, Mengyu Hao, Laxiang Yang, Hong Yao, James R Bolton, Ernest R Blatchley, Zhimin Qiang
The vacuum-ultraviolet/ultraviolet/chlorine (VUV/UV/chlorine) process, with a VUV/UV mercury lamp used as the light source, was found to be a highly efficient advanced oxidation process (AOP) in a previous study. Hence, its application feasibility for trace organic pollutant removal from drinking water becomes attractive. In this work, a bench-scale mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system was used to determine the degradation kinetics of sulfamethazine (SMN), a model sulfonamide antibiotic frequently detected with trace levels in aquatic environments...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792326/common-principles-of-molecular-electronics-and-nanoscale-electrochemistry
#10
Paulo Roberto Bueno
The merging of nanoscale electronics and electrochemistry can potentially modernize the way electronic devices are currently engineered or constructed. It is well known that the greatest challenges will involve not only miniaturizing and improving the performance of mobile devices, but also manufacturing reliable electrical vehicles, and engineering more efficient solar panels and energy storage systems. These are just a few examples of how technological innovation is dependent on both electrochemical and electronic elements...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792295/supply-and-demand-in-mhealth-apps-for-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-systematic-search-in-app-stores-and-scoping-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Guido Giunti, Estefanía Guisado Fernández, Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete, Octavio Rivera Romero
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a non-curable chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that affects more than 2 million people worldwide. MS-related symptoms impact negatively on the quality of life of persons with MS, who need to be active in the management of their health. mHealth apps could support these patient groups by offering useful tools, providing reliable information, and monitoring symptoms. A previous study from this group identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for the use of mHealth solutions among persons with MS...
May 23, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792025/hierarchical-nanostructures-of-nitrogen-doped-porous-carbon-polyhedrons-confined-in-carbon-nanosheets-for-high-performance-supercapacitors
#12
Zhe Zhao, Siliang Liu, Jixin Zhu, Jingsan Xu, Le Li, Zhaoqi Huang, Chao Zhang, Tianxi Liu
Interconnected close-packed nitrogen-doped porous carbon polyhedrons (NCPs) confined in a two-dimensional carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared through a sustainable one-pot pyrolysis of a simple solid mixture of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals and organic potassium as the precursors. The hierarchically organized framework of the NCP-CNS composites enables NCPs and CNSs acting as well-defined electrolyte reservoirs and mechanical buffers accommodating large volume expansions of NCPs, respectively...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#13
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791696/monocenter-experience-with-532-nm-laser-photoselective-vaporization-of-the-prostate-by-greenlight-xps%C3%A2-laser-is-it-really-an-endourological-joker-card
#14
Jamil Ghahhari, Carlo D'Orta, Ambra Rizzoli, Michele Marchioni, Giulia I Primicer, Piergustavo De Francesco, Angelo Civitella, Mario Di Lecce, Pietro Castellan, Roberto Castellucci, Fabio Neri, Fabiola Raffaella Tamburro, Luca Cindolo, Luigi Schips
INTRODUCTION: In our study, we reported on our monocenter experience with GreenLight (GL) Xcelerated Performance System (XPS)™ /MoXy™ laser fiber (American Medical Systems Inc., Minnetonka, Minnesota), examining its efficacy, safety, and its ability to effectively treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in benign prostate obstruction (BPO). We also explored and compared the three different endoscopic approaches used for GL treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), standard photovaporization (PVP), anatomical PVP, and GreenLight XPS™ enucleation of the prostate...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791397/high-repetition-rate-single-frequency-ho-yag-mopa-system
#15
Yixuan Zhang, Chunqing Gao, Qing Wang, QuanXin Na, Mingwei Gao, Meng Zhang, Shuai Huang
A stable, 2.09 μm single-frequency Ho:YAG master oscillator and power amplifier (MOPA) system at a pulse repetition frequency of 1.25 kHz is demonstrated. The maximum output energy of the single-frequency injection-seeded laser is 13.76 mJ, and the corresponding pulse width is 178.9 ns. The seed laser is a continuous-wave Ho:YAG non-planar ring oscillator laser. The half-width of the pulse spectrum is measured to be 2.65 MHz by using the heterodyne technique, which is about 1.06 times Fourier transform limited...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791361/no-reference-stereoscopic-image-quality-assessment-based-on-hue-summation-difference-mapping-image-and-binocular-joint-mutual-filtering
#16
Jiachen Yang, Kyohoon Sim, Bin Jiang, Wen Lu
The no-reference (NR) quality assessment for stereoscopic images plays a significant role in 3D technology, but it also faces great challenges. In this paper, a novel NR stereo image quality assessment (SIQA) method is proposed. Based on the human visual system, this method mimics the summation and difference channels, which consider the binocular interactive perception property, to process the visual information. Especially, the summation and difference images are calculated by the contrast of hue and luminance in color patches...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791336/optimization-of-optical-properties-of-photonic-crystal-fibers-infiltrated-with-carbon-tetrachloride-for-supercontinuum-generation-with-subnanojoule-femtosecond-pulses
#17
Quang Ho Dinh, Jacek Pniewski, Hieu Le Van, Aleksandr Ramaniuk, Van Cao Long, Krzysztof Borzycki, Khoa Dinh Xuan, Mariusz Klimczak, Ryszard Buczyński
A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) made of fused silica glass, infiltrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), is proposed as a new source of supercontinuum (SC) light. Guiding properties in terms of effective refractive index, attenuation, and dispersion of the fundamental mode are studied numerically. As a result, two optimized structures are selected and verified against SC generation in detail. The dispersion characteristic of the first structure has the zero-dispersion wavelength at 1.252 μm, while the dispersion characteristic of the second structure is all-normal and equals -4...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791333/modeling-of-microjoule-and-millijoule-energy-lidars-with-pmt-sipm-apd-detectors-a-sensitivity-analysis
#18
Ravil Agishev
This paper demonstrates a renewed concept and applications of the generalized methodology for atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) capability prediction as a continuation of a series of our previous works, where the dimensionless parameterization appeared as a tool for comparing systems of a different scale, design, and applications. The modernized concept applied to microscale and milliscale LIDARs with relatively new silicon photomultiplier detectors and traditional photomultiplier tube and avalanche photodiode detectors allowed prediction of the remote sensing instruments' performance and limitations...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791203/short-term-thermoneutral-housing-alters-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-adipose-tissue-browning-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-lean-mice
#19
Zachary Stephen Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy
Systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance occur with as little as 3 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and humans; the mechanisms that initiate acute insulin resistance are unknown. Most laboratories house mice at 22{degree sign}C, which is below their thermoneutral temperature (~30{degree sign}C). Cold stress has been shown to increase white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, alter lipid trafficking and impair immune function, while energy intake and expenditure decrease with increasing ambient temperature; importantly, dysregulation of these parameters have been strongly linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791166/intervalley-scattering-of-interlayer-excitons-in-a-mos-2-mose-2-mos-2-heterostructure-in-high-magnetic-field
#20
Alessandro Surrente, Łukasz Klopotowski, Nan Zhang, Michal Baranowski, Anatolie Mitioglu, Mariana V Ballottin, Peter C M Christianen, Dumitru Dumcenco, Yen-Cheng Kung, Duncan K Maude, Andras Kis, Paulina Plochocka
Degenerate extrema in the energy dispersion of charge carriers in solids, also referred to as valleys, can be regarded as a binary quantum degree of freedom, which can potentially be used to implement valleytronic concepts in van der Waals heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides. Using magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we achieve a deeper insight into the valley polarization and depolarization mechanisms of interlayer excitons formed across a MoS2 /MoSe2 /MoS2 heterostructure. We account for the non-trivial behavior of the valley polarization as a function of the magnetic field by considering the interplay between exchange interaction and phonon mediated intervalley scattering in a system consisting of Zeeman-split energy levels...
May 23, 2018: Nano Letters
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